In New Jersey, a board of chosen freeholders is the county legislature in each of the state's 21 counties. New Jersey's system of naming county legislators "freeholders" is unique in the United States; the origin of the term was in the provisions of the New Jersey State Constitution of 1776, which stated: That all inhabitants of this Colony, of full age, who are worth fifty pounds proclamation money, clear estate in the same, have resided within the county in which they claim a vote for twelve months preceding the election, shall be entitled to vote for Representatives in Council and Assembly. The name "freeholder" in the "Board of Chosen Freeholders" is because "clear estate" is known as a freehold. "Chosen" means elected. Today, state law specifies that the boards may contain between nine seats. Due to the small sizes of the boards and the possibility of electing an split legislature with the resulting deadlock, an odd-numbered board is required; the means of election of the freeholders varies from all elected in districts to all elected at large to various systems in between.
Elections are first past the post for single-member districts, for at-large elections when only one seat is at stake. For at-large elections with more than one seat, plurality-at-large voting is used. Depending on the county, the executive and legislative functions may be performed by the board or split. In some counties, members of the Board of Chosen Freeholders perform both legislative and executive functions on a commission basis, with each freeholder assigned responsibility for a department or group of departments. In other counties, there is a directly elected county executive who performs the executive functions while the Board of Chosen Freeholders retains a legislative and oversight role. In counties without an executive, a county administrator may be hired to perform day-to-day administration of county functions. All of the above attributes may be changed by act of the board and a referendum, or by explicit change of the relevant laws by the New Jersey Legislature. All freeholders are elected to three-year terms.
Professor Murray David Esler, AM is a clinical cardiologist and medical scientist, based at the Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute and the Alfred Hospital in Melbourne, where he is the Associate Director of the Heart Centre. He is a Professor of Medicine at Melbourne's Monash University; as Associate Director of the Baker, Professor Esler leads the Institute’s research into the relationship between the brain and heart health. He studied medicine at the University of Melbourne and received a PhD from the Australian National University, his chief research interests are the causes and treatment of high blood pressure and heart failure, the effects of stress on the cardiovascular system, monoamine transmitters of the human brain. His research on the sympathetic nerves of the kidneys in essential hypertension provided the theoretical basis for the development of a revolutionary treatment of high blood pressure, involving silencing these nerves with a radio wave emitting catheter placed in the kidney arteries.
This treatment, called Renal Sympathetic Denervation, is now used clinically in Europe and Australia for severe drug-resistant hypertension, is in Stage 3 trials in the United States. He is the father of actor Ben Esler. Professor Esler has received the following awards for his research: Excellence Award in Hypertension Research, awarded by the American Heart Association in. Bjorn Folkow Award of the European Society of Hypertension. Eureka Prize for Translational Research, shared with Professor Markus Schlaich. Victoria Prize, State Government of Victoria Order of Australia. Centenary Medal of the Government of Australia. Elected a fellow of the Australian Academy of Science. Hartnett Medal of the Royal Society of the Arts. Merck Sharpe & Dohme Award of the International Society of Hypertension. Ramaciotti Medal, for excellence in biomedical research. RT Hall Prize, for research in cardiology, awarded annually by the Cardiac Society of Australasia. Wellcome Medal, awarded annually for "the most outstanding biomedical research in Australia".
Susman Prize, Royal Australasian College of Physicians, awarded annually for "the best original contribution to internal medicine by a Fellow or Member of the Royal Australasian College of Physicians". Professor Esler's profile at the Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute website
The Nineteen Martyrs of Aklan were Filipino patriots in Aklan, Philippines who were executed by musketry on March 23, 1897 at 2 am, for cooperating with the Katipunan during the Philippine Revolution against Spain. General Francisco del Castillo, a close associate of Andres Bonifacio; this Aklanon Katipunero was tasked by Bonifacio to establish Katipunan in Panay Island. On March 17, 1897, the young patriot, defender of liberty and leader of the Aklan revolutionists was killed by an assassin during a fight in the present-day Pastrana Park; the untimely death of Gen. del Castillo had signaled the end of the major struggle for freedom in Aklan. His close friends and soldiers were forced to give up arms, some due to the promise of receiving amnesty; these Nineteen Men, weak from hunger and thirst and racked with rain, were bound together and forced into a black hole of a stone cell on Amadeo Street in Kalibo. Here their hands were manacled and a long bamboo pole was passed through their locked arms across their mangled backs.
