Dead letter office
A dead letter office is a facility within a postal system where undeliverable mail is processed. Mail is considered to be undeliverable when the address is invalid so it cannot be delivered to addressee, there is no return address so it cannot be returned to the sender. At a DLO, mail is opened to try to find an address to forward to. If an address is found, the envelope is sealed using tape or postal seals, or enclosed in plastic bags and delivered. If the letter or parcel is still undeliverable, valuable items are auctioned off while the correspondence is destroyed. Despite this practice, in the past some undeliverable envelopes were acquired by philatelists. Dead letter offices go by different names in different countries. Other names include returned letter undeliverable mail office. Canada Post sends mail, not deliverable to the Undeliverable Mail Office at Mississauga, Ontario, or North Sydney, Nova Scotia. Domestic mail, still undeliverable after passing through NUMO is destroyed, while incoming international undeliverable mail is returned to the country of origin.
In Malta, undeliverable mail was sorted in the General Post Office in Valletta. The facility was known as Returned Letter Branch, but on it was referred to as Returned Letter Office or Dead Letter Office. Various postal markings were used at the facility from 1889 onwards. A Dead Letter Office was first established in 1784 for dead and missent letters that had reached London; the bye-letter offices dealt with those that did not go to London. No postage was charged for returns. From 1790 a charge was made for returned letter but the time was reduced to two months by John Palmer. Upon hearing of the return charge William Pitt rescinded the charge. In the UK, undeliverable mail is processed in the National Returns Centre in Belfast which holds 20 million undeliverable items, or in a smaller office in Portsmouth; the U. S. Post Office, as it was known started a dead letter office in 1825 to deal with undeliverable mail. By 1893, it handled about 20,000 items every day. In 2006 90 million undeliverable-as-addressed items ended up in the dead-letter office of the U.
S. Postal Service. Items of value that can not be returned are sold except for pornography and firearms; the auctions occasionally include items seized by postal inspectors and property being retired from postal service. These facilities are now known as mail recovery centers. Other former names include dead letter branch and dead parcel branch; the USPS mail recovery center is located in Georgia. Since April 2013, the postal auctions have been held online and include not only material lost in the U. S. but material from other national postal authorities who consign them to the USPS for auction. The rock band R. E. M. Released a compilation of B-sides and rarities entitled Dead Letter Office. In the 1947 film Miracle on 34th Street, two mail sorters handle a letter addressed to "Kris Kringle" at the New York City courthouse, decide to deliver all the Santa Claus mail now in the dead letter office to the courthouse, where a man calling himself Kris Kringle is facing a mental competency hearing; the man's attorney uses the huge volume of mail as evidence that the federal government recognizes his client as "the one-and-only Santa Claus."
Horror writer Clive Barker's book The Great and Secret Show features segments centered around the dead letter office at Omaha, Nebraska. In The Simpsons episode "Sunday, Cruddy Sunday", Springfield Elementary School visits their local Post Office and are treated to a piece of undeliverable mail from the dead letter office as a souvenir. In the 1996 comedy film Dear God, a character played by Greg Kinnear, who works in the dead letter office at Los Angeles, responds to letters written to God; the 2014 television series Signed, Delivered takes place in a fictional dead letter office in Denver, Colorado Terry Pratchett's Discworld novel Going Postal takes place in a post office. At one point, Moist von Lipwig, the novel's protagonist, takes it upon himself to track down the intended recipients of as many dead letters as possible; the Bones episode "The Male in the Mail" featured a decomposed body turning up at the dead letter office in Washington D. C. In Herman Melville's short story "Bartleby, the Scrivener," it is suggested that Bartleby had been employed as a clerk in the "Dead Letter Office at Washington."
