Anous is a genus of seabirds in family Laridae which contains the gulls and skimmers. The genus contains five species: Brown common noddy Black noddy Lesser noddy; the lesser noddy has sometimes been considered to be a subspecies of the black noddy. Blue noddy Grey noddy The noddies inhabit tropical oceans and have a worldwide distribution, ranging from Hawaii to the Tuamotu Archipelago and Australia in the Pacific Ocean, from the Red Sea to the Seychelles and Australia in the Indian Ocean and in the Caribbean to Tristan da Cunha in the Atlantic Ocean, they nest in colonies on cliffs or in short trees or shrubs on the ground. The female lays one egg in each breeding season; these birds feed on small fish which they catch by dipping their bills beneath the surface while flying. The genus was introduced by the English naturalist James Francis Stephens in 1826. Anous is Ancient Greek for "stupid" or "foolish". Noddies are unwary and were well known to sailors for their apparent indifference to hunters or predators.
They find safety in enormous numbers. A molecular phylogenetic study published in 2007 found that the genus Anous was a sister group to a clade containing the terns and skimmers. A study of the phylogenetic relationship between the five noddies published in 2016 found that they formed a single clade with the blue noddy and the grey noddy which were at the time in the genus Procelsterna embedded within the three species in Anous; the authors proposed that the noddies should be merged into a single genus Anous and that Procelsterna should be considered as a junior synonym. Olsen and Larsson, Terns of Europe and North America ISBN 0-7136-4056-1
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
Saint Helena and Tristan da Cunha is a British Overseas Territory located in the South Atlantic and consisting of the island of Saint Helena, Ascension Island and the archipelago of Tristan da Cunha. Its name was Saint Helena and Dependencies until 1 September 2009, when a new constitution came into force giving the three islands equal status within the territory. Despite this change, the whole territory is still referred to as Saint Helena after its main island; the demonym Saint Helenians and the derived name for the local nationality is understood to include Ascension Islanders and Tristanians, as well. Of volcanic origin, the islands of Saint Helena, Ascension Island, Tristan da Cunha were all separate colonies of the English crown, though separately discovered by several Portuguese explorers between 1502 and 1504; the Portuguese found. They imported livestock, fruit trees and vegetables, built a chapel and one or two houses. Though they formed no permanent settlement, the island became crucially important for the collection of food and as a rendezvous point for homebound voyages from Asia.
English privateer Francis Drake probably located the island on the final lap of his circumnavigation of the world. Further visits by other English explorers followed, once St Helena's location was more known, English warships began to lie in wait in the area to attack Portuguese carracks on their way home from India. In developing their Far East trade, the Dutch began to frequent the island and made a formal claim to it in 1633, but did not settle the isle and by 1651 abandoned it in favour of their colony at the Cape of Good Hope. In 1657, the English East India Company was granted a charter to govern Saint Helena by Oliver Cromwell, the following year the Company decided to fortify and colonise the island with planters; the first governor, Captain John Dutton, arrived in 1659, it is from this date that St Helena claims to be Britain’s second oldest remaining colony, after Bermuda. A fort was completed and a number of houses were built. After the Restoration of the British monarchy in 1660, the East India Company received a Royal Charter giving it the sole right to fortify and colonise the island.
The fort was renamed James Fort and the town Jamestown, in honour of the Duke of York and heir apparent King James II of England and VII of Scotland. The Kingdom of England became part of the new Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707 and the United Kingdom in 1801; the most important and first settled, the island of Saint Helena, had been governed by the East India Company since 1659. It became internationally known as the British government's chosen place of exile of Napoleon Bonaparte, detained on the island from October 1815 until his death on 5 May 1821, it was made a British crown colony in 1834 by the Government of India Act 1833. Unoccupied Ascension Island was garrisoned by the Royal Navy on 22 October 1815, shortly after which the end of the Age of Sail made its difficult location in the equatorial doldrums less important relative to its strategic importance as a centrally positioned naval coaling station. For similar reasons Tristan da Cunha was annexed as a dependency of the Cape Colony on 14 August 1816, at the settlement of the Napoleonic wars.