They were strung high up against the wall of the cell, with their backs to the firing line, during the first hours of March 23, they were shot to death. The few who did not die were bayoneted; that was a night of darkness and terror in Kalibo. But such promise was broken. So on the fateful day of March 23, 1897, the Martyrs of Aklan were executed. On March 23, 1897, all 19 prisoners were summarily executed by a firing squad in the town square, their bodies were hastily buried in a mass grave inside a cemetery. In 1910, the Municipal Council of Kalibo changed the name of Amadeo Street to 19 Martires Street. By virtue of a Municipal Council resolution, the mortal remains of 19 martyrs were transferred to a mausoleum at its present site at corner D. Maagma Sr. and Acevedo Streets on March 23, 1926. The 19 Martyrs Mausuleum was named to Aklan Freedom Shrine in 1960. On March 29, 2019, the National Historical Commission of the Philippines has declared the Aklan Freedom Shrine as a "national historical shrine".
Thereafter, a historical marker on the Nineteen Martyrs of Aklan was unveiled on April 25, 2019 at the Aklan Freedom Shrine. In order to commemorate the death anniversary of the 19 Martyrs of Aklan, Republic Act No. 7806 was made into law setting the 23rd day of March of every year as a special public holiday in the Province of Aklan. A former general himself, President Fidel V. Ramos let Republic Act 7806 lapsed into law without his signature, and on September 1, 1994, in accordance with Article VI, Sec. 27 of the Constitution became law. On the 102th martyrdom anniversary of the 19 Martyrs of Aklan on March 23, 2018, the National Historical Commission of the Philippines turned over to the Provincial Government of Aklan a tableau memorial in honor of the freedom heroes at the Goding Ramos Park
Mining in Wales provided a significant source of income to the economy of Wales throughout the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. It was key to the Industrial Revolution. Wales was famous for its coal mining, in the Rhondda Valley, the South Wales Valleys and throughout the South Wales coalfield and by 1913 Barry had become the largest coal exporting port in the world, with Cardiff as second, as coal was transported down by rail. Northeast Wales had its own coalfield and Tower Colliery near Hirwaun is regarded by many as the oldest open coal mine and one of the largest in the world. Wales has had a significant history of mining for slate and various metal ores. There had been small-scale mining in Wales in the pre-Roman British Iron Age, but it would be undertaken on an industrial scale under the Romans, who completed their conquest of Wales in AD 78. Substantial quantities of gold and lead were extracted, along with lesser amounts of zinc and silver. Mining would continue until the process was no longer practical or profitable, at which time the mine would be abandoned.
The extensive excavations of the Roman operations at Dolaucothi provide a picture of the high level of Roman technology and the expertise of Roman engineering in the ancient era. There is evidence of mining in the Blaenavon area going back to the 14th century, there is evidence of mine workings at Mostyn as far back as 1261, but it is believed to have been practised as early as Roman times; the coal mining industry burgeoned throughout the Industrial Revolution and into the 19th century, when shafts were sunk to complement the open-cast mining and drift mining exploiting the ample and obvious coal resources. During the first half of the nineteenth century mining was at the centre of working-class discontent in Wales, a number of uprisings such as the Merthyr Rising in 1831 against employers were a characteristic of the Industrial Revolution in Wales, Dic Penderyn became a martyr to industrial workers; the Chartist movement and the 1839 Newport Rising showed the growing concerns and awareness of the work force of their value to the nation.
Although the Factory Acts of the 1830s and resultant Mines Act of 1842 were meant to prevent women and boys under 10 years of age from working underground, it is believed they were ignored. To replace female and child labour the pit pony was more introduced. Much in the middle of the 20th century, mining was still a hazardous enterprise, resulting in many accidents and long term ill-health with many retired miners still suffering from silicosis and other mining related diseases. Incorporating the existing Coity colliery and Kearsley's pit, the Big Pit opened in 1880, so called because it was the first shaft in Wales large enough to allow two tramways. At the height of coal production, there were over 160 drift mines and over 30 shafts working the nine seams in the Blaenavon locality. Big Pit alone employed some 1,300 men digging a quarter of a million tons of coal a year. Large amounts of coal were needed to supply the local ironworks, as it took 3 tons of coal to produce a ton of iron. Blaenavon'steam' coal was of high quality and it was exported globally.