Dead Letter Office Smithsonian Arago — People and the Post Remembering The Dead National Postal Museum "No return address" Mail Recovery Center Guidelines USPS Dead Letter Office fees at different points in US history
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
United States Postal Savings System
The United States Postal Savings System was a postal savings system signed into law by President William Howard Taft and operated by the United States Post Office Department, predecessor of the United States Postal Service, from January 1, 1911 until July 1, 1967. The system paid depositors 2 percent annual interest. Depositors in the system were limited to hold a balance of $500, but this was raised to $1,000 in 1916 and to $2,500 in 1918. At its peak in 1947, the system held $3.4 billion in deposits. The system had a natural advantage over deposit-taking private banks because the deposits were always backed by "the full faith and credit of the United States Government." However, because the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation gave the same guarantee to depositors in private banks, the Postal Savings System lost its natural advantage in trust. From 1921, depositors were fingerprinted; this was initially'not to be associated with criminology' but in some instances the Yours Truly, Johnny Dollar radio show in the early 1950s suggests Postal Savings account fingerprints were used for positive identification in criminal cases.
On March 26, 1911, the locations of the central depositories for the first 19 states were established, followed the next day by 25 others. The post offices were selected by merit rather than geography, based on those with the best efficiency record in the state. Bessemer, Alabama Globe, Arizona Stuttgart, Arkansas Oroville, California Leadville, Colorado Ansonia, Connecticut Dover, Delaware Brunswick, Georgia Coeur d'Alene, Idaho Pekin, Illinois Princeton, Indiana Decorah, Iowa Pittsburg, Kansas Middlesboro, Kentucky New Iberia, Louisiana Rumford, Maine Frostburg, Maryland Norwood, Massachusetts Houghton, Michigan Anaconda, Montana Nebraska City, Nebraska Carson City, Nevada Berlin, New Hampshire Rutherford, New Jersey Raton, New Mexico Cohoes, New York Salisbury, North Carolina Wahpeton, North Dakota Ashtabula, Ohio Guymon, Oklahoma Klamath Falls, Oregon Dubois, Pennsylvania Bristol, Rhode Island Newberry, South Carolina Deadwood, South Dakota Johnson City, Tennessee Port Arthur, Texas Provo, Utah Montpelier, Vermont Clifton Forge, Virginia Olympia, Washington Grafton, West Virginia Manitowoc, Wisconsin Laramie, Wyoming Postal Savings System Act of June 25, 1910, P.
L. 61-268. S.", by H. L. Wiley, "Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News", May 2, 1914, p1 "Postal Savings Depositors All to Be'Fingerprinted'", "The New York Times", December 10, 1921
Alaska is a U. S. state in the northwest extremity of North America, just across the Bering Strait from Asia. The Canadian province of British Columbia and territory of Yukon border the state to the east and southeast, its most extreme western part is Attu Island, it has a maritime border with Russia to the west across the Bering Strait. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas—southern parts of the Arctic Ocean; the Pacific Ocean lies to southwest. It is the largest U. S. state by the seventh largest subnational division in the world. In addition, it is the most sparsely populated of the 50 United States. Half of Alaska's residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaska's economy is dominated by the fishing, natural gas, oil industries, resources which it has in abundance. Military bases and tourism are a significant part of the economy; the United States purchased Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30, 1867, for 7.2 million U. S. dollars at two cents per acre. The area went through several administrative changes before becoming organized as a territory on May 11, 1912.
It was admitted as the 49th state of the U. S. on January 3, 1959. The name "Alaska" was introduced in the Russian colonial period when it was used to refer to the Alaska Peninsula, it was derived from an Aleut-language idiom. It means object to which the action of the sea is directed. Alaska is the northernmost and westernmost state in the United States and has the most easterly longitude in the United States because the Aleutian Islands extend into the Eastern Hemisphere. Alaska is the only non-contiguous U. S. state on continental North America. It is technically part of the continental U. S. but is sometimes not included in colloquial use. S. called "the Lower 48". The capital city, Juneau, is situated on the mainland of the North American continent but is not connected by road to the rest of the North American highway system; the state is bordered by Yukon and British Columbia in Canada, to the east, the Gulf of Alaska and the Pacific Ocean to the south and southwest, the Bering Sea, Bering Strait, Chukchi Sea to the west and the Arctic Ocean to the north.
