New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
York University is a public research university in Toronto, Canada. It is Canada's third-largest university, it has 52,300 students, 7,000 faculty and staff, 295,000 alumni worldwide, it has eleven faculties, including the Faculty of Liberal Arts & Professional Studies, Faculty of Science, Lassonde School of Engineering, Schulich School of Business, Osgoode Hall Law School, Glendon College, Faculty of Education, Faculty of Health, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Faculty of Graduate Studies, the School of the Arts, Media and Design, 28 research centres. The Keele campus is home to a satellite location of Seneca College. York University was established in 1959 as a non-denominational institution by the York University Act, which received Royal Assent in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario on 26 March of that year, its first class was held in September 1960 in Falconer Hall on the University of Toronto campus with a total of 76 students. In the fall of 1961, York moved to its first campus, Glendon College, began to emphasize liberal arts and part-time adult education.
In 1965, the university opened a second campus, the Keele Campus, in North York, within the neighbourhood community of York University Heights. Several of York's programs have gained notable recognition both nationally and internationally. York houses Canada's oldest film school, ranked one of the best in Canada, with an acceptance rate comparable to that of USC School of Cinematic Arts and Tisch School of the Arts. York's Osgoode Hall Law School was ranked second best in Canada, in Maclean's 2012 ranking of Canadian common law schools. In The Economist's 2011 full-time MBA rankings, York's Schulich School of Business ranked ninth in the world, first in Canada, in CNN Expansion's ranking of MBA programs, Schulich ranked 18th in the world, placing first in Canada. York's School of Kinesiology and Health Science ranked 1st in Canada and 16th best in the world by ShanghaiRanking in 2017. Over the last twenty years, York has become a centre for labour strife with several faculty and other strikes occurring, including the longest university strike in Canadian history in 2018.
York University was established in 1959 as a non-denominational institution by the York University Act, which received Royal Assent in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario on 26 March of that year. Its first class was held in September 1960 in Falconer Hall on the University of Toronto campus with a total of 76 students; the policy of university education initiated in the 1960s responded to population pressure and the belief that higher education was a key to social justice and economic productivity for individuals and for society. The governance was modelled on the provincial University of Toronto Act of 1906, which established a bicameral system of university government consisting of a senate, responsible for academic policy, a board of governors exercising exclusive control over financial policy and having formal authority in all other matters; the president, appointed by the board, was to provide a link between the two bodies and to perform institutional leadership. In the fall of 1961, York moved to its first campus, Glendon College, began to emphasize liberal arts and part-time adult education.
It became independent in 1965, after an initial period of affiliation with the University of Toronto, under the York University Act, 1965. Its main campus on the northern outskirts of Toronto opened in 1965. Murray Ross, who continues to be honoured today at the University in several ways – including the Murray G. Ross Award – was still vice-president of U of T when he was approached to become York University's new president. At the time, York University was envisaged as a feeder campus to U of T, until Ross's powerful vision led it to become a separate institution. In 1965, the university opened a second campus, the Keele Campus, in North York, in the Jane and Finch community; the Glendon campus became a bilingual liberal arts college led by Escott Reid, who envisaged it as a national institution to educate Canada's future leaders, a vision shared by Prime Minister Lester Pearson, who formally opened Glendon College in 1966. The first Canadian undergraduate program in dance opened at York University in 1970.
In 1972, Canada Post featured the nascent institution on 8¢ stamps, entitled York University Campus, North York, Ont. The first Canadian PhD. program in Women's Studies opened with five candidates in January 1992. Its bilingual mandate and focus on the liberal arts continue to shape Glendon's special status within York University; the new Keele Campus was regarded as somewhat isolated, in a industrialized part of the city. Petrol storage facilities are still across the street; some of the early architecture was unpopular with many, not only for the brutalist designs, but the vast expanses between buildings, not viewed as suitable for the climate. In the last two decades, the campus has been intensified with new buildings, including a dedicated student centre and new fine arts, computer science and business administration buildings, a small shopping mall, a hockey arena; the Aviva Centre tennis stadium, built in 2004, is a perennial host of the Canada Masters tennis tournament. As Toronto has spread further out, York has found itself in a central location within the built-up Greater Toronto Area, in particular, near the Jane and Finch neighbourhood.
