Yacht racing is a form of sport involving sailing yachts and larger sailboats, as distinguished from dinghy racing. It is composed of multiple yachts, in direct competition, racing around a course marked by buoys or other fixed navigational devices or racing longer distances across open water from point-to-point, it can involve a series of races when buoy multiple legs when point-to-point racing. Yachting, that is, recreational boating, is old, as exemplified in the ancient poem Catullus 4: "Yacht" is referred to as deriving from either Norwegian, Middle Low German or from the Dutch word jacht, which means "a swift light vessel of war, commerce or pleasure; the sporting element in the word lies in the derivation of jaght from the root jaghen, which means to hunt, chase or pursue…."The formal racing of boats is believed to have started with sailboats in the Netherlands some time in the 17th century. Soon, in England, custom-built racing "yachts" began to emerge and the Royal Yacht Squadron was established in 1815.
In 1661 John Evelyn recorded a competition between Katherine and Anne, two large royal sailing vessels both of English design, "…the wager 100-1. One of the vessels was owned, sometimes steered, by Charles II, the King of England; the king lost. In 1782 the Cumberland Fleet, a class of sailing vessel known for its ability to sail close to the wind, were painted racing up the Thames River with spectators viewing from a bridge. Much like today, this obsession with sailing close to the wind with speed and efficiency fueled the racing community. In the nineteenth century most yacht races were started by allotting starting positions to the competitors. Buoys were laid in a straight line, to which the competitors attached their yachts by means of spring ropes; the yachts were required to keep all the sails forward of the main mast on deck until the starting signal was given. The Yacht Racing Association was founded in 1875 by Prince Batthyany-Strattman, Captain J. W. Hughes, Mr. Dixon Kemp; the Y. R. A. wrote standardised yacht racing rules.
Bringing yacht racing to the forefront of public life, the America's Cup was first raced in 1851 between the New York Yacht Club and the Royal Yacht Squadron. Not ruled or regulated by measurement criteria as today, it is the second-place finisher was Aurora, "and but for the fact that time allowance had been waived for the race she would have been the winner by a handsome margin." Subsequently, the Cup races were conducted every 3–4 years, based on a challenge issued by one club to the current Cup holder, which till 1983 was the NYYC. As at 2017, the La Ciotat Based Yacht Partridge 1885 is documented as being the world's oldest, still operational classic racing yacht; as yacht racing became more prevalent, yacht design more diverse, it was necessary to establish systems of measurements and time allowances due to the differences in boat design. Longer yachts are inherently faster than shorter ones. Larger yachts were handicapped; as a result, both ratings and “one-design” competition were developed.
Ratings systems rely upon some formulaic analysis of very specific yacht-design parameters such as length, sail area and hull shape. During the 1920s and through the 1970s the Cruising Club of America established a formula by which most racing/cruising boats were designed during that period. After its descendant, the mathematically complex International Offshore Rule of the 1970s, contributed to much decreased seaworthiness, the simpler Performance Handicap Racing Fleet system was adopted; the PHRF uses only proven performance characteristics theoretical sailing speed, as a means to allow dissimilar yachts—typically crewed by friends and families at clubs rather than by professional crews—to race together. Most popular family-oriented cruising sailboats will have a rating filed with a local chapter of the PHRF; the most prevalent handicap rating systems today are the ORC, ORR, IRC, the PHRF. Many countries organise their own handicap systems which do not take into account the size, weight, or sail area of the yacht, but performance is measured on the basis of previous race results.
The Irish E. C. H. O. System is such a handicap system. One-design racing was invented by Thomas Middleton in 1886 in Killiney Bay close to Dublin City, Republic of Ireland. Middleton was concerned that winning a yacht race was more reliant on having an expensive new yacht, than it was on the skill of the yachtsman. One design yacht racing is conducted with classes of similar boats, all built—often via mass-production—to the same design, with the same sail area and rig, the same number of crew, so that crew ability and tactical expertise are more to decide a race than boat type, or age, or weather. Popular racing boats such as The Water Wag, the J/22 and J/24, the Etchells, the Star and New York 30 of Nathanael Herreshoff are examples of one-design boats. In general, modern yacht-racing contests are conducted according to the Racing Rules of Sailing, first established in 1928. Though complex, the RRS are intended simply ensure fairness and safety; the Rules are updated every four years by the body now known as World Sailing.
