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Board of Longitude

The Commissioners for the Discovery of the Longitude at Sea, or more popularly Board of Longitude, was a British government body formed in 1714 to administer a scheme of prizes intended to encourage innovators to solve the problem of finding longitude at sea. Navigators and scientists had been working on the problem of not knowing a ship's longitude; the establishment of the Board of Longitude was motivated by this problem and by the 1707 grounding of four ships of Vice-Admiral Sir Cloudesley Shovell's fleet off the Isles of Scilly, resulting in heavy loss of life. Established by Queen Anne the Longitude Act 1714 named 24 Commissioners of Longitude, key figures from politics, the Navy and mathematics. However, the Board did not meet until at least 1737 when interest grew in John Harrison's marine timekeeper; the Board administered prizes for those who could demonstrate a working method. The main longitude prizes were: £10,000 for a method that could determine longitude within 60 nautical miles £15,000 for a method that could determine longitude within 40 nautical miles £20,000 for a method that could determine longitude within 30 nautical miles.

In addition, the Board had the discretion to make awards to persons who were making significant contributions to the effort or to provide financial support to those who were working towards a solution. The Board could make advances of up to £2,000 for experimental work deemed promising. Under this heading, the Board made many lesser awards, including some awards in total £5,000 made to John Harrison before he received his main prize, an award of £3,000 to the widow of Tobias Mayer, whose lunar tables were the basis of the lunar data in the early decades of The Nautical Almanac, £300 to Leonhard Euler for his contribution to the work of Mayer, £50 each to Richard Dunthorne and Israel Lyons for contributing methods to shorten the calculations connected with lunar distances, awards made to the designers of improvements in chronometers. Though many tried their hand at winning the main prize, for decades none was able to come up with a practical solution to the problem; the Board recognised that any serious attempt would be based on the recognition that the earth rotates through 15° of longitude every hour.

The comparison of local time between a reference place and the local time of the place in question would determine the longitude of that place. Since local apparent time could be determined with some ease, the problem centred on finding a means of determining the time of the reference place when one is far away from it. For details of the efforts towards determining the longitude, see History of longitude. For many decades a sufficiently accurate chronometer was prohibitively expensive; the lunar distance method was used by mariners either in conjunction with or instead of the marine chronometer. However, with the expectation that accurate clocks would become commonplace, John Harrison showed that his method was the way of the future; however the board, to its discredit, anyone else. With the significant problems considered as solved, the Board of Longitude was abolished by Act of Parliament in 1828 and replaced by a Resident Committee for Scientific Advice for the Admiralty consisting of three scientific advisors: Thomas Young, Michael Faraday and Edward Sabine.

Longitude National Maritime Museum, UK. Cambridge Digital Library presents digitised works from the archive of the Royal Greenwich Observatory, held at Cambridge University Library

Road to Salina

Road to Salina is a 1970 French-Italian psychological thriller film directed by George Lautner. It stars Mimsy Farmer and Rita Hayworth; the film is based upon Maurice Cury's novel Sur la Route de Salina. A French-Italian coproduction, it was shot in English in the Canary Islands. Jonas, a young drifter, is wandering in a deserted area on the road to Salina, he stops to drink some water at a desolate roadside service station when Mara, the owner, identifies him as her son Rocky, who disappeared four years ago. Jonas is overwhelmed by the awkward situation, but tired and hungry, accepts Mara's offer of room and board. Feeling sorry for Mara, he pretends to be her beloved son and soon comfortably assume Rocky's identity, he believes that Mara is delusional, but when Mara's old friend and neighbor Warren arrives for a visit he acts as if Jonas were Rocky. When Billie, his alleged sister, comes home, Jonas thinks that the game is over and that he'll be unmasked as an impostor, but the attractive and carefree Billie appears to recognize him as her brother and soon takes him under her wing.

They spend the days together, after skinny dipping in the ocean, an erotic relationship develops between them. Everything seems to be fine and Jonas begins to relax in his new role as Rocky. Mara and Warren enjoy a dinner party together celebrating Rocky's return. Realizing that Billie is having a passionate affair with her alleged brother and Warren fear that the harmony that had so returned would soon be broken. Uneasy, Jonas becomes interested in finding out the reasons for the disappearance of the true Rocky, he gets the first clues in his search from Warren who, never outwardly expressing any doubt that he is Rocky, mentions during the conversation the name of Rocky's girlfriend, who runs a local restaurant. In search of answers, Jonas finds Linda at the restaurant, he drops a glass at the bar to draw attention to himself, finds that Linda is the first person who fails to recognize him as Rocky. Back at the house, Jonas steals some old photographs from Billie's bedroom that confirm his suspicions that he does not resemble the real Rocky.