For a short period just Tristan da Cunha had been inhabited by a private American expedition who named the territory the Islands of Refreshment. The political union between these colonies began to take shape on 12 September 1922, when by letters patent Ascension Island became a dependency of Saint Helena. Populated Tristan da Cunha today little more than an outpost with a population of less than three hundred, followed suit on 12 January 1938; the three island groups shared this constitutional relationship until 1 September 2009, when the dependencies were raised to equal status with St. Helena and the territory changed its name from "Saint Helena and Dependencies" to "Saint Helena and Tristan da Cunha". During the Battle of the Atlantic of World War II and the following several years of U-boat warfare in the Atlantic, both Saint Helena and Ascension Island were used by the Allies to base patrolling anti-surface-commerce-raider and anti-submarine warfare forces against the Axis powers' naval units.
Long range naval patrol flying boats were used in the effort, in the war during the struggle to improve air coverage over the commercially important sea lanes, air strips were built to support land based aircraft which supplied and complemented the PBY Catalina patrol planes in the vitally important ASW mission. The United Kingdom and the United States still jointly operate the airfield on Ascension, which serves as a space-based communications, signals intelligence, navigation nexus and hub. One of only four GPS satellite ground antennas is located there; the territory stretches across a huge distance of the South Atlantic Ocean with the northern-most island, having a latitude of 7° 56′ S of the equator and the southern-most island, Gough Island, at 40° 19′ S. Between Saint Helena and Tristan da Cunha is the Tropic of Capricorn; the distance between the northern tip of Ascension Island and the southern tip of Gough Island is 2,263 miles. The whole territory has the same time zone: Greenwich Mean Time.
Daylight saving time is not observed. Although all three parts of the territory were formed by volcanic activity, only the Tristan da Cunh
Seabirds are birds that are adapted to life within the marine environment. While seabirds vary in lifestyle and physiology, they exhibit striking convergent evolution, as the same environmental problems and feeding niches have resulted in similar adaptations; the first seabirds evolved in the Cretaceous period, modern seabird families emerged in the Paleogene. In general, seabirds live longer and have fewer young than other birds do, but they invest a great deal of time in their young. Most species nest in colonies. Many species are famous for undertaking long annual migrations, crossing the equator or circumnavigating the Earth in some cases, they feed both at the ocean's surface and below it, feed on each other. Seabirds can be pelagic, coastal, or in some cases spend a part of the year away from the sea entirely. Seabirds and humans have a long history together: they have provided food to hunters, guided fishermen to fishing stocks and led sailors to land. Many species are threatened by human activities, conservation efforts are under way.
There exists no single definition of which groups and species are seabirds, most definitions are in some way arbitrary. In the words of two seabird scientists, "The one common characteristic that all seabirds share is that they feed in saltwater. However, by convention all of the Sphenisciformes and Procellariiformes, all of the Pelecaniformes except the darters, some of the Charadriiformes are classified as seabirds; the phalaropes are included as well, since although they are waders, two of the three species are oceanic for nine months of the year, crossing the equator to feed pelagically. Loons and grebes, which nest on lakes but winter at sea, are categorized as water birds, not seabirds. Although there are a number of sea ducks in the family Anatidae that are marine in the winter, by convention they are excluded from the seabird grouping. Many waders and herons are highly marine, living on the sea's edge, but are not treated as seabirds. Sea eagles and other fish-eating birds of prey are typically excluded, however tied to marine environments they may be.