The major races of today can be classified as offshore, around the world, inshore racing all adhering to one set of rule
Boatswain Bird Island
Boatswain Bird Island spelt Boatswainbird Island, is a small island some 270 metres off the east coast of Ascension Island in the South Atlantic Ocean with an area of 5.3 ha. It is administered from Georgetown on Ascension, part of Saint Helena and Tristan da Cunha, an overseas territory of the United Kingdom. Boatswain Bird Island should not be confused with the nearby, much smaller, Boatswain Bird Rock, only about 10 by 5 metres in size, located 570 metres south-east of the island and 360 metres north-east of the coast of Ascension; the southern coast of the island has an impressive natural arch. There are thousands of inhabitants on this tiny island, all of which are birds, which give the island its white colour. Among the many seabirds nesting there are boobies, noddies, as well as the tropicbirds for which the island is named; the island is the home of the majority of Ascension's birds due to rats and cats eating the birds and their eggs on Ascension. Since the mid-1990s there has been a feral cat eradication program, alongside a rat eradication program, to encourage the birds back to the main island.
The island has been identified as an Important Bird Area by BirdLife International as a breeding site for seabirds. Birds for which the IBA is significant include Madeiran storm petrels, red-billed tropicbirds, white-tailed tropicbirds, Ascension frigatebirds, masked boobies and black noddies
A boatswain, bo's'n, bos'n, or bosun known as a Petty Officer or a qualified member of the deck department, is the seniormost rate of the deck department and is responsible for the components of a ship's hull. The boatswain supervises the other members of the ship's deck department, is not a watchstander, except on vessels with small crews. Additional duties vary depending upon ship and circumstances; the word boatswain has been in the English language since 1450. It is derived from late Old English batswegen, from bat concatenated with Old Norse sveinn, meaning a young man, apprentice, a follower, retainer or servant. Directly translated to modern Norwegian it would be båtsvenn, while the actual crew title in Norwegian is båtsmann. While the phonetic spelling bosun is reported as having been observed since 1868, this latter spelling was used in Shakespeare's The Tempest written in 1611, as Bos'n in editions; the rank of boatswain is the oldest rank in the Royal Navy, its origins can be traced back to the year 1040.
In that year, when five English ports began furnishing warships to King Edward the Confessor in exchange for certain privileges, they furnished crews whose officers were the master, boatswain and cook. These officers were "warranted" by the British Admiralty, they were the standing officers of the navy. The boatswain was the officer responsible for the care of the rigging, anchors, boats and other stores; the Royal Navy's last official boatswain, Commander E W Andrew OBE, retired in 1990. The rank of cadet boatswain, in some schools, is the second highest rank in the combined cadet force naval section that a cadet can attain, below the rank of coxswain and above the rank of leading hand, it is equivalent to the rank of colour sergeant in the royal marines cadets. The boatswain works in a ship's deck department as the foreman of the unlicensed deck crew. Sometimes, the boatswain is a third or fourth mate. A bosun must be skilled in all matters of marlinespike seamanship required for working on deck of a seagoing vessel.
The bosun is distinguished from other able seamen by the supervisory roles: planning and assigning work. As deck crew foreman, the boatswain assigns tasks to the deck crew; as work is completed, the boatswain checks on completed work for compliance with approved operating procedures. Outside the supervisory role, the boatswain inspects the vessel and performs a variety of routine and semi-skilled duties to maintain all areas of the ship not maintained by the engine department; these duties can include cleaning and maintaining the vessel's hull and deck equipment as well as executing a formal preventive maintenance program. A boatswain's skills may include cargo rigging, winch operations, deck maintenance, working aloft, other duties required during deck operations; the boatswain is well versed in the care and handling of lines, has knowledge of knots, bends and splices as needed to perform tasks such as mooring a vessel. The boatswain operates the ship's windlasses when letting go and heaving up anchors.
