San Diego is a major city in California, United States. It is in San Diego County, on the coast of the Pacific Ocean in Southern California, approximately 120 miles south of Los Angeles and immediately adjacent to the border with Mexico. With an estimated population of 1,394,928 as of July 1,2015, San Diego is the eighth-largest city in the United States and second-largest in California. It is part of the San Diego–Tijuana conurbation, the second-largest transborder agglomeration between the US and a country after Detroit–Windsor, with a population of 4,922,723 people. San Diego has been called the birthplace of California, historically home to the Kumeyaay people, San Diego was the first site visited by Europeans on what is now the West Coast of the United States. Upon landing in San Diego Bay in 1542, Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area for Spain, the Presidio and Mission San Diego de Alcalá, founded in 1769, formed the first European settlement in what is now California. In 1821, San Diego became part of the newly independent Mexico, in 1850, California became part of the United States following the Mexican–American War and the admission of California to the union.
The city is the seat of San Diego County and is the center of the region as well as the San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area. San Diegos main economic engines are military and defense-related activities, international trade, the presence of the University of California, San Diego, with the affiliated UCSD Medical Center, has helped make the area a center of research in biotechnology. The original inhabitants of the region are now known as the San Dieguito, the area of San Diego has been inhabited by the Kumeyaay people. The first European to visit the region was Portuguese-born explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo sailing under the flag of Castile, sailing his flagship San Salvador from Navidad, New Spain, Cabrillo claimed the bay for the Spanish Empire in 1542, and named the site San Miguel. In November 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno was sent to map the California coast, in May 1769, Gaspar de Portolà established the Fort Presidio of San Diego on a hill near the San Diego River. It was the first settlement by Europeans in what is now the state of California, in July of the same year, Mission San Diego de Alcalá was founded by Franciscan friars under Junípero Serra.
By 1797, the mission boasted the largest native population in Alta California, with over 1,400 neophytes living in, Mission San Diego was the southern anchor in California of the historic mission trail El Camino Real. Both the Presidio and the Mission are National Historic Landmarks, in 1821, Mexico won its independence from Spain, and San Diego became part of the Mexican territory of Alta California. In 1822, Mexico began attempting to extend its authority over the territory of Alta California. The fort on Presidio Hill was gradually abandoned, while the town of San Diego grew up on the land below Presidio Hill. The Mission was secularized by the Mexican government in 1833, the 432 residents of the town petitioned the governor to form a pueblo, and Juan María Osuna was elected the first alcalde, defeating Pío Pico in the vote
1990 Major League Baseball season
The 1990 Major League Baseball season. February – The 1990 Major League Baseball lockout begins and it lasts 32 days, and as a result virtually wipes out all of spring training and pushes Opening Day back a week to April 9. In addition, the 1990 season has to be extended by three days in order to accommodate the normal 162-game schedule. April 20 – After retiring the first 26 Oakland Athletics batters, may 22 – Andre Dawson of the Chicago Cubs is intentionally walked by Cincinnati Reds pitching five times. He is the first player to do so in Major League history, june 11 – Nolan Ryan pitches the sixth no-hitter of his career by defeating the Oakland Athletics in Oakland, 5–0. June 14 – It is announced that the National League will be expanding by two teams for the 1993 season, june 29 – For the first time in major league history, two no-hitters are thrown on the same day in both leagues. Dave Stewart of the Oakland Athletics pitches a 5–0 no-hitter against his future team, hours later, Dodger pitcher Fernando Valenzuela no-hits the St.
Louis Cardinals at Dodger Stadium, 6–0. July 1 – While no longer recognized as such, the New York Yankees Andy Hawkins pitches a no-hitter at old Comiskey Park, however and errors lead to four unearned runs as the Chicago White Sox win 4–0. July 10 – Six American League pitchers combine for a two-hitter, Texas Rangers second baseman Julio Franco drives in both runs in the seventh inning and is named MVP. July 12 – Barry Bonds hits his 100th career home run, july 17 – The Minnesota Twins turn two triple plays in a single game against the Boston Red Sox, yet still lose the game 1–0 on an unearned run. July 31 – Nolan Ryan of the Texas Rangers earns his 300th career win, august 31 – Ken Griffey and his son Ken Griffey, Jr. start for the Seattle Mariners in a game against the Kansas City Royals. It marks the first time a father and son have ever played in the same Major League game, september 2 – After coming close on numerous occasions, Dave Stieb of the Toronto Blue Jays hurls his teams first no-hitter, blanking the Cleveland Indians 3–0 at Cleveland Stadium.
