Wisconsin is a U. S. state located in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions. It is bordered by Minnesota to the west, Iowa to the southwest, Illinois to the south, Lake Michigan to the east, Michigan to the northeast, Lake Superior to the north. Wisconsin is the 20th most populous; the state capital is Madison, its largest city is Milwaukee, located on the western shore of Lake Michigan. The state is divided into 72 counties. Wisconsin's geography is diverse, having been impacted by glaciers during the Ice Age with the exception of the Driftless Area; the Northern Highland and Western Upland along with a part of the Central Plain occupies the western part of the state, with lowlands stretching to the shore of Lake Michigan. Wisconsin is second to Michigan in the length of its Great Lakes coastline. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European settlers entered the state, many of whom emigrated from Germany and Scandinavia. Like neighboring Minnesota, the state remains a center of German American and Scandinavian American culture.
Wisconsin is known as "America's Dairyland" because it is one of the nation's leading dairy producers famous for its cheese. Manufacturing, information technology, cranberries and tourism are major contributors to the state's economy; the word Wisconsin originates from the name given to the Wisconsin River by one of the Algonquian-speaking Native American groups living in the region at the time of European contact. French explorer Jacques Marquette was the first European to reach the Wisconsin River, arriving in 1673 and calling the river Meskousing in his journal. Subsequent French writers changed the spelling from Meskousing to Ouisconsin, over time this became the name for both the Wisconsin River and the surrounding lands. English speakers anglicized the spelling from Ouisconsin to Wisconsin when they began to arrive in large numbers during the early 19th century; the legislature of Wisconsin Territory made the current spelling official in 1845. The Algonquin word for Wisconsin and its original meaning have both grown obscure.
Interpretations vary. One leading theory holds that the name originated from the Miami word Meskonsing, meaning "it lies red", a reference to the setting of the Wisconsin River as it flows through the reddish sandstone of the Wisconsin Dells. Other theories include claims that the name originated from one of a variety of Ojibwa words meaning "red stone place", "where the waters gather", or "great rock". Wisconsin has been home to a wide variety of cultures over the past 14,000 years; the first people arrived around 10,000 BCE during the Wisconsin Glaciation. These early inhabitants, called Paleo-Indians, hunted now-extinct ice age animals such as the Boaz mastodon, a prehistoric mastodon skeleton unearthed along with spear points in southwest Wisconsin. After the ice age ended around 8000 BCE, people in the subsequent Archaic period lived by hunting and gathering food from wild plants. Agricultural societies emerged over the Woodland period between 1000 BCE to 1000 CE. Toward the end of this period, Wisconsin was the heartland of the "Effigy Mound culture", which built thousands of animal-shaped mounds across the landscape.
Between 1000 and 1500 CE, the Mississippian and Oneota cultures built substantial settlements including the fortified village at Aztalan in southeast Wisconsin. The Oneota may be the ancestors of the modern Ioway and Ho-Chunk tribes who shared the Wisconsin region with the Menominee at the time of European contact. Other Native American groups living in Wisconsin when Europeans first settled included the Ojibwa, Fox and Pottawatomie, who migrated to Wisconsin from the east between 1500 and 1700; the first European to visit what became Wisconsin was the French explorer Jean Nicolet. He canoed west from Georgian Bay through the Great Lakes in 1634, it is traditionally assumed that he came ashore near Green Bay at Red Banks. Pierre Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers visited Green Bay again in 1654–1666 and Chequamegon Bay in 1659–1660, where they traded for fur with local Native Americans. In 1673, Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet became the first to record a journey on the Fox-Wisconsin Waterway all the way to the Mississippi River near Prairie du Chien.
Frenchmen like Nicholas Perrot continued to ply the fur trade across Wisconsin through the 17th and 18th centuries, but the French made no permanent settlements in Wisconsin before Great Britain won control of the region following the French and Indian War in 1763. So, French traders continued to work in the region after the war, some, beginning with Charles de Langlade in 1764, settled in Wisconsin permanently, rather than returning to British-controlled Canada; the British took over Wisconsin during the French and Indian War, taking control of Green Bay in 1761 and gaining control of all of Wisconsin in 1763. Like the French, the British were interested in little but the fur trade. One notable event in the fur trading industry in Wisconsin occurred in 1791, when two free African Americans set up a fur trading post among the Menominee at present day Marinette; the first permanent settlers French Canadians, some Anglo-New Englanders and a few African American freedmen, arrived in Wisconsin while it was under British control.