Moreover, a boatswain may be called upon to lead firefighting efforts or other emergency procedures encountered on board. Effective boatswains are able to integrate their seafarer skills into supervising and communicating with members of deck crew with diverse backgrounds. On board sailing ships the boatswain was in charge of a ship's anchors, colours, deck crew and the ship's boats; the boatswain would be in charge of the rigging while the ship was in dock. The boatswain's technical tasks were modernised with the advent of steam engines and subsequent mechanisation. A boatswain is responsible for doing routine pipes using what is called a boatswain's call. There are specific sounds which can be made with the pipe to indicate various events, such as emergency situations or notifications of meal time. A common slang name for this instrument was the pippity dippity. A number of boatswains and naval boatswains mates have achieved fame. Reuben James and William Wiley are famous for their heroism in the Barbary Wars and are namesakes of the ships USS Reuben James and USS Wiley.
Medal of Honor recipients Francis P. Hammerberg and George Robert Cholister were U. S. Navy boatswain's mates. Victoria Cross recipients John Sheppard, John Sullivan, Henry Curtis, John Harrison were Royal Navy boatswain's mates. There are a handful of boatswains and boatswain's mates in literature; the boatswain in William Shakespeare's The Tempest is a central character in the opening scene, which takes place aboard a ship at sea, appears again in the final scene. Typhoon by Joseph Conrad has a nameless boatswain who tells Captain MacWhirr of a "lump" of men going overboard during the peak of the storm; the character Bill Bobstay in Gilbert and Sullivan's musical comedy H. M. S. Pinafore is alternatively referred to as a "bos'un" and a "boatswain's mate." Another boatswain from literature is Smee from Peter Pan. Lord Byron had a Newfoundland dog named Boatswain. Byron had a monument made for him at Newstead Abbey. Quartermaster is the highest rank in the BSA, an older youth co-ed programme; the youth can elect a youth leader, giving that youth the title "boatswain".
A Boatswain is in the Netherlands the patrol leader of a Se
Boatswain's mate (United States Coast Guard)
The most versatile member of the Coast Guard's operational team is the boatswain's mate. Boatswain's mates are masters of seamanship. BMs are capable of performing any task in connection with deck maintenance, small boat operations and supervising all personnel assigned to a ship's deck force. BMs have a general knowledge of lines and cables, including different uses, stresses and proper stowing. BMs operate hoists and winches to load cargo or set gangplanks, stand watch for security, navigation or communications. BMs can be found in nearly every duty station available throughout the United States and various locations overseas, they serve from harbor tugs to sea-going icebreakers. They are experts in navigation, small boat operations, deck operations and pulley systems and rescue, deck maintenance, small arms. Additionally, in many assignments BMs act as boarding team members or boarding officers BMs are Officers in Charge of patrol boats, small craft, small shore units including search and rescue stations and aids to navigation teams.
BMs utilize their leadership and expertise to perform the missions of the Coast Guard, at sea and on shore. Candidates should have leadership ability, physical strength, good hearing, normal color vision and a high degree of manual dexterity. School courses taken in algebra and shop are helpful. Any experience handling small boats is valuable. ASVAB Score Requirements: VE+AR OF 100 Training for boatswain's mate is accomplished through 14 weeks of intensive training at Training Center Yorktown in Yorktown, VA. Once this training is completed, BMs may go on to other advanced training such as Coxswain, Tactical Coxswain, Pursuit Coxswain, Heavy Weather Coxswain, or Surfman. Pier superintendent Tugboat crewman Heavy equipment operator Marina supervisor Marina operator Ship pilot Police officer US Marshal DEA US Customs and Border Protection Safety supervisor/inspector Small/large business managers Salvage operator Paramedic Teacher Boatswain Boatswain's mate Coxswain #United States Coast Guard Bernard C.
