click links in text for more info

Board of Regents of the University of the State of New York

The Board of Regents of the University of the State of New York is the governing body of the University of the State of New York. The board was established by statute on May 1, 1784; the members were divided into five classes: 1) ex officio members including the Governor of New York, the Lieutenant Governor of New York, the Secretary of State of New York, the New York Attorney General, the Speaker of the New York State Assembly, the Mayor of New York City, the Mayor of Albany, New York, 2) two people from each of the twelve existing counties, 3) one representative of each religious denomination in the state, chosen by their congregation, 4) founders of any college or school in the state, 5) representatives from selected colleges. The regents were spread across the state and getting a necessary quorum proved difficult given the size of the state and travel demands. On November 26, 1784, 33 additional members were appointed, twenty of them from New York City and affiliated with King's College.

This arrangement proved ineffective, so on April 13, 1787, the Legislature legislated the existing regents out of office, a new set of regents was appointed: the Governor and the Lieutenant Governor continued as ex officio members, 19 regents were appointed for life. This legislation shifted the regents' focus from Columbia to schools and universities across the state. On April 8, 1842, the Secretary of State was added again as an ex officio member, on March 30, 1854, the Superintendent of Public Instruction. Vacancies were filled by joint ballot of the state legislature; the regents were made a constitutional body, no longer defined by statue, in 1894. In 1904, the Board was reorganized again and the ex officio members were legislated out; the offices of Superintendent of Public Instruction and Secretary of the Board of Regents were abolished and the duties of both transferred to the Commissioner of Education, who "serves at the pleasure" of the Board of Regents. The regents continued to be elected by joint ballot of the Legislature.

Eleven of the sitting 19 regents were chosen by the Legislature to continue in office, were classified to serve for different term lengths, so that every year one seat came up for election, for a full term. The number of board members was reduced to eight, one Regent per New York State Judicial District, plus three "at large" members. New York and Bronx Counties Kings, Queens, Suffolk, Orange, Rockland, Westchester Counties Albany, Greene, Schoharie, Ulster Counties Clinton, Franklin, Hamilton, Montgomery, St. Lawrence, Schenectady, Washington Counties Herkimer, Lewis, Onondaga, Oswego Counties Broome, Chenango, Delaware, Otsego, Tioga, Tompkins Counties Cayuga, Monroe, Seneca, Wayne, Yates Counties Allegany, Chautauqua, Genesee, Orleans, Wyoming Counties New Regents members have been sworn in as Districts were added and reconfigured. 1909: Francis M. Carpenter sworn in as the first Regent from District 9 1948: Cornelius W. Wickersham sworn in as the first Regent from District 10 1963: Joseph T. King sworn in as the first Regent from District 11 1965: Max J. Rubin sworn in as the first 4th At Large member 1983: Jorge L. Batista sworn in as the first Regent from District 12 and Norma Gluck was sworn in as the new District 1 Regent 2009: Christine D. Cea sworn in as the first Regent from District 13 Section 202 of the education laws of 1945 established that a regent could not serve past April 1 in the year following their 70th birthday or be a "trustee, principal, or any other officer of an institution belonged to the university."

If either event occurred, the Regent was expected to resign from the board. This restriction was lifted in 1986 with the passage of a New York State law banning mandatory retirement ages in most sectors. 17 members serve, representing each of the 13 judicial districts plus 4 at-large members. Regents serve for a term of five years; the Regents have never received a salary and only their travel expenses are reimbursed. George Clinton, Governor Pierre Van Cortlandt, Lieutenant Governor James Duane, Mayor of New York City Johannes Jacobse Beeckman, Mayor of Albany, until September 29, 1786 Egbert Benson, Attorney General John Morin Scott, Secretary of State, until September 14, 1784 Lewis Allaire Scott, Secretary of State, from October 23, 1784 John Hathorn, until October 12, 1784 David Gelston, October 12, 1784, to January 12, 1786 John Lansing, Jr. Speaker, January 12, 1786 to January 12, 1787. George Clinton, 1784-1785, 1787–1795 John Jay, 1796–1801 George Clinton, 1801–1804 Morgan Lewis, 1805–1807 Daniel D. Tompkins, 1808–1817 John Tayler, 1817–1829 Simeon De Witt, 1829–1834 Stephen Van Rensselaer, 1835–1839 James King, 1839–1841 Peter Wendell, 1842–1849 Gerrit Y.