Burning hotly while leaving minimum ash, it was ideal to power the steam engines that drove steamships, Dreadnoughts of the Royal Navy and steam locomotive railways across the world. However both economics and politics after World War I with its resultant general strike, the 1930s Depression and Nationalisation and the miners' strike of 1984-1985 took their toll and all the smaller pits were either abandoned or swallowed into Big Pit's encroaching search for new seams. In February 1980 the coal ran out and Big Pit the oldest mine in Wales, had to close. There are still nine headstocks remaining including Big Pit. There is part in English. I am a little collier and gweithio underground The raff will never torri when I go up and down It's bara when I'm hungry And cwrw when I'm dry It's gwely when I'm tired And nefoedd when I die The complete English translation is the following. I am a little collier and working underground The rope will never break when I go up and down It's bread when I'm hungry And beer when I'm dry It's bed when I'm tired And heaven when I die The Big Pit National Coal Museum is located at Blaenavon, in 2005 it won the prestigious Gulbenkian Prize for museum of the year.
It is one of only two remaining mines where it is possible for visitors to journey to the underground workings some 300 ft below using the same cages that transported the miners. Other museums preserving the memories and heritage of the coal mining industry in Wales are at: South Wales Miners' Museum near Cymmer Cefn Coed Colliery Museum near Crynant Rhondda Heritage Park near Trehafod There has been slate quarrying in Wales since the Roman period, when slate was used to roof the fort at Segontium, now Caernarfon; the slate industry grew until the early 18th century expanded until the late 19th century, at which time the most important slate producing areas were in northwest Wales, including the Penrhyn Quarry near Bethesda, the Dinorwic Quarry near Llanberis, the Nantlle Valley quarries, Blaenau Ffestiniog, where the slate was mined rather than quarried. Penrhyn and Dinorwig were the two largest slate quarries in the world, the Oakeley mine at Blaenau Ffestiniog was the largest slate mine in the world.
Slate is used for roofing, but is produced as thicker slab for a variety of uses including flooring and headstones. The slate industry in North Wales is on the tentative Wor
This uniform polyhedron compound is a composition of 5 great rhombihexahedra, in the same vertex arrangement as the compound of 5 truncated cubes. There is some controversy on. Although the common way to fill in a polygon is to just colour its whole interior, this can result in some filled regions hanging as membranes over empty space. Hence, the "neo filling" is sometimes used instead as a more accurate filling. In the neo filling, orientable polyhedra are filled traditionally, but non-orientable polyhedra have their faces filled with the modulo-2 method. In addition, overlapping regions of coplanar faces can cancel each other out. Skilling, John, "Uniform Compounds of Uniform Polyhedra", Mathematical Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 79: 447–457, doi:10.1017/S0305004100052440, MR 0397554
Peter Mafany Musonge is a Cameroonian politician, Prime Minister of Cameroon from September 19, 1996 to December 8, 2004. Musonge was born at Muea in the Fako Department of Cameroon's South-West Region, he received a bachelor of science degree in civil engineering at Drexel University and received a master of science degree in structural engineering at Stanford University, has worked on a variety of development projects. He has been a longtime supporter and assistant of President Paul Biya, is an Anglophone and a member of the Bakweri ethnic group, he left his position as Prime Minister after a cabinet reshuffle which followed Biya's successful 2004 reelection, for which Musonge served as campaign manager. Musonge is a member of the Central Committee of the ruling Cameroon People's Democratic Movement. Biya appointed Musonge as Grand Chancellor of National Orders on April 4, 2007. In May 2013, President Biya appointed Musonge to the Senate of Cameroon, he was one of 30 senators to receive their seats by presidential appointment.
Biya appointed three senators for each region, Musonge was one of the three to come from the South-West Region. There was some speculation that he might receive the post of President of the Senate, but Marcel Niat Njifenji was elected to that post on 12 June 2013. Musonge was instead designated as President of the CPDM's Senate Parliamentary Group