Charles Michel de Langlade is recognized as the first settler, establishing a trading post at Green Bay in 1745, moving there permanently in 1764. Settlement began at Prairie du Chien around 1781; the French residents at the trading post in what is now Green Bay, referred to the t
Maysville is a city in DeKalb County, United States. The population was 1,212 at the 2010 census. Maysville is the county seat of DeKalb County. Maysville is part of the St. MO -- KS Metropolitan Statistical Area. Maysville was founded in 1845; the name may be a transfer from Kentucky. A post office called Maysville has been in operation since 1846; the DeKalb County Courthouse was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1998. Maysville is located at 39°53′12″N 94°21′36″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.16 square miles, of which 1.15 square miles is land and 0.01 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 1,114 people, 433 households, 272 families residing in the city; the population density was 968.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 496 housing units at an average density of 431.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.6% White, 0.4% African American, 0.5% Native American, 0.1% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.3% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.4% of the population. There were 433 households of which 33.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.7% were married couples living together, 11.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.6% had a male householder with no wife present, 37.2% were non-families. 32.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.15. The median age in the city was 39.3 years. 26.5% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 45.7% male and 54.3% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,212 people, 457 households, 302 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,065.9 people per square mile. There were 491 housing units at an average density of 431.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.76% White, 0.08% African American, 0.33% Native American, 0.17% Asian, 0.33% from other races, 0.33% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.50% of the population. There were 457 households out of which 34.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.7% were married couples living together, 10.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.7% were non-families. 30.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.14. In the city, the population was spread out with 28.5% under the age of 18, 6.5% from 18 to 24, 25.7% from 25 to 44, 17.1% from 45 to 64, 22.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 85.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $27,727, the median income for a family was $36,979. Males had a median income of $28,382 versus $18,646 for females; the per capita income for the city was $11,871. About 12.4% of families and 16.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.4% of those under age 18 and 17.6% of those age 65 or over.
Students in Maysville attend Maysville R-1 Jr. / Sr.. High School. Maysville School District Historic maps of Maysville in the Sanborn Maps of Missouri Collection at the University of Missouri
Silver Mound Archeological District
Silver Mound is a sandstone hill in Wisconsin where American Indians quarried quartzite for stone tools. Tools made from Silver Mound's quartzite have been found as far away as Kentucky; the oldest have been dated to around 11,000 years ago, so they provide clues about the first people in Wisconsin. Silver Mound Archeological District was declared a National Historic Landmark in 2006. Silver Mound is in the town of Jackson County, Wisconsin, its sandstone was laid down long ago like many other bluffs in the area. But in this sandstone a layer of hard stone called silicated quartzite or orthoquartzite formed. Stone like this is uncommon. With simple tools it can be broken into pieces and shaped into points through a process called knapping, and this quartzite from Silver Mound can be distinguished by technical analyses from similar orthoquartzite from other locations. The earliest known humans at Silver Mound were Paleo-Indians, who entered the area about 9550 BC; this is not long after the last glacier began retreating a short distance to the north, when the climate remained cool and mammoths and mastodons still roamed the area.
To hunt them, the Paleo-Indians needed good projectile points. They needed knives and scrapers for processing their kill; these tools could be made from the quartzite from Silver Mound, the largest source of orthoquartzite in the Midwest. Tools made from Hixton orthoquartzite and datable to this period have been found as far away as Mammoth Cave in Kentucky. Indians continued to quarry the quartzite at Silver Mound. By 8,000 BC the mammoths and mastodons were extinct, but Archaic Indians needed points to hunt large, now-extinct bison and deer, some quarried orthoquartzite at Silver Mound. Woodland and Oneota peoples used stone from Silver Mound. In total there are about one thousand quarry pits on the mound. From the fragments left, some areas have been identified as workshops where the larger pieces of quartzite were broken up into smaller pieces suitable for working. In other workshops the smaller pieces were finished. Six rock shelters have been found on the bluff. Two contain rock art. Euro-Americans have been aware of the Indian quarries on the mound since the 1840s.