Lansing, 1849–1862 John V. L. Pruyn, 1862–1877 Erastus C. Benedict, 1878–1880 Henry R. Pierson, 1881–1890 George William Curtis, 1890–1892 Anson Judd Upson, 1892–1902

Bernardo, Texas

Bernardo is an unincorporated community in northeast Colorado County, in the U. S. state of Texas. The small community is located on FM 949 between Cat Spring; the town was first settled by German immigrants in the 1840s and was on a main east-west road as early as the American Civil War. Though the community once had its own post office and school, these had long disappeared by 2013. A United States Geological Survey 7.5' x 7.5' Quadrangle Map is named Bernardo. The Geographic Names Information System locates Bernardo at 29°45′39″N 96°23′32″W, the intersection of FM 949 and New Ulm Road. Cat Spring is 7.2 miles northeast and the I-10 interchange is 3.6 miles southwest on FM 949. The FM 2761 interchange at I-10 may be accessed by traveling 4.7 miles south and east on Bernardo Road. The earliest settlers in the area were German immigrants who were part of the Adelsverein colonization effort of 1845. Though the immigrants were supposed to settle farther west in the Fisher–Miller Land Grant, they chose to stay in a region that had a few German settlers.

Braden and Bernardo Prairie were two early names for the small settlement. Bernardo was situated on the main highway from Houston to the interior of Texas. During the American Civil War, it became a way station for cotton being transported to Mexico by wagon; the Sisters of Divine Providence, a Catholic order, established a school at Bernardo in 1872. A post office was opened in the settlement in 1898; the school was consolidated with the Mentz Catholic school in 1911. The post office was discontinued in 1917. Through the years Bernardo remained a thinly populated community of ranchers; the school merged with the Columbus Independent School District. The 1958 USGS Bernardo Quadrangle Map shows the Bernardo School. In 1986 the Bernardo precinct counted 187 registered voters and the community had a general store and a volunteer fire department. From 1990 to 2000 the number of residents remained at 155; the former school appears to be abandoned in the 2013 satellite image. In 2016 a new fire station replaced the older one

Vitaly Fokin

Vitaly Alekseyevich Fokin was a Soviet admiral and the first deputy commander of the Soviet Navy. A worker's son, Vitaliy Alekseyevich Fokin joined the Soviet Navy when he was 16 in 1922, he served as a deck officer aboard the cruiser Aurora from 1927 and commanded the destroyer Uritskiy from 1941 to 1944. In 1944, the squadron that he commanded took part in the capture of the German base in Kirkenes, Norway, he was appointed chief of staff of the Northern Fleet in 1947, rising up the ranks to become commander of the Pacific Fleet in 1958 and first deputy commander of the Soviet Navy between 1962 and 1964. Admiral Fokin was a moderniser and was instrumental to the development of the Soviet submarine launched ballistic missile deterrent. In the run up to the Cuban Missile Crisis, he said to his submarine commanders, "If they slap you on the left cheek, do not let them slap you on the right one." Rear Admiral Vice-Admiral Admiral Admiral Fokin was made a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1961 and a deputy in the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union in 1962.