Webber, USCG United States Naval Institute. The Bluejackets' Manual. Annapolis, MD: United States Naval Institute. ISBN 1-55750-050-9. Boatswain's Mates and the Origins of the Chief Petty Officer Boatswains Mate "A" School
The Tupolev Tu-14, was a Soviet twinjet light bomber derived from the Tupolev'73', the failed competitor to the Ilyushin Il-28'Beagle'. It was used as a torpedo bomber by the mine-torpedo regiments of Soviet Naval Aviation between 1952–59 and exported to the People's Republic of China; the Tu-14 had its origin in the three-engined'73' design which used a pair of Rolls-Royce Nene turbojets under the wings and a single Rolls-Royce Derwent V in the tail, in an installation much like that of the central engine of a Boeing 727. The availability of the Klimov VK-1, a more-powerful version of the Nene, allowed the RD-500 to be deleted from the preliminary design, given the internal designation of "81"; the other major change was the addition of a PSBN navigation radar which required a fifth crewmember to operate. This was rejected by the VVS and Tupolev reworked the design to eliminate the dorsal and ventral turrets and reduce the crew to only three, the pilot, a bombardier-navigator, a tail gunner.
It retained the two fixed 23 mm Nudelman-Rikhter NR-23 cannon in the fuselage nose, but the design of the fuselage was changed to give the gunner his own separate pressurized compartment and a KDU-81 tail turret armed with another pair of NR-23 guns. Construction of the prototype began in August 1949, using components from the canceled Tu-73S prototypes, was completed in October; the manufacturer's tests were conducted between 13 October 1949 and 21 January 1950. Its State acceptance trials lasted from 23 January to 27 May 1950 and it was accepted for production, provided that the problems with the KDU-81 turret were resolved and that ejection seats were provided for the pilot and gunner, a hot air deicing was to be fitted and the gun mount in the nose revised; the first five preproduction aircraft did not incorporate these changes as they were built using Tu-73S components, after the factory in Irkutsk had prematurely begun production of that bomber. One of these was sent to Moscow where it was evaluated by Soviet Naval Aviation for use as a torpedo bomber.
The sixth aircraft did incorporate all these changes as well as the navigator's ejection seat requested by Naval Aviation, it was evaluated in May 1951. It entered service in 1952 with Naval Aviation. About 150 were produced and served with the mine-torpedo regiments of Naval Aviation until 1959, it was given the NATO reporting name Bosun. After it was withdrawn from service, several were used for various test programs, including one evaluating ramjet engines. Up to 50 used Tu-14Ts were delivered to the Chinese People's Liberation Army Air Force although quantities and dates cannot be confirmed; the second preproduction Tu-14 was converted into a day or night photographic reconnaissance aircraft with the OKB designation of "89". The conversion was minor and involved an unpressurized central cabin that housed two automatic pivoting cameras, two fuel tanks and another camera fitted in the bomb bay and another camera for oblique photography was mounted in the aircraft's tail for the daylight photography role.
All cameras and their viewports were electrically heated to prevent icing at altitude. For night photography, the fuel tanks and camera in the bomb bay were removed and a variety of flare bombs were carried to illuminate the targets. In addition, the screen of the PSBN-M navigation radar could be photographed by a special camera and both the pilot and navigator could record their own observations using a voice recorder. However, the VVS had decided to use the Il-28R reconnaissance version of the standard Il-28 by the time that the "89" first flew on 23 March 1951 and Tupolev decided not to submit it for State acceptance trials. Tu-14 – Light bomber version. Tu-14R – Reconnaissance version. Known as Tu-89. Tu-14T – Torpedo bomber version.'81' - OKB designation of the Tu-14 2 × VK-1 prototype'93' – OKB designation of the proposed derivative of the Tu-14T with VK-5 or VK-7 engines. Soviet UnionSoviet Naval Aviation ChinaPeople's Liberation Army Air Force Data from General characteristics Length: 21.95 m excluding rear gun barrels Wingspan: 21.69 m Empty weight: 14,930 kg Gross weight: 21,000 kg Max takeoff weight: 25,350 kg Powerplant: 2 × Klimov VK-1 centrifugal flow turbojets, 26.48 kN thrust eachPerformance Maximum speed: 800 km/h at sea level.