It was named Silver Mound. Some mining was done; the land around the base of the mound has been farmed for years, but much of the mound itself remains undisturbed. Professional archeologists first visited the mound in 1928; the remarkable age of some of the Indian quarries emerged. In 1975 Silver Mound was placed on the National Register of Historic Places. In 2006 it was named a National Historic Landmark because of the potential information it may still hold about the earliest people in Wisconsin. List of National Historic Landmarks in Wisconsin National Register of Historic Places listings in Jackson County, Wisconsin Silver Mound Preserve at the Archaeological Conservancy
Boaz is a village in Richland County, United States. The population was 156 at the 2010 census. Boaz is located at 43°19′51″N 90°31′38″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 0.36 square miles, all of it land. Boaz was the boyhood home of Richard M. Brewer, the first leader of the Regulators in the Lincoln County War. A skeleton of a mastodon, the Boaz mastodon, was found near Boaz; as of the census of 2010, there were 156 people, 67 households, 40 families residing in the village. The population density was 433.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 68 housing units at an average density of 188.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 1.3 % Asian. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.6% of the population. There were 67 households of which 20.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.7% were married couples living together, 4.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.5% had a male householder with no wife present, 40.3% were non-families.
29.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.75. The median age in the village was 49.3 years. 19.2% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the village was 52.6% male and 47.4% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 137 people, 64 households, 41 families residing in the village; the population density was 383.2 people per square mile. There were 67 housing units at an average density of 187.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 99.27% White and 0.73% Native American. There were 64 households out of which 28.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.3% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.9% were non-families. 26.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.14 and the average family size was 2.61.
In the village, the population was spread out with 21.2% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 29.9% from 25 to 44, 24.1% from 45 to 64, 14.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.5 males. The median income for a household in the village was $31,563, the median income for a family was $32,000. Males had a median income of $22,500 versus $22,500 for females; the per capita income for the village was $16,883. There were 16.7% of families and 13.2% of the population living below the poverty line, including 41.7% of under eighteens and none of those over 64
Accelerator mass spectrometry
Accelerator mass spectrometry is a form of mass spectrometry that accelerates ions to extraordinarily high kinetic energies before mass analysis. The special strength of AMS among the mass spectrometric methods is its power to separate a rare isotope from an abundant neighboring mass; the method suppresses molecular isobars and in many cases can separate atomic isobars also. This makes possible the detection of occurring, long-lived radio-isotopes such as 10Be, 36Cl, 26Al and 14C, their typical isotopic abundance ranges from 10−12 to 10−18. AMS can outperform the competing technique of decay counting for all isotopes where the half-life is long enough. Negative ions are created in an ion source. In fortunate cases this allows the suppression of an unwanted isobar, which does not form negative ions; the pre-accelerated ions are separated by a first mass spectrometer of sector-field type and enter an electrostatic "tandem accelerator". This is a large nuclear particle accelerator based on the principle of a Tandem van de Graaff Accelerator operating at 0.2 to many million volts with two stages operating in tandem to accelerate the particles.
At the connecting point between the two stages, the ions change charge from negative to positive by passing through a thin layer of matter. Molecules will break apart in this stripping stage; the complete suppression of molecular isobars is one reason for the exceptional abundance sensitivity of AMS. Additionally, the impact strips off several of the ion's electrons, converting it into a positively charged ion. In the second half of the accelerator, the now positively charged ion is accelerated away from the positive centre of the electrostatic accelerator which attracted the negative ion; when the ions leave the accelerator they are positively charged and are moving at several percent of the speed of light. In a second stage of mass spectrometer, the fragments from the molecules are separated from the ions of interest; this spectrometer may consist of magnetic or electric sectors, so-called velocity selectors, which utilizes both electric fields and magnetic fields. After this stage, no background is left, unless a stable isobar forming negative ions exists, not suppressed at all by the setup described so far.
Thanks to the high energy of the ions, these can be separated by methods borrowed from nuclear physics, like degrader foils and gas-filled magnets. Individual ions are detected by single-ion counting. Thanks to the high energy of the ions, these detectors can provide additional identification of background isobars by nuclear-charge determination; the above is just one example. There are other ways. L. W. Alvarez and Robert Cornog of the United States first used an accelerator as a mass spectrometer in 1939 when they employed a cyclotron to demonstrate that 3He was stable. In 1977, inspired by this early work, Richard A. Muller at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory recognised that modern accelerators could accelerate radioactive particles to an energy where the background interferences could be separated using particle identification techniques, he published the seminal paper in Science showing how accelerators could be used for detection of tritium and several other isotopes of scientific interest including 10Be.