Order of Lenin Order of the Red Banner Order of Nakhimov First degree Order of Ushakov Second degree Order of the Red Star The following have been named after Admiral Fokin: Soviet cruiser Admiral Fokin Fokino, Primorsky Krai, home to the Russian Pacific Fleet Admiral Fokin Street in Vladivostok

Classification of electromagnetic fields

In differential geometry and theoretical physics, the classification of electromagnetic fields is a pointwise classification of bivectors at each point of a Lorentzian manifold. It is used in the study of solutions of Maxwell's equations and has applications in Einstein's theory of relativity; the electromagnetic field at a point p of a Lorentzian spacetime is represented by a real bivector F = Fab defined over the tangent space at p. The tangent space at p is isometric as a real inner product space to E1,3; that is, it has the same notion of vector magnitude and angle as Minkowski spacetime. To simplify the notation, we will assume; this tends to blur the distinction between the tangent space at the underlying manifold. The classification theorem for electromagnetic fields characterizes the bivector F in relation to the Lorentzian metric η = ηab by defining and examining the so-called "principal null directions". Let us explain this; the bivector Fab yields a skew-symmetric linear operator Fab = Facηcb defined by lowering one index with the metric.

It acts on the tangent space at p by ra → Fabrb. We will use the symbol F to denote either the operator, according to context. We mention a dichotomy drawn from exterior algebra. A bivector that can be written as F = v ∧ w, where v, w are linearly independent, is called simple. Any nonzero bivector over a 4-dimensional vector space either is simple, or can be written as F = v ∧ w + x ∧ y, where v, w, x, y are linearly independent. Stated like this, the dichotomy makes no reference to the metric η, only to exterior algebra, but it is seen that the associated skew-symmetric linear operator Fab has rank 2 in the former case and rank 4 in the latter case. To state the classification theorem, we consider the eigenvalue problem for F, that is, the problem of finding eigenvalues λ and eigenvectors r which satisfy the eigenvalue equation F a b r b = λ r a; the skew-symmetry of F implies that: either the eigenvector r is a null vector, or the eigenvalue λ is zero, or both. A 1-dimensional subspace generated by a null eigenvector is called a principal null direction of the bivector.

The classification theorem characterizes the possible principal null directions of a bivector. It states that one of the following must hold for any nonzero bivector: the bivector has one "repeated" principal null direction. Furthermore, for any non-null bivector, the two eigenvalues associated with the two distinct principal null directions have the same magnitude but opposite sign, λ = ±ν, so we have three subclasses of non-null bivectors: spacelike: ν = 0 timelike: ν ≠ 0 and rank F = 2 non-simple: ν ≠ 0 and rank F = 4,where the rank refers to the rank of the linear operator F; the algebraic classification of bivectors given above has an important application in relativistic physics: the electromagnetic field is represented by a skew-symmetric second rank tensor field so we obtain an algebraic classification of electromagnetic fields. In a cartesian chart on Minkowski spacetime, the electromagnetic field tensor has components F a b = where E x, E y, E z and B x, B y, B z denote the components of the electric and magnetic fields, as measured by an inertial observer.

As usual in relativistic physics, we will find it convenient to work with geometrised units in which c = 1. In the "Index gymnastics" formalism of special relativity, the Minkowski metric η is used to raise and lower indices; the fundamental invariants of the electromagnetic field are: P ≡ 1 2 F a b F a b = ‖ B → ‖ 2 − ‖

McLean station

McLean is a Washington Metro station in Fairfax County, Virginia, on the Silver Line. The station is located with a McLean postal address, it began operation on July 26, 2014. Access to McLean station is provided by two entrances, one on each side of SR 123; the southern entrance connects to the northern entrance and mezzanine with a pedestrian bridge about 50 ft above SR 123, with the mezzanine containing ticket machines and faregates. McLean has a simple island platform setup with two tracks. While there was some controversy about whether to build the rail through Tysons below ground or on elevated tracks, McLean is elevated. No permanent car parking is planned at the station. A bus station and kiss-and-ride lot are on the southern side of SR 123. Bike parking is available; the main platform has a height of 49 ft at its west end. McLean station is located in the northeast section of Tysons, at the northwest corner of the intersection of SR 123/Dolley Madison Boulevard and Scotts Crossing Road; this area is bordered on the south by SR 123, on the west by Exit 46A-B of the I-495/Capital Beltway, by Exit 19A-B of SR 267.

