Skiing can be a means of transport, a recreational activity or a competitive winter sport in which the participant uses skis to glide on snow. Many types of competitive skiing events are recognized by the International Olympic Committee, the International Ski Federation. Skiing has a history of five millennia. Although modern skiing has evolved from beginnings in Scandinavia, it may have been practiced more than 100 centuries ago in what is now China, according to an interpretation of ancient paintings; the word "ski" is one of a handful of words. It comes from the Old Norse word "skíð" which means "split piece of wood or firewood". Asymmetrical skis were used in northern Sweden until at least the late 19th century. On one foot, the skier wore a long straight non-arching ski for sliding, a shorter ski was worn on the other foot for kicking; the underside of the short ski was either plain or covered with animal skin to aid this use, while the long ski supporting the weight of the skier was treated with animal fat in a similar manner to modern ski waxing.
Early skiers used spear. The first depiction of a skier with two ski poles dates to 1741. Skiing was used for transport until the mid-19th century, but since has become a recreation and sport. Military ski races were held in Norway during the 18th century, ski warfare was studied in the late 18th century; as equipment evolved and ski lifts were developed during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, two main genres of skiing emerged—Alpine skiing and Nordic skiing. The main difference between the two is the type of ski binding. Called "downhill skiing", Alpine skiing takes place on a piste at a ski resort, it is characterized by fixed-heel bindings that attach at both the toe and the heel of the skier's boot. Ski lifts, including chairlifts, bring skiers up the slope. Backcountry skiing can be accessed by helicopter, snowcat and snowmobile. Facilities at resorts can include night skiing, après-ski, glade skiing under the supervision of the ski patrol and the ski school. Alpine skiing branched off from the older Nordic type of skiing around the 1920s when the advent of ski lifts meant that it was not necessary to walk any longer.
Alpine equipment has specialized to the point. The Nordic disciplines include cross-country skiing and ski jumping, which both use bindings that attach at the toes of the skier's boots but not at the heels. Cross-country skiing may be practiced in undeveloped backcountry areas. Ski jumping is practiced in certain areas that are reserved for ski jumping. Telemark skiing is a ski turning technique and FIS-sanctioned discipline, named after the Telemark region of Norway, it uses equipment similar to Nordic skiing, where the ski bindings are attached only at the toes of the ski boots, allowing the skier's heel to be raised throughout the turn. The following disciplines are sanctioned by the FIS. Many are included in the Winter Olympic Games. Cross-country – Encompasses a variety of formats for cross-country skiing races over courses of varying lengths. Races occur on homologated, groomed courses designed to support classic and free-style events, where skate skiing may be employed; the main competitions are the FIS Cross-Country World Cup and the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships, various cross-country skiing events have been incorporated into the Winter Olympics since its inception in 1924.
The discipline incorporates: cross-country ski marathon events, sanctioned by the Worldloppet Ski Federation. Paralympic cross-country skiing and paralympic biathlon are both included in the Winter Paralympic Games. Ski jumping – Contested at the FIS Ski Jumping World Cup, the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships, the FIS Ski Jumping Grand Prix, the FIS Ski Flying World Championships. Ski jumping has been a regular Olympic discipline at every Winter Games since 1924. Freeriding skiing – This category of skiing includes any practice of the sport on non-groomed terrain. Nordic combined – A combination of cross-country skiing and ski jumping, this discipline is contested at the FIS Nordic Combined World Cup, the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships, at the Winter Olympics. Alpine skiing – Includes downhill, giant slalom, super giant slalom, para-alpine events. There are combined events where the competitors must complete one run of each event, for example, the Super Combined event consists of one run of super-G and one run of slalom skiing.
The dual slalom event, where racers ski head-to-head, was invented in 1941 and has been a competitive event since 1960. Alpine skiing is contested at the FIS Alpine Ski World Cup, the FIS Alpine World Ski Championships, the Winter Olympics. Para-alpine skiing is contested at the World Para Alpine Skiing Championships and the Winter Paralympics. Speed skiing – Dating from 1898, with official records beginning in 1932 with an 89-mile-per-hour run by Leo Gasperi, this became an FIS discipline in the 1960s, it is contested at the FIS Speed Ski World Cup, was demonstrated at the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville. Freestyle skiing – Includes mogul skiing, ski cross, half-pipe, slopestyle; the main freestyle competitions are the FIS Freestyle Skiing World Cup and t
A caster board or vigorboard is a two-wheeled, human-powered land vehicle. It is a skateboard. Other names are waveboard "J-board" and RipStik. A caster board has two narrow platforms known as "decks" that are joined by a "torsion bar", which consists of a metal beam coated by rubber, that houses a strong spring. One polyurethane wheel is mounted to each deck with a caster so that each wheel can steer independently, each caster has a steering axis, tilted about 30° back from the vertical; the motion requires that the board be twisted back and forth so as to move either just the back foot or both the front and back feet side to side pushing the board forward at the outside of the movement, before the foot is brought back in the other direction. In principle, the act is similar to what is required to propel one, riding inline skates forward, as opposed to how skateboarders push with their feet on the ground. Riding a caster board requires using a twisting motion of hips and legs. A rider or "caster boarder" gains speed because each wheel is mounted on a 30° slant on the bottom of each deck.