September 3 – Reliever Bobby Thigpen sets a league record with his 47th save in a 4–2 Chicago White Sox victory over the Kansas City Royals. The previous record was set by Dave Righetti of the New York Yankees in 1986, september 14 – Ken Griffey and Ken Griffey, Jr. hit back-to-back home runs for the Seattle Mariners in a 7–5 loss to the California Angels. Pitcher Kirk McCaskill gives up the home runs. September 15 – Bobby Thigpen of the Chicago White Sox saves his fiftieth game, the White Sox defeat the Boston Red Sox 7–5. Willie Mays is the first, though they be joined by Barry Bonds. September 25 – The Oakland Athletics secure their third straight American League West championship with a 5–0 shutout of the Royals in Kansas City, the As would finish with the best record in baseball at 103–59, the third consecutive year they have done so
Stanford University, officially Leland Stanford Junior University, is a private research university in Stanford, adjacent to Palo Alto and between San Jose and San Francisco. Its 8, 180-acre campus is one of the largest in the United States, Stanford has land and facilities elsewhere. The university was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford in memory of their only child, Stanford was a former Governor of California and U. S. Senator, he made his fortune as a railroad tycoon. The school admitted its first students 125 years ago on October 1,1891, Stanford University struggled financially after Leland Stanfords death in 1893 and again after much of the campus was damaged by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Following World War II, Provost Frederick Terman supported faculty and graduates entrepreneurialism to build self-sufficient local industry in what would be known as Silicon Valley. The university is one of the top fundraising institutions in the country. There are three schools that have both undergraduate and graduate students and another four professional schools.
Students compete in 36 varsity sports, and the university is one of two institutions in the Division I FBS Pac-12 Conference. Stanford faculty and alumni have founded a number of companies that produce more than $2.7 trillion in annual revenue. It is the alma mater of 30 living billionaires,17 astronauts and it is one of the leading producers of members of the United States Congress. Sixty Nobel laureates and seven Fields Medalists have been affiliated with Stanford as students, Stanford University was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford, dedicated to Leland Stanford Jr, their only child. The institution opened in 1891 on Stanfords previous Palo Alto farm, despite being impacted by earthquakes in both 1906 and 1989, the campus was rebuilt each time. In 1919, The Hoover Institution on War and Peace was started by Herbert Hoover to preserve artifacts related to World War I, the Stanford Medical Center, completed in 1959, is a teaching hospital with over 800 beds. The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, which was established in 1962, in 2008, 60% of this land remained undeveloped.
Besides the central campus described below, the university operates at more remote locations, some elsewhere on the main campus. Stanfords main campus includes a place within unincorporated Santa Clara County. The campus includes land in unincorporated San Mateo County, as well as in the city limits of Menlo Park, Woodside. The academic central campus is adjacent to Palo Alto, bounded by El Camino Real, Stanford Avenue, Junipero Serra Boulevard, the United States Postal Service has assigned it two ZIP codes,94305 for campus mail and 94309 for P. O. box mail
Bret Robert Boone is a former Major League Baseball second baseman. During his career Boone was a three-time All-Star, four-time Gold Glove winner and he is a member of the Boone family, one of the most recognizable families in baseball. Boone was born in El Cajon, California to Susan G. Roel and he is the grandson of former major leaguer Ray Boone and brother of former major leaguer Aaron Boone, as well as the descendant of pioneer Daniel Boone. As a child, Boone hung out in the Phillies clubhouse with Pete Rose Jr. his brother Aaron, Ryan Luzinski and he is a graduate of El Dorado High School and the University of Southern California. In 1992, Boone became the first-ever third-generation big-leaguer in baseball history and his grandfather Ray was an infielder for the Indians, Detroit Tigers, Chicago White Sox, Kansas City Athletics, Milwaukee Braves and Boston Red Sox. In 2001 Boone returned to the Seattle Mariners, the organization with which he came up from 1990 to 1993 and he broke the Mariners team record of home runs for a second baseman with his 37 home runs while hitting 37 doubles.