His paper was the direct inspiration for other groups using cyclotrons and tandem linear accelerators. K. Purser and colleagues published the successful detection of radiocarbon using their tandem at Rochester. Soon afterwards the Berkeley and French teams reported the successful detection of 10Be, an isotope used in geology. Soon the accelerator technique, since it was more sensitive by a factor of about 1,000 supplanted the older “decay counting” methods for these and other radioisotopes; the applications are many. AMS is most employed to determine the concentration of 14C, e.g. by archaeologists for radiocarbon dating. An accelerator mass spectrometer is required over other forms of mass spectrometry due to their insufficient suppression of molecular isobars to resolve 13CH and 12CH2 from radiocarbon; because of the long half-life of 14C decay counting requires larger samples. 10Be, 26Al, 36Cl are used for surface exposure dating in geology. 3H, 14C, 36Cl, 129I are used as hydrological tracer.
Accelerator mass spectrometry is used in biomedical research. In particular 41Ca has been used to measure bone resorption in postmenopausal women. List of accelerator mass spectrometry facilities Arizona Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory
Richland Center, Wisconsin
Richland Center is a city in Richland County, United States, which serves as the county seat. The population was 5,184 at the 2010 census. Richland Center was founded in 1851 by a native of Andover, Vermont. Hazeltine was drawn to the site because of its abundant water power, fertile prairies, its proximity to the geographical center of Richland County. Haseltine offered to donate land to the county. In 1852 the Wisconsin Legislature formally declared Richland Center as the seat of justice for Richland County; the present Richland County courthouse was built at Richland Center in 1889. In 1876, a narrow gauge railroad branch connected Richland Center with the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad at Lone Rock, providing an outlet for the town's commerce; the line was constructed with maple rails, but it was rebuilt as a standard gauge iron railway in 1880. On October 8, 1882, the town's railway depot was destroyed when an early morning fire ignited two kegs of gunpowder stored inside, causing an explosion that tore the roof from the building and scorched several nearby rail cars.
Another passenger depot, built in 1909, still stands today, serving as a visitor center for the community. Richland Center became an important location for the women's suffrage movement in Wisconsin after Laura Briggs James, Julia Bowen, other residents founded the Richland Center Woman's Club in early 1882; the club became the largest suffrage group in the state and was influential in organizing the movement throughout Wisconsin. Susan B. Anthony visited Richland Center in 1886. Laura James' daughter Ada James became influential in the movement, helping to found the Political Equality League in 1909 and advocating for women's rights, birth control, prohibition. Frank Lloyd Wright was born at Richland Center in 1867; the A. D. German Warehouse, completed in 1921, is the only building designed by Wright in the city and is an early example of his Mayan Revival style; the origin of GTE can be traced to the Richland Center Telephone Company. In 1918, three Wisconsin public utility accountants purchased the Richland Center Telephone Company for $33,500.
At that time, the modest company served only 1,466 telephones in southern Wisconsin. But in 1920, the three accountants formed the Commonwealth Telephone Company and engaged in an aggressive acquisition program, which expanded its services to more than 500,000 telephones in 25 states. Following bankruptcy during the Great Depression, the company reorganized into the General Telephone Corporation and continued to expand. After merging with Sylvania Electric Products in 1959, it once again changed its name, this time to General Telephone & Electronics Corporation. By 1969, GTE provided service to 10 million telephones across the nation, making it the largest independent telephone company in the United States. Richland Center is located at 43°20′16″N 90°23′5″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.36 square miles, of which, 4.28 square miles is land and 0.08 square miles is water. The Pine River runs along the western edge of the town; as of the census of 2010, there were 5,184 people, 2,361 households, 1,235 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,211.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,613 housing units at an average density of 610.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.1% White, 0.7% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.8% Asian, 1.2% from other races, 0.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.3% of the population. There were 2,361 households of which 25.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.4% were married couples living together, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.1% had a male householder with no wife present, 47.7% were non-families. 40.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 21.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.12 and the average family size was 2.87. The median age in the city was 40 years. 22.1% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 46.4% male and 53.6% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 5,114 people, 2,296 households, 1,285 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,164.6 people per square mile. There were 2,470 housing units at an average density of 562.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.22% White, 0.16% African American, 0.25% Native American, 0.33% Asian, 0.35% from other races, 0.68% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.92% of the population. There were 2,296 households out of which 25.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.6% were married couples living together, 11.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 44.0% were non-families. 38.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 21.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.15 and the average family size was 2.83. In the city, the population was spread out with 21.6% under the age of 18, 10.9% from 18 to 24, 24.2% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, 23.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 84.4 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $27,129, the medi