Alaska's territorial waters touch Russia's territorial waters in the Bering Strait, as the Russian Big Diomede Island and Alaskan Little Diomede Island are only 3 miles apart. Alaska has a longer coastline than all the other U. S. states combined. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by total area at 663,268 square miles, over twice the size of Texas, the next largest state. Alaska is larger than all but 18 sovereign countries. Counting territorial waters, Alaska is larger than the combined area of the next three largest states: Texas and Montana, it is larger than the combined area of the 22 smallest U. S. states. There are no defined borders demarcating the various regions of Alaska, but there are six accepted regions: The most populous region of Alaska, containing Anchorage, the Matanuska-Susitna Valley and the Kenai Peninsula. Rural unpopulated areas south of the Alaska Range and west of the Wrangell Mountains fall within the definition of South Central, as do the Prince William Sound area and the communities of Cordova and Valdez.
Referred to as the Panhandle or Inside Passage, this is the region of Alaska closest to the rest of the United States. As such, this was where most of the initial non-indigenous settlement occurred in the years following the Alaska Purchase; the region is dominated by the Alexander Archipelago as well as the Tongass National Forest, the largest national forest in the United States. It contains the state capital Juneau, the former capital Sitka, Ketchikan, at one time Alaska's largest city; the Alaska Marine Highway provides a vital surface transportation link throughout the area, as only three communities enjoy direct connections to the contiguous North American road system. Designated in 1963; the Interior is the largest region of Alaska. Fairbanks is the only large city in the region. Denali National Park and Preserve is located here. Denali is the highest mountain in North America. Southwest Alaska is a sparsely inhabited region stretching some 500 miles inland from the Bering Sea. Most of the population lives along the coast.
Kodiak Island is located in Southwest. The massive Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, one of the largest river deltas in the world, is here. Portions of the Alaska Peninsula are considered part of Southwest, with the remaining portions included with the Aleutian Islands; the North Slope is tundra peppered with small villages. The area is known for its massive reserves of crude oil, contains both the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska and the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field; the city of Utqiagvik known as Barrow, is the northernmost city in the United States and is located here. The Northwest Arctic area, anchored by Kotzebue and containing the Kobuk River valley, is regarded as being part of this region. However, the respective Inupiat of the No
U.S. Special Delivery (postal service)
U. S. Special Delivery was a postal service paid for with additional postage for urgent letters and postal packets which are delivered in less time than by standard or first class mail service, its meaning is separate from express mail delivery service. It meant that a postal packet was delivered from a post office to the addressee once it arrived at the post office responsible for delivering it, rather than waiting for the next regular delivery to the addressee; the U. S. Post Office in conjunction with the Universal Postal Union established a basis for a special service for speedier delivery of mail for an extra fee beginning in 1885. Special Delivery was at first limited to post offices that operated in townships with populations of 4,000 or more. In 1886 Congress revised Special Delivery service to all U. S. post offices. Special Delivery service was in operation from 1885 to 1997 whereby the letter would be dispatched and directly from the receiving post office to the recipient rather than being put in mail for distribution on the regular delivery route.
In 1885 Congress enacted the use of "a special stamp of the face valuation of ten cents... when attached to a letter, in addition to the lawful postage thereon... shall be regarded as entitling such letter to immediate delivery." The first Special delivery stamp was printed by the American Bank Note Company and issued on October 1, 1885. It could not be used to prepay any other service; the stamp bears the words "Secures immediate delivery at a special delivery office,". In 1886 the Special Delivery service was expanded to all post offices and a new stamp was designed; the revised stamp was identical to the first issue of 1885 but instead bore the statement "Secures immediate delivery at any post office." The release of the revised stamp was delayed by the Post Office until 1888, allowing supplies of the first issue to be sold beforehand. But the usage of such stamps had their drawbacks. Special Delivery only served communities whose population was over 4,000 people and could not guarantee delivery by a specific time.