Boone started in the All Star Game in Seattle, received a Silver Slugger Award and finished third in the AL MVP voting. His Mariners paced the league with a record 116 wins, earning the AL West championship and advancing to the ALCS, tying the all-time team record for wins in a season with the 1906 Chicago Cubs. The following year Boone won a Gold Glove for his defense and continued to show the power he had demonstrated the previous years, hitting 24 home runs with 34 doubles. On May 2,2002, Boone and teammate Mike Cameron became the first teammates to hit two home runs in a single inning, doing so in the first inning against the White Sox. With local media and behind the scenes he was famous for his humorous behavior and he was designated for assignment by the Seattle Mariners on July 3,2005, and traded on July 11 to Minnesota for cash and a player to be named later. Minnesota released Boone on August 1 after only 14 games, where the second baseman struggled with a.221 batting average, with 7 home runs and 37 RBI in 88 games for the Mariners and Twins.
On January 4,2006, Boone signed a league contract with the New York Mets. He received an invitation to spring training, but on March 1, only a few days into spring training, he announced his retirement from baseball. On February 18,2008, Boone came out of retirement, at first he was assigned to the minor league camp, but after five days, he was invited to the teams major league spring training camp. On March 21,2008, Boone was reassigned to minor league camp after hitting.189 and began the season with the Columbus Clippers and he had hoped to get signed by a major league club, and left the Clippers in late April to work out on his own. However, on May 28, he again announced his retirement. On March 9,2010, he was named manager of the Victoria Seals of the Golden Baseball League, on May 27,2010, after managing just four games, the Seals announced Boone was leaving the team permanently to deal with family matters
John Aloysius McKeon, nicknamed Trader Jack, is an American former Major League Baseball manager and front-office executive. In 2003, at age 72, he won a World Series as manager of the Florida Marlins, the team was 16–22 and in next-to-last place in the National League East Division. He remained at the helm of the Marlins through 2005, retired at age 74, in 2011, he took over the Marlins on June 20 for a second time as interim manager following the resignation of Edwin Rodríguez and served out the season. In so doing he became, at 80, the second oldest manager in big league history and he retired again at the end of the season with a career managerial record of 1, 051–990. McKeon previously managed the Kansas City Royals, Oakland Athletics, San Diego Padres, and the Cincinnati Reds. From July 7,1980, through September 22,1990, he served as the manager of the Padres, putting together the team which won the 1984 National League pennant. Born in South Amboy, New Jersey, McKeon was a 5 ft 8 in,195 lb catcher who threw and batted right-handed.
He played baseball for the College of the Holy Cross, and attended Seton Hall University and Elon College and he spent his entire early professional career in the minor leagues. He led their Triple-A affiliate, the Omaha Royals of the American Association, from its founding in 1969 through 1972, McKeon, 42, was promoted to manager of the Kansas City Royals for 1973, succeeding Bob Lemon. The 1972 Royals had gone a disappointing 76–78 during the strike-shortened season, the 1973 Royals saw the mid-August call up of 20-year-old George Brett, the future Hall of Famer. But the 1974 Royals could not sustain the momentum and were 77–85, the following year, the 1975 Royals improved to 50–46 by July 23, but it was not enough to save McKeons job. He was replaced by Whitey Herzog, a coach for the California Angels, Herzog led Kansas City to three successive AL West titles, and, in the 1980s, he would become one of McKeons trading partners when both were general managers in the National League. McKeon spent 1976 back in the leagues as skipper of the Richmond Braves of the International League.
He was named manager of the 1977 Oakland Athletics during a time when team owner Charlie Finley was trading away veteran talent in anticipation of free agency. McKeon remained in the Oakland organization as an assistant to Finley, in 1978, history repeated itself. The undermanned As roared off to a 19–5 start and were still in first place at 24–15 on May 21 when Winkles resigned because of Finleys micromanaging. McKeon returned to the dugout and finished the season, with Oakland winning only 45 of 123 games, McKeon departed the Oakland organization, managing the Denver Bears, Triple-A affiliate of the Montreal Expos, in 1979. He began the 1979–80 offseason as top assistant to Bob Fontaine, during his first off-season, he set about rebuilding the Padres through a flurry of trades—earning his Trader Jack nickname
1972 Major League Baseball season
The 1972 Major League Baseball season was the first to have games cancelled by a player strike. It was the last season in which American League pitchers would hit for themselves on a regular basis,1972 was affected by a players strike over pension and salary arbitration. The strike erased the first week and a half of the season, as a result, an uneven number of games were lost by each team, some as few as six, some as many as nine. The lack of makeups, even when they affected the playoffs,1972 marked the first year for the Texas Rangers, who had moved to Arlington from Washington, D. C. after the 1971 season. The team was one of the worst ever fielded by the franchise, manager Ted Williams hated it in the Dallas-Fort Worth area, and resigned at the end of the season. To make room for the Rangers in the American League West Division, both the Chicago White Sox and the Milwaukee Brewers were the easternmost teams in the West Division, but only one of them could move. It was decided that Milwaukee, as the franchise, would make the move.