Tupolev: The Man and His Aircraft. Warrendale, Pennsylvania: SAE. ISBN 1-56091-899-3. Gordon, Yefim & Rigamant, Vladimir. OKB Tupolev: A History of the Design Bureau and its Aircraft. Hinckley, UK: Midland Publishing. ISBN 1-85780-214-4. Gunston, Bill. Tupolev Aircraft Since 1922. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-882-8
A bosun's chair is a device used to suspend a person from a rope to perform work aloft. Just a short plank or swath of heavy canvas, many modern bosun's chairs incorporate safety devices similar to those found in rock climbing harnesses such as safety clips and additional lines. In addition to the maritime applications they were developed for, bosun's chairs are used for working at height in various maintenance industries. In commercial window cleaning, the term bosun's chair describes devices suspended from rope and equipped with seatboards, such as descent-only controlled descent apparatuses. Bosun's Chair has become a competition event in Sea Scout Regattas in the United States such as the Old Salt's Regatta and the Ancient Mariner's Regatta. Breeches buoy Boatswain Deck department
The skuas are a group of predatory seabirds with about seven species forming the family Stercorariidae and the genus Stercorarius. The three smaller skuas are called jaegers in American English; the English word "skua" comes from the Faroese name for the great skua, skúgvur, with the island of Skúvoy renowned for its colony of that bird. The general Faroese term for skuas is kjógvi; the word "jaeger" is derived from the German word Jäger, meaning "hunter". The genus name Stercorarius is Latin and means "of dung". Skuas nest on the ground in temperate and Arctic regions, are long-distance migrants, they have been sighted at the South Pole. Outside the breeding season, skuas take fish and carrion. Many are partial kleptoparasites, comprising up to 95% of the feeding methods of wintering birds, by chasing gulls and other seabirds to steal their catches, regardless of the size of the species attacked; the larger species, such as the great skua regularly kill and eat adult birds, such as puffins and gulls, have been seen killing birds as large as a grey heron.
On the breeding grounds, the three, more slender northern breeding species eat lemmings. Those species that breed in the southern oceans feed on fish that can be caught near their colonies; the eggs and chicks of other seabirds penguins, are an important food source for most skua species during the nesting season. In the southern oceans and Antarctica region, some skua species will scavenge carcasses at breeding colonies of both penguins and pinnipeds. Skuas will kill live penguin chicks. In these areas, the skuas will forfeit their catches to the larger and aggressive giant petrels, they are medium to large birds with grey or brown plumage with white markings on the wings. The skuas range in size from the long-tailed skua, Stercorarius longicauda, at 310 grams, to the brown skua, Stercorarius antarcticus, at 1.63 kg. On average, a skua is about 56 cm long, 121 cm across the wings, they have longish bills with a hooked tip, webbed feet with sharp claws. They have a fleshy cere above the upper mandible.
The skuas are strong, acrobatic fliers. They are aggressive in disposition. Potential predators approaching their nests will be attacked by the parent birds, which targets the heads of intruders – a practice known as'divebombing'; the genus Stercorarius was introduced by the French zoologist Mathurin Jacques Brisson in 1760 with the parasitic jaeger as the type species. Skuas are related to gulls, waders and skimmers. In the three smaller species, all nesting in the Holarctic, breeding adults have the two central tail feathers elongated, at least some adults have white on the underparts and pale yellow on the neck; these characteristics are not shared by the larger species, all native to the Southern Hemisphere except for the great skua. Therefore, the skuas are split into two genera, with only the smaller species retained in Stercorarius, the large species placed in Catharacta. However, based on genetics and feather lice, the overall relationship among the species is best expressed by placing all in a single genus.
The pomarine and great skuas' mitochondrial DNA is in fact more related to each other than it is to either Arctic or long-tailed skuas, or to the Southern Hemisphere species. Thus, hybridization must have played a considerable role in the evolution of the diversity of Northern Hemisphere skuas; the genus contains seven species: "Skua". Encyclopædia Britannica. 25. 1911. Skua videos on the Internet Bird Collection