When he confronts Billie with the truth, she tells him that she lied to protect Mara and that she loves Rocky and wanted him back. In an attempt to resolve his mounting confusion, Jonas visits Linda again, she tells him that she was going to elope with Rocky the day he disappeared. The surprise visit of Charlie, an old friend of Jonas, once again threatens to destroy the façade that he is Rocky, but not only do Mara and Billie seem undisturbed when Charlie calls Jonas by his real name, but Charlie and his companions have a good time with Mara and the bewildered Jonas. Instead of accepting his friend's offer of leaving with him, Jonas stays with Mara. Jonas learns the shocking truth about the nature of his "sister's" behavior; when Rocky wanted to leave the incestuous relationship with his sister, Billie unintentionally killed him with a rock while trying to stop him. The revelation marks a turning point in Jonas' relationship with Billie, from on, she avoids him. Rebuked by her, Jonas explodes during an argument with Billie.

Shaking her against a wall, he accidentally kills her. He runs away in the middle of a rainstorm in spite of Mara's protestations. Mara begs him to stay and offers to help him hide Billie's body under the station as Billie had done with Rocky, but instead, Jonas goes to Salina and tells the sheriff what has happened; the story is told in flashback. The film is notable for its cast; the lead is played by son of famous actors Robert Walker and Jennifer Jones. It was the last film of Ed Begley who died in April 1970, the second-to-last of legendary screen siren Rita Hayworth; the score was composed by a varied team that included popular French artist Christophe, the rock group Clinic, arranger-composer Bernard Gerard. Recording took place in Paris at the legendary Studio Davout; the eclectic soundtrack features songs and underscore written and performed by both singer-songwriter Christophe and the US/British/Canadian progressive rock band Clinic, whose lineup included Phil Trainer, Alan Reeves and Philip Brigham.

Orchestral arrangements were conducted by Gérard. Under the guidance of director Lautner, the diverse team created a sound palette according to the dark tone of the film; the now-classic soundtrack album was re-released in 2003 by Sony France on the Dreyfus label, would receive further widespread acclaim the following year when Christophe's theme "Sunny Road to Salina" and Clinic's "The Chase" were used by Quentin Tarantino in his Hollywood blockbuster Kill Bill Vol. 2. The Christophe title got widespread usage in Kill Bill trailers around the world, while "The Chase" was among the tracks chosen for the Grammy Award-nominated Kill Bill Vol. 2 Original Soundtrack album. In the U. S. Road to Salina had a brief release, its play-date was on the lower half of a double feature. Kevin Thomas of the Los Angeles Times called it " An admirable ambitious film of sophisticated appeal." He described the film as:" A fable showing how tragedy can occur when reality intrudes upon the lonely lives of those who live in a world of fantasy".

The review in Newsday called Road to Salina " A strange film... More perversely compelling than it has a right to be". In The Village Voice, Robert Colaciello wrote: " If your taste runs to 70s actors having 60s sex in a 50s film so that a 40s star can suffer Road to Salina is for you " Ringgold, Gene: The Films of Rita Hayworth: The legend and Career of a Love Goddess, The Citade

Dorado Needle

Dorado Needle is an 8,440+ ft mountain summit located in North Cascades National Park in Skagit County of Washington state. The peak lies 0.73 miles north of 1.33 mi southeast of Perdition Peak. It can be seen from the North Cascades Highway west of Marblemount at a road pullout along the Skagit River; the first ascent of the peak was made in July 1940 by Lloyd Anderson, Karl Boyer, Tom Gorton via the Northwest Ridge. Precipitation runoff and glacier meltwater from the mountain drains into tributaries of the Skagit River. Dorado Needle is located in the marine west coast climate zone of western North America. Most weather fronts originate in the Pacific Ocean, travel northeast toward the Cascade Mountains; as fronts approach the North Cascades, they are forced upward by the peaks of the Cascade Range, causing them to drop their moisture in the form of rain or snowfall onto the Cascades. As a result, the west side of the North Cascades experiences high precipitation during the winter months in the form of snowfall.

During winter months, weather is cloudy, due to high pressure systems over the Pacific Ocean that intensify during summer months, there is little or no cloud cover during the summer. Because of maritime influence, snow tends resulting in high avalanche danger; the North Cascades features some of the most rugged topography in the Cascade Range with craggy peaks, spires and deep glacial valleys. Geological events occurring many years ago created the diverse topography and drastic elevation changes over the Cascade Range leading to the various climate differences; the history of the formation of the Cascade Mountains dates back millions of years ago to the late Eocene Epoch. With the North American Plate overriding the Pacific Plate, episodes of volcanic igneous activity persisted. In addition, small fragments of the oceanic and continental lithosphere called terranes created the North Cascades about 50 million years ago. During the Pleistocene period dating back over two million years ago, glaciation advancing and retreating scoured and shaped the landscape.