Seabirds, by virtue of living in a geologically depositional environment, are well represented in the fossil record. They are first known to occur in the Cretaceous period, the earliest being the Hesperornithiformes, like Hesperornis regalis, a flightless loon-like seabird that could dive in a fashion similar to grebes and loons but had a beak filled with sharp teeth. Flying Cretaceous seabirds do not exceed wingspans of two meters. While Hesperornis is not thought to have left descendants, the earliest modern seabirds occurred in the Cretaceous, with a species called Tytthostonyx glauconiticus, which seems allied to the Procellariiformes and Pelecaniformes. In the Paleogene both pterosaurs and marine reptiles became extinct, allowing seabirds to expand ecologically; these post-extinction seas were dominated by early Procellariidae, giant penguins and two extinct families, the Pelagornithidae and the Plotopteridae. Modern genera began their wide radiation in the Miocene, although the genus Puffinus might date back to the Oligocene.
The highest diversity of seabirds existed during the Late Miocene and the Pliocene. At the end of the latter, the oceanic food web had undergone a period of upheaval due to extinction of considerable numbers of marine species. Seabirds have made numerous adaptations to feeding in the sea. Wing morphology has been shaped by the niche an individual species or family has evolved, so that looking at a wing's shape and loading can tell a scientist about its life feeding behaviour. Longer wings and low wing loading are typical of more pelagic species, while diving species have shorter wings. Species such as the wandering albatross, which forage over huge areas of sea, have a reduced capacity for powered flight and are dependent on a type of gliding called dynamic soaring as well as slope soaring. Seabirds almost always have webbed feet, to aid movement on the surface as well as assisting diving in some species; the Procellariiformes are unusual among birds in having a strong sense of smell, used to find distributed food in a vast ocean, to locate their colonies.
Salt glands are used by seabirds to deal with the salt they ingest by drinking and feeding, to help them osmoregulate. The excretions from these glands are pure sodium chloride. With the exception of the cormorants and some terns, in common with most other birds, all seabirds have waterproof plumage. However, compared to land birds, they have far more feathers protecting their bodies; this dense plumage is better able to protect the bird from getting wet, cold is kept out by a dense layer of down feathers. The cormorants possess a layer of unique feathers that retain a smaller layer of air but otherwise soak up water; this allows them to swim without fighting the buoyancy that retai
The masked booby is a large seabird of the booby family, Sulidae. First described by French naturalist René-Primevère Lesson in 1831, the masked booby is one of six species of booby in the genus Sula; this species breeds except in the eastern Atlantic. It is called the masked gannet or the blue-faced booby; the masked booby nests in small colonies, laying two chalky white eggs on sandy beaches in shallow depressions. The first chick kills the second one. French naturalist René-Primevère Lesson described the masked booby in 1829 in Louis Isidore Duperrey's work Voyage autour du Monde, Exécuté par Ordre du Roi, Sur la Corvette de Sa Majesté, La Coquille, pendant les années 1822, 1823, 1824 et 1825, after encountering it in Ascension Island in the South Atlantic; the species name is from the Ancient Greek word dactyl "finger" and Latin ater "black". "Black fingers" refers to the splayed wingtips in flight. Swedish zoologist Carl Jakob Sundevall described it as Dysporus cyanops in 1837, from a subadult collected in the Atlantic Ocean on 6 September 1827.
The species name was derived from the Ancient Greek words cyanos "blue", ops "face". John Gould described Sula personata in 1846 from Australia, the species name being the Latin adjective personata "masked". Gould adopted the name Sula cyanops in his 1865 Handbook to the Birds of Australia. Sundevall's binomial name was followed as Lesson's 1829 record did not sufficiently describe the species, however in 1911 Australian amateur ornithologist Gregory Mathews pointed out that although Lesson's 1829 account did not describe the bird, his 1831 account did and thus predated Sundevall by six years, hence Sula dactylactra had priority; the American Ornithological Union followed in their 17th supplement to their checklist in 1920."Masked booby" has been designated the official name by the International Ornithologists' Union. It has been called masked gannet, blue-faced booby, white booby, whistling booby. Australian ornithologist Doug Dorward promoted the name "white booby" as he felt the blue coloration of its face was less prominent than that of the red-footed booby.