To be valid the Special Delivery stamp had to be affixed to the envelope along with all other postage and could not be used to prepay regular and airmail postage. Five distinct issues showing the running messenger were made. Beginning in 1902 and continuing for 20 years, Special Delivery messengers were issued bicycles to deliver the mail and correspondingly a stamp was issued that year which depicted a messenger riding a bicycle and delivering the mail. In 1908 a helmet of the god Mercury was used for the design, with the stamp called the Merry Widow issue after a popular opera in which the lead singer wore a large hat; the bicycle design was reinstated and continued with subsequent issues having differences in perforations and watermarks. The series ended in 1922 when a messenger riding a motorcycle was shown, replaced by a truck in 1925. In the following years the truck and motorcycle pictures reappeared as rates changed and various color and perforation varieties were created. In 1954 a design featuring hands passing a letter went into use.
The last image, instituted in 1969, portrayed arrows. Overall philatelists recognize 23 separate issues of special delivery stamps spanning the years 1885 to 1971. In addition, three Airmail Special Delivery stamps were issued in the 1930s, two regular ones and an imperforated issue specially produced by Postmaster General James Farley. In used condition none of the special delivery stamps are scarce. On June 7, 1997, the United States Postal Service terminated Special Delivery mail service which left many unused Special Delivery stamps in circulation that were no longer valid for such postage; the remaining stamps were allowed to be returned to the Post Office for their face value as "services were not rendered". According to the USPS Domestic Mail Manual, this is not possible any more. U. S. Parcel Post stamps of 1912-13 Parcel stamp Postage stamps and postal history of the United States Railway stamp Stamp collecting History of USPS Special Delivery Special Delivery Primer US Special Delivery website multiple articles about Special Delivery
Express mail in the United States
The United States Postal Service provides Priority Mail Express for domestic U. S. delivery, offers two international Express Mail services, although only one of them is part of the EMS standard. One is called Priority Mail Express International and the other service is called Global Express Guaranteed; the latter having no relation whatsoever to "EMS" International service as provided by the EMS Cooperative. The USPS Global Express Guaranteed, by which USPS offices act as drop locations for international packages which are handled by FedEx international delivery network. In some countries, import rules for packages received by courier services have different tax brackets and duties than parcels received on the postal system, thus EMS service is preferred over FedEx's co-branded Global Express Guaranteed; the term Priority Mail Express International is confused with their domestic service called Priority Mail Express, a specific classification of mail for domestic accelerated postal delivery within the U.
S. In 2013, the USPS changed the name of the service from "Express Mail International" to "Priority Mail Express International"; this may lead to confusion, as "Priority Mail" is still used, the packaging is similar. Special Delivery, a domestic accelerated local delivery service, was introduced on 3 March 1885 with a fee of 10¢ paid by a Special Delivery stamp, it was transformed into Express Mail, introduced in 1977 after an experimental period that started in 1970, although Special Delivery was not terminated until June 8, 1997. Priority Mail Express is an accelerated domestic mail delivery service operated by the United States Postal Service, it is able to provide overnight delivery to most locations within the continental United States and guaranteed delivery within 2 days. Unlike most other USPS delivery options which provide only delivery confirmation, Express Mail provides accurate, up-to-date tracking information, insurance up to $100. Priority Mail Express delivers 365 days a year, including Saturdays and federal holidays.
Sunday/Holiday delivery incurs a charge of $12.50 in addition to standard rate. Unlike Priority Mail and First Class Package Mail, USPS provides real-time tracking information online and by phone for Priority Mail Express shipments. Global Express Guaranteed service is an international expedited delivery service provided through an alliance with FedEx Corporation, it provides guaranteed, date–definite service from Post Office facilities in the United States to a large number of international destinations. Global Express Guaranteed delivery service is guaranteed to meet the specified service standards or the postage paid may be refunded. For all network destinations, liability insurance is provided for lost or damaged shipments. Other private express carriers guarantee overnight or 2-day delivery by as early as 8:30 or 10:30 AM. Priority Mail Express offers 10:30 AM delivery where available for a $5.00 surcharge. Priority Mail Express conveys other benefits under specific circumstances: U. S. patent applications and related documents transmitted to the United States Patent and Trademark Office via USPS Priority Mail Express carry the postmark date as the date of patent priority, so long as each document is mailed along with a signed certificate of mailing bearing the Priority Mail Express tracking number of the mailing label
The mail or post is a system for physically transporting postcards and parcels. A postal service can be private or public, though many governments place restrictions on private systems. Since the mid-19th century, national postal systems have been established as government monopolies, with a fee on the article prepaid. Proof of payment is in the form of adhesive postage stamps, but postage meters are used for bulk mailing. Modern private postal systems are distinguished from national postal agencies by the names "courier" or "delivery service". Postal authorities have functions other than transporting letters. In some countries, a postal and telephone service oversees the postal system, in addition to telephone and telegraph systems; some countries' postal systems allow for savings handle applications for passports. The Universal Postal Union, established in 1874, includes 192 member countries and sets the rules for international mail exchanges; the word mail comes from the Medieval English word male, referring to pack.