1972 would mark the Kansas City Royals final year at Kansas City Municipal Stadium, most teams switched from wool flannel uniforms to double knit uniforms made of nylon and rayon at the outset of 1972. The Pirates were first to double knits when they moved from Forbes Field to Three Rivers Stadium in July 1970. The Cardinals switched at the start of the 1971 season, the Giants wore flannels until midseason, going to double knits at home only, the flannels would not be phased out for the road uniforms for 1973. The Red Sox switched to double knits midway through 1972, only the Royals and Yankees wore flannels full-time during the 1972 season, and all three converted to double knits for 1973. January 19 – The Baseball Writers Association of America elects Sandy Koufax, Yogi Berra, Koufax makes it in his first try and, at age of 36, is the youngest honoree in history. February 8 – Commissioner Bowie Kuhn announces that the Special Committee on the Negro Leagues has selected Josh Gibson, march 16 – Reigning American League Cy Young and MVP award winner Vida Blue announces his retirement.
It will be a one as he will rejoin the Oakland Athletics in May. April 1–13 – The first players strike in baseball history wipes 6–8 games off the schedule of each MLB team. It is agreed that the games will be canceled altogether and not made up. The schedule imbalance would lead to the Detroit Tigers edging the Boston Red Sox by only one-half game to win the American League East Division championship, the strike results in the team owners adding salary arbitration to the collective bargaining agreement, and increasing pension fund payments. April 2 – With the sudden death of Gil Hodges, Yogi Berra is named manager of the New York Mets, april 16 – Chicago Cubs pitcher Burt Hooton pitches a 4–0 no-hitter over the Philadelphia Phillies at Chicagos Wrigley Field
1976 Major League Baseball All-Star Game
The 1976 Major League Baseball All-Star Game was the 47th midseason exhibition between the all-stars of the American League and the National League, the two leagues comprising Major League Baseball. The game was played on July 13,1976, at Veterans Stadium in Philadelphia, the game resulted in a 7–1 victory for the NL. This was the time that the All-Star Game had been played in Philadelphia. Both the 1943 and 1952 games were played in Philadelphias Shibe Park with the Philadelphia Athletics hosting in 1943, the All-Star Game would return to Veterans Stadium in 1996. The honorary captains were Robin Roberts and Bob Lemon, starting with this All-Star Game, both O Canada and The Star-Spangled Banner would be sung on an annual basis. The American League roster included 7 future Hall of Fame players, the National League roster included 5 future Hall of Fame players. While the starters were elected by the fans, the batting orders, following the pattern of many of the previous All-Star Games, the NL scored first and early, putting up two runs in the bottom of the first inning.
Pete Rose led off with a single, and scored when the batter, Steve Garvey. After Joe Morgan flew out, George Foster grounded out, allowing Garvey to score from third base, the National League added two more runs in the bottom of the third inning, with Catfish Hunter pitching in relief. With one out, Joe Morgan singled, George Foster hit a home run, scoring Morgan to bring the NL lead to 4–0. The lone AL run came in the top of the third inning, with two outs, Fred Lynn hit a home run to reduce the NL lead to 4–1. The games scoring was closed out in the bottom of the eighth, dave Cash led off with a single, and went to second base when Tony Pérez walked. Bill Russell grounded into a 5–4–3 double play, with Pérez out at second base, Russell out at first base, césar Cedeño hit a home run, scoring Griffey, and giving the NL a 7–1 lead that would hold up as the final score. Randy Jones was credited with the win, mark Fidrych was credited with the loss. Mark Fidrych was only the second rookie to start as a pitcher in an All-Star Game.