The masked booby is one of six species of booby in the genus Sula. A genetic study using both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA showed the Masked and Nazca boobies to be each other's closest relatives, their lineage diverging from a line that gave rise to the blue-footed and Peruvian boobies; the masked and Nazca boobies were divergent enough to indicate the latter regarded as a subspecies of the former, should be classified as a separate species. Molecular evidence suggests they most diverged between 0.8 and 1.1 million years ago. Complex water currents in the eastern Pacific may have established an environmental barrier leading to speciation. Reviewing the genus, Rothschild recognised five subspecies. There is a clinal change in size across its range, where birds in the Atlantic are the smallest, with the size increasing westwards though the Pacific to the Indian Ocean, where the largest individuals are found. Four subspecies are recognized by the IOC. S. d. personata Gould, 1846: Austropacific masked boobyBreeds in the central and western Pacific and around Australia, as well as off Mexico and on Clipperton Island.
Birds of the latter two locations have been separated as subspecies californica, the north west Australian population has been named as subspecies bedouti, but neither is considered distinct. S. D. dactylatra Lesson, 1831: Atlantic masked boobyBreeds in the Caribbean and some Atlantic islands including Ascension Island. It has started breeding off Tobago being known in this area only from a single sight record from an oil rig off Trinidad. S. D. melanops Hartlaub, 1859: Western Indian Ocean masked boobyBreeds in the western Indian Ocean. Hartlaub described this taxon in 1859 from Maydh Island off the coast of Somalia near Maydh, he noted its black mask and blue-grey feet to be distinct from Sundevall's cyanops with a blue face, Lesson's dactylatra with yellow feet. The subspecies name is derived from the Ancient Greek words melas "black", ops "face". S. d. tasmani van Tets, Fullagar & Davidson, 1988: Tasman booby or Lord Howe masked boobyThe form breeding on Lord Howe and the Kermadec Islands. New Zealand naturalist Walter Oliver had noted that this bird had dark brown rather than pale irises since 1930, but it was not until 1990 that it was formally investigated by O'Brien and Davies and found to have longer wings than other populations as well.
They classified it as a new subspecies—S. D. fullagari—in 1990. Meanwhile, large prehistoric specimens known from the former and Norfolk Island were classified as a separate species—S. Tasmani—in 1988, thought to have become extinct from Polynesian and European seafarers and settlers; however and colleagues cast doubt on the distinctness of the fossil taxon in 2001, a 2010 review by Tammy Steeves and colleagues of the fossil material and DNA found the two overlapped and hence the extinct and living entities were found to be the same taxon, now known as S. d. tasmani as it has priority over S. d. fullagari. Fieldwork in the Kermadec Islands indicates the bills of adults are bright yellow, that adult males had brighter yellow feet than females; the largest species of booby, the masked booby ranges from 75 to 85 cm long, with a 160–170 cm wingspan and 1.2–2.2 kg weight. It has a typical sulid body shape, with a long pointed bill
Petrels are tube-nosed seabirds in the bird order Procellariiformes. The common name does not indicate relationship beyond that point, as "petrels" occur in three of the four families within that group. Having a fossil record, assumed to extend back at least 60 million years, the Procellariiformes was long considered to be among the older bird groupings, other than the ratites, with distant ties to penguins and loons. However, recent research and fossil finds such as Vegavis show that the Galliformes, Anseriformes are still not resolved. All the members of the order are pelagic in distribution—returning to land only to breed; the family Procellariidae is the main radiation of medium-sized true petrels, characterised by united nostrils with medium septum, a long outer functional primary. It is dominant in the Southern Oceans, but not so in the Northern Hemisphere, it includes a number of petrel groups, the relationships between which have been resolved to satisfaction. The fulmarine petrels: seven species of surface predators and filter feeders, breed in high latitudes but migrate along cool currents to the north.