A small glacial remnant lies on the south slope of Dorado Needle, whereas the northern slope maintains the extensive McAllister Glacier. The U-shaped cross section of the river valleys are a result of recent glaciation. Uplift and faulting in combination with glaciation have been the dominant processes which have created the tall peaks and deep valleys of the North Cascades area. Climbing Routes on Dorado Needle Dorado Needle SW Buttress - class 5.8 9 pitches Dorado Needle East Ridge - class 5.7 Dorado Needle NW Ridge - class 5.4 3 pitches Geography of the North Cascades Geology of the Pacific Northwest North Cascades National Park National Park Service

Nekresi fire temple

The Nekresi fire temple is an archaeological complex in the eastern Georgian region of Kakheti, part of the wider Nekresi site. The excavated building, preserved only fragmentarily at a foundation level, is identified as a Zoroastrian fire temple, sun temple, or a Manichean shrine. Constructed in the 2nd or 3rd century, the complex was destroyed in the 5th; the site is inscribed on the list of the Immovable Cultural Monuments of National Significance of Georgia. The Nekresi temple lies in lowland arable fields to the south of the hill on which the early medieval Nekresi monastery stands, it was unearthed by an archaeological expedition from the Georgian National Museum working at Nekresi between 1984 and 1993 and identified by its excavator, Levan Chilashvili, as a Zoroastrian fire-temple. In 2004, another team suggested that the temple was aligned with the summer and winter solstices and it might have incorporated elements of solar worship. Alternatively, Guram Kipiani argues that the spatial organization of the building is not compatible with that of a fire-temple and theorizes that the complex was in fact a Manichean shrine.

Archaeological artifacts found at the site are limited to fragments of pottery of the 2nd to the 4th centuries. Two construction phases are identified in the complex. Both layers are built of large rubble with lime mortar with the additional use of flat bricks in the upper layer; the temple is set in a square plan. Its design is complex, centered on an square building of 76 m², around which there were four more buildings arranged in a cruciform pattern and each ending in a semicircular apse facing the central building. In the southwestern corner of the central building was a nearly square area made of clay, measuring 4.5 m² and containing traces of fire, leading to the conclusion that the edifice was a fire-temple. All five buildings together with their associated corridors and accessory chambers were enclosed by a wall. Access to any of the rooms in the complex was possible through doors cut in the external corridors

Carol Mitchell

Carol Mitchell is a former politician in Ontario, Canada. She was a Liberal member of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario from 2003 to 2011 representing the riding of Huron—Bruce, she was a cabinet minister in the government of Dalton McGuinty. Mitchell was born in Clinton, Ontario in Huron County and was educated at Fanshawe College in London, Ontario, she is a past member of Girl Guides of Canada. She worked in retailing after her graduation, ran stores selling children's clothes in Clinton and Bayfield, she was elected to Clinton's town council in 1993, became its reeve in the decade. She served on the Huron County council, was elected as the first reeve of the amalgamated municipality of Central Huron, she was elected as warden of Huron County in 1999 and 2000. In the 2003 provincial election she ran as the Liberal candidate in the riding of Huron—Bruce and defeated Progressive Conservative incumbent Helen Johns, a cabinet minister, by about 3,000 votes. On October 23, 2003, she was named parliamentary assistant to Steve Peters, the Ontario Minister of Agriculture and Food.

In March 2006, Mitchell was named parliamentary assistant to David Caplan, the Minister of Public Infrastructure Renewal. Upon re-election in the fall of 2007, Mitchell was named Government Caucus Chair and parliamentary assistant to the Minister of Municipal Affairs and Housing, with a concentration on Municipal Affairs. On January 18, 2010, Mitchell was named Minister of Agriculture and Rural Affairs as part of a cabinet shuffle by Premier Dalton McGuinty, she was defeated by Progressive Conservative candidate Lisa Thompson in the 2011 election. Ontario Legislative Assembly parliamentary history

Containment dome

A containment dome is a component of the system designed to contain the underwater blowout of an oil well such as occurred with the Macondo Well blowout from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. This portion of the system is designed as a vacuum to suck up the products being expelled from a blowout and deliver those products to the containment system housed on the vessel moored above the blowout. Superior Energy Services is constructing this device to be used by Shell Oil Company on the barge Arctic Challenger as their "fourth line of defense" against a blowout in the Arctic drilling regions in the Chukchi Sea and Beaufort Sea; the fourth method, which remains in Bellingham, is the containment barge carrying the dome. "The containment system is an apparatus that would hover over a compromised well funneling escaping oil and water into this dome," Smith said. The report of the National Commission on the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling has some applicable quotes regarding cold water and hydrocarbon recovery which may apply to the application of this technology to Arctic drilling purposes.

The likelihood of collecting oil with the cofferdam was uncertain, chief among potential problems was the risk that methane gas escaping from the well would come into contact with cold sea water and form slushy hydrates clogging the cofferdam with hydrocarbon ice. The effort did fail, for that reason; because hydrocarbons are lighter than water, the containment dome became buoyant as it filled with oil and gas while BP tried to lower it. BP engineers told Lynch that they had "lost the cofferdam" as the dome, full of flammable material, floated up toward the ships on the ocean surface. Averting a potential disaster, the engineers were able to regain control of the dome and move it to safety on the sea floor. In the wake of the cofferdam's failure, one high-level government official recalled Andy Inglis, BP's Chief Executive of Exploration and Production, saying with disgust, "If we had tried to make a hydrate collection contraption, we couldn't have done a better job"