The five Cincinnati Reds selected by the fans to start the game, and the two reserves selected by manager Sparky Anderson combined for seven hits, four runs scored, and four runs batted in
The Zeta Psi Fraternity Incorporated was founded June 1,1847 as a social college fraternity. The fraternity became intercontinental on May 3,2008 with the chartering of Iota Omicron at the University of Oxford and its newest chapter, Gamma Psi at the University of Guelph, officially joined on May 5th,2016. Zeta Psi’s international headquarters is located in Pearl River, New York and its current president is Les Mann, who was elected in 2016. On the first of June in 1847, three men gathered in a New York City bungalow with a purpose in mind, the constitution of a new Greek-letter society. Their names were John Bradt Yates Sommers, William Henry Dayton, students at New York University, the three men formed the core of the first chapter, Phi. But William Dayton was stricken with health, and departed New York shortly afterwards for more temperate climes. He retired to the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, but the move was inauspicious, Dayton died within the year, and the University of North Carolina was without a chapter of Zeta Psi.
The Phi chapter at NYU, which is lit, persisted in his absence, the second chapter was established as Zeta at Williams College in Massachusetts. The Delta chapter was founded at Rutgers University that year, three chapters followed in 1850, Omicron at Princeton University, Sigma at the University of Pennsylvania, and Chi at Colby College in Waterville, Maine. The first two are active, as was the Chi Chapter until 1988. In the early 1980s Colby College prohibited Fraternities on campus, despite the long, by 1988, ejected from campus and banned from any formal rush, the chapter quietly expired after over 130 years of existence. Problems beset other early chapters as well, the first Alpha chapter was founded in 1852 at Dickinson College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. Abraham Lincoln was elected president of the United States in 1860, expansion of the Fraternity halted as campuses rallied for war and sent companies of their collegemen to battle. Nor was the brotherhood among Zetes limited to words, the moving tale of Brother Henry Schwerin illustrates the embodiment of love even in the most trying of circumstance.
Schwerin lay gravely wounded after the bloody Battle of Chattanooga, pinned on the breast of his Union uniform was the badge of Zeta Psi. A passing Confederate soldier, a Zete, spied the badge and carried the invalid to medical care and safety, the worthy badge passed into the hands of his brother, Max Schwerin, who would one day serve as international president. After his death, it was donated by his sister to the Fraternitys archives, the reference to Chattanoogas bloody field is not idle hyperbole, but the recollection of a rare triumph among such sorrows. And amid this sorrow and heroism where so many brothers of Zeta Psi perished, the Eta, Psi Epsilon, Upsilon and Theta chapters had vanished by the end of the conflict, decimated by fallen brothers or disheartened campuses returning from the shadow of death
1983 Major League Baseball All-Star Game
The game was held on Wednesday, July 6,1983, at Comiskey Park in Chicago, the home of the Chicago White Sox of the American League. The game resulted in the American League defeating the National League 13-3, the game occurred exactly 50 years to the date of the first All-Star game. This was the fifth All-Star Game to be played in Chicago, and this would be the last time that the All-Star Game would be hosted in the stadium where the annual exhibition began. When the White Sox next hosted the All-Star Game in 2003, the game was the first American League win since 1971, and only their second win since 1963. The 13 runs scored by the American League set a new record for one team in All-Star Game history, the ten-run margin of victory was the largest since the 12-0 American League victory in 1946. The game is perhaps best remembered for Fred Lynns third inning grand slam, as of the 2016 All Star Game, it is still the only grand slam in the history of the Midsummer Classic. Prior to the start of the game, Chuck Mangione played the Canadian National Anthem, in 1983, there was an Old Timers Game, played the day before the actual All-Star game.
Players in italics have since been inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame, George Maloney was the last home plate umpire to work an All-Star game wearing the outside chest protector long favored by umpires in the American League. Maloney was one of four active umpires in 1983 still using the outside protector. He and Russ Goetz retired following the 1983 season, bill Kunkel soldiered on while battling cancer, succumbing in May 1985. Jerry Neudecker, the last outside protector holdout, retired after the 1985 season, the first inning gave notice that this would be one of the sloppiest All-Star games in history. Steve Sax led off the game by reaching on an error by AL starting pitcher Dave Stieb, Sax stole second and scored when next batter Tim Raines grounded to Stieb and Stieb threw wildly past Rod Carew at first. Raines reached third, but couldnt score as Stieb struck out the side, Andre Dawson, Dale Murphy, the AL tied it in their half of the first on a sacrifice fly by George Brett and took the lead in the second on another sac fly by Robin Yount.