When each deck is pushed to the side, it causes the board to be pushed upward by the wheels' rotation against the gradient of the mounts. This creates potential energy, released moves back down under the rider's weight and its own combined; the weight pushing the board back down causes the wheels to turn to face straight again. While riding on a caster board, the increase in height is noticeable unless the rider twists the board along the vertical axis too hard, causing stability to be momentarily reduced. Caster boarding has been introduced into many school curricula as a means of teaching the basic movement principles that govern board-sports; the success in its ability to engage with pupils not interested in sport was assessed in a 12-week, 6 secondary school case study in the UK carried out by Curriculum Ex. Foot placement is critical on a caster board because one wheel rests under each foot while in use. In order to start with proper foot placement, it is necessary to have the front foot above the center of the front caster and to allow the back foot to give a good push of speed that will allow the board to keep proper balance.
Attempting to place the back foot too will make it more difficult to achieve a desirable foot placement, so it is best to give that foot a maximum of two seconds for it to properly set itself on the board. More experienced riders will be able to place their back feet more quickly. A manual is performed by putting the rear foot on the back end of the rear deck without letting it come off and lifting the front foot. If the user is riding the board and the user recognizes that the foot placement is undesirable, he/she could replace both feet without interrupting his/her ride, taking place; this is done by the rider's first making sure that he/she is riding at a normal speed and that the riding surface ahead is stable for riding on and jumping with both feet at a minimal height that allows both shoes to separate their treads from the grips of the caster board. The rider may continue to "hop around" the board until a most desirable foot placement is achieved and for as long as a proper speed is maintained.
Hopping around may more produce better results than getting off the board and getting back on again. A much more difficult means of replacing the feet while riding is attempting to correct only one foot at a time, increasing the risk of shifting his/her weight too far forward or backward and falling to the ground. In order to steer properly on a caster board, the front foot must lean into the curve while the back foot leans out of the curve. By leaning the front foot in and the back foot out, the front wheel, which will have its front facing inward, is forced to form an arc with the back wheel, which will have its front facing outward; this arcing allows for sharp turning, but can be exercised for making wide turns as well. While attempting to turn on the board at a higher speed and/or using a tighter arc, the rider leans his/her center of gravity into the turn to keep from falling from the board. However, like all vehicles, there is a limit to the combined sharpness and speed of turning on a caster board without it becoming overturned.
It is possible to propel the board while turning by making weaving motions that are smaller than those of a straight trajectory. The wrong way to turn on a caster board is to lean both decks in the direction of the turn, which will cause the board to move away from the leaning direction in a parallel-sliding fashion. A helmet, elbow pads, knee pads and shin guards are recommended when using a caster board. Falling is common for inexperienced riders. A variety of tricks can be done on a caster board, they are coping and ledge tricks, manuals and flips. The various flips tricks include: Kickflip, No Comply Impossible, Double Kickflip, Fakie Kickflip, Switch Kickflip, Fakie Bigspin, Nollie Kickflip, Nollie Heelflip, Nollie Frontside 180 Bigspin, Varial Kickflip, Varial Heelflip, Backside 180 Kickflip, Frontside 180 Heelflip, Frontside 180 Kickflip, 360 Kickflip and the Frontside 180 Double Kickflip. Casterboarders can ride in skateparks as with other types of skateboards. However, some skateparks have prohibited caster boards.
Planet Park skatepark in Tokyo, Japan allows only skateboards with a single deck. The Japan Skatepark Association claims that if a caster board rider falls, it can be difficult to predict which direction the board will travel, constituting an unpredictable element of danger that may interfere with other skateboarders, inline-ska
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games are considered the world's foremost sports competition with more than 200 nations participating; the Olympic Games are held every four years, with the Summer and Winter Games alternating by occurring every four years but two years apart. Their creation was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia, from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee in 1894, leading to the first modern Games in Athens in 1896; the IOC is the governing body of the Olympic Movement, with the Olympic Charter defining its structure and authority. The evolution of the Olympic Movement during the 20th and 21st centuries has resulted in several changes to the Olympic Games; some of these adjustments include the creation of the Winter Olympic Games for snow and ice sports, the Paralympic Games for athletes with a disability, the Youth Olympic Games for athletes aged 14 to 18, the five Continental games, the World Games for sports that are not contested in the Olympic Games.