All but Fulmarus are confined to the south, Fulmarus colonised the Northern Hemisphere during the Early Miocene. The huge giant petrels, genus Macronectes, which are convergent with the albatrosses The true fulmars, genus Fulmarus Antarctic petrel Thalassoica antarctica Cape petrel Daption capense Snow petrel Pagodroma nivea The prions: A specialised group of a few numerous species, all southern, they have a small, fulmar-like form and filter-feed on zooplankton. Pachyptila, the prions proper The procellariine petrels, larger or mid-sized species feeding on fish and molluscs which are close to the prions: Procellaria Bulweria Shearwaters: There are numerous species in several genera with a medium number of species. Calonectris Puffinus, two rather distinct groups of larger and smaller species Pseudobulweria Kerguelen petrel Lugensa brevirostris The gadfly petrels: These are a considerable number of agile short-billed petrels in the genus Pterodroma which include the endangered Bermuda petrel or cahow and a considerable number of forms rendered extinct by human activity.
The families Oceanitidae and Hydrobatidae are the storm petrels, small pelagic petrels with a fluttering flight which follow ships. The family Pelecanoididae is the four species of diving petrels, genus Pelacanoides; these are auk-like small petrels of the southern oceans. The word petrel comes from the Latin name for the Christian Saint Peter, refers to the habits of certain species to hover just above the ocean waves, with their feet touching the water, thus giving an appearance of walking on water, as St. Peter is said to have done. Skua Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels The dictionary definition of petrel at Wiktionary Petrel and shearwater videos on the Internet Bird Collection Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels
Important Bird Area
An Important Bird and Biodiversity Area is an area identified using an internationally agreed set of criteria as being globally important for the conservation of bird populations. IBA was developed and sites are identified by BirdLife International. There are over 12,000 IBAs worldwide; these sites are small enough to be conserved and differ in their character, habitat or ornithological importance from the surrounding habitat. In the United States the Program is administered by the National Audubon Society. IBAs form part of a country's existing protected area network, so are protected under national legislation. Legal recognition and protection of IBAs that are not within existing protected areas varies within different countries; some countries have a National IBA Conservation Strategy, whereas in others protection is lacking. IBAs are determined by an internationally agreed set of criteria. Specific IBA thresholds are set by national governing organizations. To be listed as an IBA, a site must satisfy at least one of the following rating criteria: A1.
Globally threatened speciesThe site qualifies if it is known, estimated or thought to hold a population of a species categorized by the IUCN Red List as Critically Endangered, Endangered or Vulnerable. In general, the regular presence of a Critical or Endangered species, irrespective of population size, at a site may be sufficient for a site to qualify as an IBA. For Vulnerable species, the presence of more than threshold numbers at a site is necessary to trigger selection. A2. Restricted-range speciesThe site forms one of a set selected to ensure that all restricted-range species of an Endemic Bird Area or a Secondary Area are present in significant numbers in at least one site and preferably more. A3. Biome-restricted speciesThe site forms one of a set selected to ensure adequate representation of all species restricted to a given biome, both across the biome as a whole and for all of its species in each range state. A4. Congregations i; this applies to'waterbird' species as defined by Delaney and Scott and is modelled on criterion 6 of the Ramsar Convention for identifying wetlands of international importance.
Depending upon how species are distributed, the 1% thresholds for the biogeographic populations may be taken directly from Delaney & Scott, they may be generated by combining flyway populations within a biogeographic region or, for those for which no quantitative thresholds are given, they are determined regionally or inter-regionally, as appropriate, using the best available information. Ii; this includes those seabird species not covered by Scott. Quantitative data are taken from a variety of unpublished sources. Iii; this is modelled on citerion 5 of the Ramsar Convention for identifying wetlands of international importance. The use of this criterion is discouraged where quantitative data are good enough to permit the application of A4i and A4ii. Iv; the site is thought to exceed thresholds set for migratory species at bottleneck sites. The assessment by expert individuals is however not reliable and a study in South America found that the coverage needed for at-risk bird conservation as chosen by computational algorithms overlapped with IBAs and suggested that such methods should be used to complement expert driven IBA site choices.
Biodiversity Biodiversity hotspot Ecology Ecoregions Important Plant Areas International Union for the Conservation of Nature Key Biodiversity Areas Protected Areas Wilderness