The Giants Atlee Hammaker came in to pitch for the NL in the bottom of the third, jim Rice led off with a solo homer, followed by a Brett triple. Manny Trillo singled, and Carew drove home Winfield with a two-out single, Hammaker intentionally walked right-handed hitter Yount to face Fred Lynn, a left-handed hitter. Lynn made the NL pay for the move with the grand slam hit in All-Star game history. When the dust cleared, the AL had a 9-1 lead and Hammaker had given up six hits and seven runs in an inning, the NL gamely fought back on RBI singles by Murphy in the fourth and Sax in the fifth, but that was all they would get. In the seventh, Lou Whitaker had an RBI triple and Willie Wilson an RBI double for the AL, the AL capped off the scoring when Brett scored on a fly ball hit by Whitaker that Pedro Guerrero dropped and Rickey Henderson drove in Cecil Cooper with a groundout
Shutouts in baseball
In Major League Baseball, a shutout, known as a complete-game shutout, refers to the act by which a single pitcher pitches a complete game and does not allow the opposing team to score a run. If two or more pitchers combine to complete this act, no pitcher is awarded a shutout, although the team itself can be said to have shutout the opposing team. The ultimate single achievement among pitchers is a game, which has been accomplished 23 times in over 135 years. By definition, a game is counted as a shutout. The all-time career leader in shutouts is Walter Johnson, who pitched for the Washington Senators from 1907–1927 and he accumulated 110 shutouts, which is 20 more than the second place leader, Pete Alexander. The most shutouts recorded in one season was 16, which was a feat accomplished by both Pete Alexander and George Bradley, complete games themselves have become rare among starting pitchers. The current leader among active players for career shutouts is Clayton Kershaw, a shutout is officially defined by Major League Baseball rule 10.18, A shutout in baseball statistics is abbreviated as ShO or SHO, not to be confused with strikeout.
To achieve a shutout, a pitcher must pitch a game without allowing the other team to score a run. However, there are exceptions and other stipulations to this rule, Jim Creighton of the Excelsior of Brooklyn club is widely regarded to have thrown the first official shutout in history on November 8,1860. For that reason, George Bradley pitched 16 shutouts in 1876, bradleys 16 shutouts in one year were almost half the total number he pitched in his nine-year career as a pitcher. From 1876–1916,10 shutouts or more a season was recorded 19 times, with the increase in power hitting in the live-ball era, as well as the increased utilization of relief pitchers and complete games dramatically declined. Since 1917,10 or more shutouts a season has only been achieved 10 times by pitchers with very exceptional seasons. Jim Palmer was the last American League pitcher to achieve this mark with 10 in 1975, in 1968 for the Los Angeles Dodgers, Don Drysdale pitched a Major League record six consecutive shutouts on his way to a total of eight.
He can be said to have shutout the opposition for 58⅔ consecutive innings pitched and that scoreless streak would be broken by Dodgers pitcher Orel Hershiser in 1988, who pitched one more out than Drysdale to record 59 consecutive shutout innings. Ed Reulbach of the Chicago Cubs is the pitcher in Major League Baseball history to have pitched two shutouts on the same day. On September 26,1908, the Cubs played a doubleheader against the Brooklyn Dodgers, Reulbach pitched both games to completion, in which the Dodgers failed to score in both games. Among other records, Walter Johnson has the most Opening Day shutouts with seven, christy Mathewson holds the postseason record with four shutouts, including an unprecedented three during the 1905 World Series. A pitcher who begins the game is recorded as the starting pitcher, the replacement pitcher cannot be credited with a game started or complete game
1979 Major League Baseball All-Star Game
The game was held on July 17,1979, at The Kingdome in Seattle, Washington the home of the Seattle Mariners of the American League. The game resulted in the National League defeating the American League 7-6, the game featured memorable defensive play by outfielder Dave Parker, as he had two assists on putouts, one at third base and one at home plate. The game was notable for the play of Lee Mazzilli. This would be the time the Kingdome would host the All-Star Game. When it returned to Seattle for a time in 2001. Players in italics have since been inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame, American League starter Nolan Ryan began the game in sizzling fashion, striking out Davey Lopes and Dave Parker, but he walked Steve Garvey. Mike Schmidt tripled in Garvey, and George Foster followed with a double down the field line to score Schmidt for a 2-0 National League lead. The American Leaguers came right back in their half of the first inning, George Brett walked with one out, Don Baylor doubled him in, and Fred Lynn put the AL up 3-2 with a two-out, two-run homer off Steve Carlton.