The Deaflympics and Special Olympics are endorsed by the IOC. The IOC has had to adapt to a variety of economic and technological advancements; the abuse of amateur rules by the Eastern Bloc nations prompted the IOC to shift away from pure amateurism, as envisioned by Coubertin, to allowing participation of professional athletes. The growing importance of mass media created the issue of corporate sponsorship and commercialisation of the Games. World wars led to the cancellation of the 1916, 1940, 1944 Games. Large boycotts during the Cold War limited participation in the 1980 and 1984 Games; the Olympic Movement consists of international sports federations, National Olympic Committees, organising committees for each specific Olympic Games. As the decision-making body, the IOC is responsible for choosing the host city for each Games, organises and funds the Games according to the Olympic Charter; the IOC determines the Olympic programme, consisting of the sports to be contested at the Games. There are several Olympic rituals and symbols, such as the Olympic flag and torch, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies.
Over 13,000 athletes compete at the Summer and Winter Olympic Games in 33 different sports and nearly 400 events. The first and third-place finishers in each event receive Olympic medals: gold and bronze, respectively; the Games have grown so much. This growth has created numerous challenges and controversies, including boycotts, bribery, a terrorist attack in 1972; every two years the Olympics and its media exposure provide athletes with the chance to attain national and sometimes international fame. The Games constitute an opportunity for the host city and country to showcase themselves to the world; the Ancient Olympic Games were religious and athletic festivals held every four years at the sanctuary of Zeus in Olympia, Greece. Competition was among representatives of several kingdoms of Ancient Greece; these Games featured athletic but combat sports such as wrestling and the pankration and chariot racing events. It has been written that during the Games, all conflicts among the participating city-states were postponed until the Games were finished.
This cessation of hostilities was known as truce. This idea is a modern myth; the truce did allow those religious pilgrims who were travelling to Olympia to pass through warring territories unmolested because they were protected by Zeus. The origin of the Olympics is shrouded in legend. According to legend, it was Heracles who first called the Games "Olympic" and established the custom of holding them every four years; the myth continues that after Heracles completed his twelve labours, he built the Olympic Stadium as an honour to Zeus. Following its completion, he walked in a straight line for 200 steps and called this distance a "stadion", which became a unit of distance; the most accepted inception date for the Ancient Olympics is 776 BC. The Ancient Games featured running events, a pentathlon, wrestling and equestrian events. Tradition has it that a cook from the city of Elis, was the first Olympic champion; the Olympics were of fundamental religious importance, featuring sporting events alongside ritual sacrifices honouring both Zeus and Pelops, divine hero and mythical king of Olympia.
Pelops was famous for his chariot race with King Oenomaus of Pisatis. The winners of the events were immortalised in poems and statues; the Games were held every four years, this period, known as an Olympiad, was used by Greeks as one of their units of time measurement. The Games were part of a cycle known as the Panhellenic Games, which included the Pythian Games, the Nemean Games, the Isthmian Games; the Olympic Games reached their zenith in the 6th and 5th centuries BC, but gradually declined in importance as the Romans gained power and influence in Gr
Land windsurfing known as “Terrasailing”, “street sailing”, “land sailing” and “dirt windsurfing”, is a sport similar to traditional windsurfing, performed on land rather than water. A four wheeled deck, similar to a mountain board or skateboard deck, is used in conjunction with a mast and sail in order to project the board across land. Several companies offer specially designed land boards which allow for easy coupling between the board and mast base of the sail; these boards are drilled with a special hole at the front of the deck that permits the application of the mast base to the board. Land boards equipped with all-terrain tires can be used on multiple ground types such as sand, grass and dirt. Most land boards require a minimum of a 5 mph wind speed. Wind speed requirements may vary depending on. Land windsurfing is an all-season sport and is used by traditional windsurfers for training during winter months when waters become frigid. Advanced land windsurfing riders are able to perform technical freestyle tricks seen in other extreme sports such as windsurfing and snowboarding.