It was spelled that way until the 17th century, is distinct from the word male. The French have a similar word, malle for a trunk or large box, mála is the Irish term for a bag. In the 17th century, the word mail began to appear as a reference for a bag that contained letters: "bag full of letter". Over the next hundred years the word mail began to be applied to the letters themselves, the sack as the mailbag. In the 19th century the British referred to mail as being letters that were being sent abroad, post as letters that were for localized delivery. S. the U. S. Postal Service delivers the mail; the term email first appeared in the 1970s. The term snail-mail is a retronym to distinguish it from the quicker email. Various dates have been given for its first use. Post is derived from Medieval French poste, which stems from the past participle of the Latin verb ponere; the practice of communication by written documents carried by an intermediary from one person or place to another certainly dates back nearly to the invention of writing.
However, development of formal postal systems occurred much later. The first documented use of an organized courier service for the diffusion of written documents is in Egypt, where Pharaohs used couriers for the diffusion of their decrees in the territory of the State; the earliest surviving piece of mail is Egyptian, dating to 255 BC. The first credible claim for the development of a real postal system comes from Ancient Persia, but the point of invention remains in question; the best documented claim attributes the invention to the Persian King Cyrus the Great, who mandated that every province in his kingdom would organize reception and delivery of post to each of its citizens. He negotiated with neighbouring countries to do the same and had roads built from the city of Post in Western Iran all the way up to the city of Hakha in the East. Other writers credit his successor Darius I of Persia. Other sources claim much earlier dates for an Assyrian postal system, with credit given to Hammurabi and Sargon II.
Mail may not have been the primary mission of this postal service, however. The role of the system as an intelligence gathering apparatus is well documented, the service was called angariae, a term that in time came to indicate a tax system; the Old Testament makes mention of this system: Ahasuerus, king of Medes, used couriers for communicating his decisions. The Persian system worked on stations, where the message carrier would ride to the next post, whereupon he would swap his horse with a fresh one, for maximum performance and delivery speed. Herodotus described the system in this way: "It is said that as many days as there are in the whole journey, so many are the men and horses that stand along the road, each horse and man at the interval of a day's journey; the verse prominently features on New York's James Farley Post Office, although it has been rephrased to Neither snow nor rain nor heat nor gloom of night stays these couriers from the swift completion of their appointed rounds. The economic growth and political stability under the Mauryan empire saw the development of impressive civil infrastructure in ancient India.
The Mauryans developed early Indian mail service as well as public wells, rest houses, other facilities for the common public. Common chariots called. Couriers were used militarily by kings and local rulers to deliver information through runners and other carriers; the postmaster, the head of the intelligence service, was responsible for ensuring the maintenance of the courier system. Couriers were used to deliver personal letters. In South India, the Wodeyar dynasty of the Kingdom of Mysore used mail service for espionage purposes thereby acquiring knowledge related to matters that took place at great distances. By the end of the 18th century, the postal system in India had reached impressive levels of efficiency. According to British national Thomas Broughton, the Maharaja of Jodhpur sent daily offerings of fresh flowers from his capital to Nathadvara, they arrived in time for the first religious Darshan at sunrise; this system underwent complete modernization when the British Raj established its full control over India.
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