The NL regained the lead on a sacrifice fly by Parker in the second. The AL went back up 5-4 in the bottom of the third when Carl Yastrzemski batted in a run with a single and Chet Lemon scored on a Schmidt error. The score remained that way until the sixth, when the NL tied it back up at 5-5 on a Winfield double off Mark Clear, the AL went back up 6-5 in their half of the sixth. Gaylord Perry gave up a single to Yastrzemski, a double to Darrell Porter. Sambito pitched the NL out of trouble by getting pinch-hitter Reggie Jackson to ground to Davey Lopes at second, Lopes gunned down Porter at the plate. After an intentional walk to Roy Smalley to load the bases, Sambito retired Brett, in the seventh, Jim Rice led off and blooped a double to right, but was thrown out by Dave Parker as he tried to stretch the hit into a triple. The AL came to bat in the eighth and mounted one last threat, brian Downing led off with a single off Bruce Sutter and was sacrificed to second. Sutter walked Reggie Jackson intentionally and struck out Bobby Grich, graig Nettles blooped a single to right, and Downing attempted to score, but once again the arm of Dave Parker claimed another victim.
Parker fired a strike to Carter, who blocked Downing from ever reaching the plate. This play, along with his play on Rice, earned Parker the games MVP award
Rawlings Gold Glove Award
Managers are not permitted to vote for their own players. Additionally, a sabermetric component provided by Society for American Baseball Research accounts for approximately 25 percent of the vote, eighteen Gold Gloves are awarded each year, one at each of the nine positions in each league. In 1957, the glove manufacturer Rawlings created the Gold Glove Award to commemorate the best fielding performance at each position. The award was created from a made from gold lamé-tanned leather. For the first four seasons of the award, individual awards were presented to left fielders, center fielders, from 1961 through 2010, the phrase at each position was no longer strictly accurate, since the prize was presented to three outfielders irrespective of their specific position. Any combination of outfielders, often three center fielders, could win the award in the same year, critics called for awarding a single Gold Glove for each individual outfield position, arguing that the three outfield positions are not equivalent defensively.
Starting in 2011, separate awards for each position were once again presented. In the 1985 American League voting, a tie for third-place resulted in the presentation of Gold Glove Awards to four outfielders, the Gold Gloves are selected by managers and coaches that may have seen a player as few as six times during the season. Bill Chuck of Comcast SportsNet New England wrote that Gold Glove voters frequently counted only errors to determine winners, geoff Baker of The Seattle Times said the votes for the Gold Gloves rely largely on a players past reputation. The Associated Press wrote that fans have viewed the Gold Gloves as mostly a popularity contest. Derek Jeter, winner of five Gold Gloves, believes that many defensive factors cannot be quantified, in 2013, Rawlings collaborated on the Gold Glove Award with SABR, who provided the SABR Defensive Index to add a sabermetric component to the selection process. The index accounted for 25 percent of the vote, while managers, Jay Jaffe of Sports Illustrated wrote that the Gold Gloves appear to have significantly closed the gap on their more statistically-driven counterparts.
The most Gold Gloves ever won by one player is 18 by pitcher Greg Maddux and he won 13 consecutive awards from 1990 to 2002, all in the National League. Brooks Robinson has the most wins as a third baseman, with 16 Gold Gloves, and is tied for the second-highest total overall with pitcher Jim Kaat, Iván Rodríguez has won the most Gold Gloves as a catcher, with 13 career awards in the American League. Ozzie Smith has 13 wins at shortstop, he and Rodríguez are tied for the fourth-highest total among all winners, among outfielders, Roberto Clemente and Willie Mays, who played primarily right field and center field, are tied for the lead with 12 Gold Gloves. Keith Hernandez, the leader at first base, has won 11 times, other players with 10 or more wins include shortstop Omar Vizquel, catcher Johnny Bench, third baseman Mike Schmidt, and outfielders Ken Griffey Jr. Ichiro Suzuki, Andruw Jones, and Al Kaline. The only player to win Gold Gloves as an infielder and outfielder is Darin Erstad, the only other player to win Gold Gloves at multiple positions is Plácido Polanco, who won at second base and third base.
In 2016, Rawlings announced it would begin awarding a gold glove annually to a female fastpitch softball player in the National Pro Fastpitch league, NPF coaches and managers vote for a winner