Virginia Department of Transportation traffic counts show heavy usage of all three roads in the area, with around 122,000 cars per day using SR 267 north of Exit 18. In addition, 44,000 cars use Dolley Madison Boulevard each day; the station is located two miles west of downtown Virginia. McLean itself took the name of the McLean station, of the former Great Falls and Old Dominion Railroad interurban trolley line, that the town grew around. Fairfax County's long-range transportation plan contains no plans for returning mass transit to the town of McLean, making it an appropriate name for the nearest Silver Line station; the station serves the headquarters of Capital One, several intelligence agency facilities of the Federal government of the United States, as well as various government contractors as well as local residents. Tysons is nearby with major shopping malls. 2 station entrances Pedestrian bridge crossing SR 123 Bus dropoff/pickup Kiss & Ride 56 bike parking spaces McLean Station – WMATA McLean Station – Dulles Corridor Metrorail Project

ISO 11940-2

ISO 11940-2 is an ISO standard for a simplified transcription of the Thai language into Latin characters. The full standard ISO 11940-2:2007 includes pronunciation rules and conversion tables of Thai consonants and vowels, it is a sequel to ISO 11940, describing a way to transform its transliteration into a broad transcription. The standard ISO 11940 defines a strict and reversible transliteration of Thai orthography into Latin characters, by means of a host of diacritics; the result bears no resemblance to Thai pronunciation. The additional standard ISO 11940-2 describes a set of rules to transform the transliteration resulting from ISO 11940 based on Thai orthography into a broad transcription based on pronunciation, using only unadorned Latin letters. All information on vowel length and syllable tone is dropped, as well as the distinction between IPA /o/ and /ɔ/; the standard explicitly mentions that whenever the full pronunciation of each word is necessary or needed, conversion of long vowels can be devised and tone rules can be added to the system to achieve the full pronunciation of each word.

However no rules are included. Although the standard is described as a procedure acting on the Thai orthography, the system is based on the pronunciation, its rules can therefore be described in terms of Thai phonology. Prominent features of ISO 11940-2 include: uses only unmodified letters from the Latin alphabet. Vowels are transcribed in sequence as pronounced, not as written in Thai script. Implied vowels, which are not written in Thai script, are inserted as pronounced. Written silent letters are omitted; the result of applying the rules described in the standard is identical to the transcription defined by the Royal Thai General System of Transcription. One exception is preceding a syllable initial vowel by ⟨'⟩, representing the Thai null consonant อ, obviating the need to insert a dash in some words to preserve syllable boundaries; the other exception is the retention of the aspiration characteristic of the alveolo-palatal affricate. So while Thai ฉ, ช, ฌ, are represented by ⟨ch⟩ as in RTGS, the Thai letter จ is written as ⟨c⟩.

In each cell below, the first line indicates International Phonetic Alphabet, the second indicates the Thai characters in initial position. The third line shows the ISO 11940-2 rendering. Of the consonant letters, excluding the disused ฃ and ฅ, six cannot be used as a final and the other 36 collapse into a small repertoire of possible final consonant sounds and corresponding Latin letters; the consonants ย and ว when used as finals, form diphthongs and triphthongs with the preceding vowel, ISO 11940-2 uses the vowel letters i and o in such cases. The basic vowels of the Thai language, from front to back and close to open, are given in the following table; the top entry in every cell is the symbol from the International Phonetic Alphabet, the second entry gives the spelling in the Thai alphabet, where a dash indicates the position of the initial consonant after which the vowel is pronounced. A second dash indicates; the third line contains the ISO 11940 symbol used. Thai vowels come in long-short pairs, forming distinct phonemes, but ISO 11940-2 represents both by the same symbol.

The two phonemes IPA o and ɔ share a single Latin letter o. The basic vowels can be combined into triphthongs. ISO 11940-2:2007, Transliteration of Thai characters into Latin characters.