Land windsurfing marathons have been undertaken across the Sahara in 1979 by Arnaud de Rosnay and Nullarbor Plain in 1985 by Gavin Le Sueur Land sailing Terrasail Industries Blokartersuk.com The Buhala Boards website Turfdog UK website Bluearthatb
Skurfing as a sport has two common forms: "water skurfing" and "street skurfing". Water Skurfing was inspired by an unknown man being pulled by a boat on a surfboard in Lake Havasu, AZ. Water Skurfing is a form of water skiing that uses a similar board instead of skis; the skurfer is towed behind a motorboat at planing speed with a tow rope similar to that of Knee Boarding and wakeboarding. It shares an advantage with kneeboarding in that the motorboat does not require as much speed as it does for water skiing. Skurfing is a towsport and it is similar to water skiing; the skurfboard, however, is a surfboard and is shorter by about two feet and has three larger fins that make the board easier to manoeuvre while being pulled behind a boat. The planing speed of the motorboat is equivalent to the speed generated by a wave and allows the skurfer to ride behind the boat the same way a surfer would ride a wave. One of the advantages of skurfing when compared with surfing is that when the water is flat, skurfing is still possible.
Skurfing can be done behind a boat or a jet ski in an ocean. The manoeuvres on a skurfboard are similar to those on a surfboard, these include. Cut-backs 180 360 aerial jumps power slides freeridingFreeriding is when the wake is surfed without the rope. First the rider pulls themselves up the rope so that they are skurfing in the largest part of the wake; the rider gently pumps the board to maintain speed and moves their weight further forward to help them stay on the wake wave. Once they are being propelled by the wake the rope is thrown back into the boat. Skurfing has developed into its own unique sport but has been used in adapting other sports such as surfing. Before skurfing was invented there were limitations to paddling onto larger waves when surfing because surfers lacked the speed needed to stay in front of the wave. Skurfing has shown the world the potential of big wave surfing by towing the surfer towards big waves. Therefore, giving the surfer the speed needed to catch the wave successfully.
The early usage was a portmanteau of skiing and surfing, was used to describe a popular surface water sport in which the participant is towed on a surfboard behind a boat with a ski rope. Although the "Skurfer" was trademarked by a surfer named Tony Finn in the mid 1980s, the word'Skurfing' was first coined in New Zealand by surfboard shaper Allan Byrne. Allan Byrne lent a surfboard to Jeff Darby and friends in Queensland Australia who started to make their own and came in contact with Tony Finn, to produce the brand Skurfer' under royalty. Many years prior to Tony Finn and the'Skurfer', Australian surfboard shaper and inventor Bruce McKee along with associate Mitchell Ross, launched the world's first mass-produced plastic roto-moulded construction'Skurfboard' named the'Mcski' renamed'SSS' skiboard and then'Wake-snake' in Australia; the board had concave tunnel bottom and a keel fin. Two smaller side fins were added for greater hold and more maneuverability. Bruce McKee and associate Mitchell Ross negotiated with USA's Medalist Waterskis and the first American production was launched.
The launch of the product's American version being named the'Surf-Ski' was in 1984 at Chicagos'IMTEC' show. At the show McKee met Tony Finn, the proposed Californian representative. Tony Finn, went on to do his own negotiations with Darby and company from Australia and the result as mentioned above were the US boards launched under the'Skurfer' brand name. Surfing is popular in the state of Western Australia and in many other places in the world. Unlike most other water sports where the participant is towed, water skurfing is not a professional sport and has no official competitions, it is a freestyle sport with individualistic style and form. There are no defined conventions, rather it is about personal style. Water Skurfing is considered by many to be a precursor to wakeboarding, as the skurfboards evolved in the late 1980s into compression-moulded products eventually into the twin-tipped Wakeboard. There are two main styles of water skurfing, the noseriding style used by people who surf on a longboard.
The alternative is with cutbacks and other turns. Some skurfers get air over the wake. A new style of water skurfing has emerged in the sport where the fins are removed from the bottom of the board; this finless style requires more finesse than having the fins attached. Not having fins limits cutbacks and carving, but allows the rider to spin the board around in a 360-degree rotation; this usage is a portmanteau of Surfing. See Freeline skates. Street Skurfing is the melding of many elements of skateboarding with the technical and applicable skills gained from slalom, downhill, or any other side-sport disciplines such as surfing, snowboarding and casterboarding, it focuses on spins, slides, "stance" changes, carving. There are no set rules, tricks, or techniques except the heavy emphasis of a fluid and surf-like execution through a course; the adopted terrain is a mix of steep grade roads, concrete banks, ditches. There are two types of styles for street skurfing; the first style involves a single board.
The second style is a common term used for caster skating. It involves two separated skates instead of a single skateboard. One of the advantages of having separated skates is that the rider can maneuver with both feet individually. In addition, Street Skurfing involves making much tighter turns, s-shape motions, travel
Longboarding is the act of riding on a longboard. A longboard varies in shape and size unlike its set counterpart, the skateboard, has more stability and durability due to larger wheel size and lower wheel durometers. Many, but not all longboards, use trucks that contain different geometric parameters than a skateboard as well; these factors and their variation have given way to a variety of disciplines and purposes for a longboard. Longboarding has competitive races down hill where some riders reach speeds exceeding 60 miles per hour; the angles at which some longboards can turn, as well as their ability to coast long distances make them more suitable for cruising and commuting on streets than regular skateboards. The life of longboarding started in the 1950s; the idea of longboarding originated from surfers in Hawaii. They wanted to bring their surfing hobby to land. Surfers figured out a way of achieving their goal of bringing surfing to land by customizing their skateboards, they would grab a piece of thick plywood and shape it into a smaller version of a surfboard screw the trucks and wheels to the decks and head out to small hills to imitate the same moves they would do if they were out surfing.
During the 1970s, a small group of longboarders honed their techniques. Some longboarders from this period were profiled in a 1978 SkateBoarder magazine article entitled Cult of the Longboard; these pioneers saw longboarding as a form of self-expression, were influenced by surfing. However, despite the advent of polyurethane wheels, longboarding did not reach a high degree of prevalence during the 1970s. Longboarding lived on as an underground sport with home hobbyists continuing to make boards in their garages or strap trucks onto snowboard decks using old Kryptonic wheels from the 1970s or roller skating wheels. In the early 1990s, Sector 9 started selling longboards; the 1990s saw a change in truck technology: reverse kingpins made longboarding more stable. The Internet has made it possible for small groups of skateboarders to communicate with each other and gain an audience they might not have had locally, allowing the sport to grow further. Multiple subbranches of longboarding exist with small but hardcore groups of adherents like slalom, LDP, dance, technical hardwheel sliding and more.
Besides diversifying into many "species", longboarding itself has come back around full circle. It now has begun embracing more street oriented tricks and cross over events using ramps while still embracing its earlier beginnings in slalom, ditch skating and just speed itself; the land speed record on a longboard was set in 2017, when Peter Connolly reached a speed of 146.73 km/h. The marathon record is held by Paul Kent, who finished the 2011 Adrenalina Skateboard Marathon in Hallandale Beach, FL in 1:32:13; the women's record is held by Cami Best who skated a 2:01:07 at the 2011 Adrenalina in New York City. The record for distance skated in 24 hours is held by Rick Pronk, who skated 313 miles at the 2017 Dutch Ultraskate; the women's record is held by Saskia Tromp, who skated 262 miles at the 2017 Dutch Ultraskate. A record for the longest distance traveled on a longboard was set by David Cornthwaite in 2006 when he skated 3,638.26 miles from Perth to Brisbane across Australia. This record has since been broken by Rob Thomas of New Zealand.
The most basic use of a longboard is travel. Commuter designs take many different shapes, including long, wide cruisers as well as shorter hybrid type boards, their trucks are designed to be loose to allow for sharper turns. It is useful to have a kicktail on a commuting longboard in order to corner on sidewalks and to lift the front of the board when riding off curbs. A shorter board, around 24"-35" is used for commuting, as well as medium-sized wheels which help commuters maneuver bumps and other minor surface obstacles, perfect for students going to class on or off campus. For longer distances, a heavier board and larger wheels will maintain the momentum from a push longer, making them ideal in that sense. One problem with this way of travel is. There have been cases when a longboarder has received a ticket for longboarding in certain areas, because some consider longboarding skateboarding. Freeriding can involve other tricks such as early grabs at medium to high speeds; the decks, which are symmetrical, may have kicktails on both sides that allow for tech slides.
These decks are from 36-44 inches long and from 8.5-10.5 inches wide. Most freeride decks utilize similar construction to downhill boards; some companies are now trying to produce freeride decks that do freestyle. They make these hybrid boards by adding kicktails and striving to make the boards out of lighter materials. Downhill longboarding involves riding down hills as fast as possible and keeping the board under control. Speeds in excess of 80 mph have been obtained. UK rider, Pete Connolly, is the current Guinness world record holder, for the fastest man on a longboard, with a staggering top speed of 91.17 mph. These boards are 95–110 cm long, featuring wheel bases from 28-35 inches, stiff to improve control at speed. "Speed wobbles" pose a problem for beginner downhill riders but intermediate and advanced users overcome this by learning to relax and control their muscles. Downhill decks fall into Six categories: topmount, micro drop, dro