Its master plan envisages a denser on-campus environment commensurate with that location. Students occupied the university's administration offices in March 1997, protesting escalating tuition hikes. York University has a history of teaching assistant strikes. In 1997, there w
1977 Ontario general election
The Ontario general election of 1977 was held on June 9, 1977, to elect the 125 members of the 31st Legislative Assembly of Ontario of the Province of Ontario, Canada. The Progressive Conservative Party, led by Premier Bill Davis, was re-elected for an eleventh consecutive term in office, again with a minority in the legislature; the PCs were not able to win a majority. The Liberal Party, led by Dr. Stuart Smith, lost one seat compared to its result in the previous election, but formed the Official Opposition because the NDP lost more seats; the New Democratic Party, led by Stephen Lewis, lost five seats, therefore lost the position of "Official Opposition" to the Liberals. Sheila Copps, future federal cabinet minister and Deputy Prime Minister of Canada, made her political debut in this election finishing second in the riding of Hamilton Centre; this was the first election in which a recent long-serving MPP in Ontario, was elected. 1 Includes T. Patrick Reid, a Liberal MPP, re-elected in 1977 as a Liberal-Labour candidate.
A number of unregistered parties contested this election. The North American Labour Party, consisting of Lyndon LaRouche supporters, ran three candidates in Toronto and three elsewhere in the province; the Revolutionary Marxist Group and League for Socialist Action fielded one candidate apiece. Some members of the Social Credit Party ran in the election, although it is not clear if they were formally endorsed by the party. Politics of Ontario List of Ontario political parties Premier of Ontario Leader of the Opposition Independent candidates, 1977 Ontario provincial election
Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario
The Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario shortened to Ontario PC Party, PC, or Conservatives, is a centre-right political party in Ontario, Canada. The party has been led by Premier Doug Ford since March 10, 2018, it has governed the province for 80 of the 151 years since Confederation, including an uninterrupted run from 1943 to 1985. It holds a majority government in the 42nd Parliament of Ontario; the first Conservative Party in Upper Canada was made up of United Empire Loyalists and supporters of the wealthy Family Compact that ruled the colony. Once responsible government was granted in response to the 1837 Rebellions, the Tories emerged as moderate reformers who opposed the radical policies of the Reformers and the Clear Grits; the modern Conservative Party originated in the Liberal-Conservative coalition founded by Sir John A. Macdonald and George-Étienne Cartier in 1854, it is a variant of this coalition that formed the first government in Ontario with John Sandfield Macdonald as Premier.
Until becoming the Progressive Conservatives in 1942, the party was known as the Liberal-Conservative Association of Ontario, reflecting its Liberal-Conservative origins, but became known as the Conservative Party. John Sandfield Macdonald was a Liberal and sat concurrently as a Liberal Party of Canada MP in the House of Commons of Canada but he was an ally of John A. Macdonald, his government was a true coalition of Liberals and Conservatives under his leadership but soon the more radical Reformers bolted to the opposition and Sandfield Macdonald was left leading what was a Conservative coalition that included some Liberals under the Liberal-Conservative banner. After losing power in 1871, this Conservative coalition began to dissolve. What was a party that included Catholics and Protestants became an exclusively English and Protestant party and more dependent on the Protestant Orange Order for support, for its leadership; the party became opposed to funding for separate schools, opposed to language rights for French-Canadians, distrustful of immigrants.
Paradoxically, an element of the party gained a reputation for being pro-labour as a result of links between the Orange Order and the labour movement. After 33 years in Opposition, the Tories returned to power under James P. Whitney, who led a progressive administration in its development of the province; the Whitney government initiated massive public works projects such as the creation of Ontario Hydro. It enacted reactionary legislation against the French-Canadian population in Ontario; the Tories were in power for all but five years from 1905 to 1934. After the death of Whitney in 1914, they lacked vision and became complacent; the Tories lost power to the United Farmers of Ontario in the 1919 election but were able to regain office in 1923 election due to the UFO's disintegration and divisions in the Ontario Liberal Party. They were defeated by Mitch Hepburn's Liberals in 1934 due to their inability to cope with the Great Depression. Late in the 1930s and early in the 1940s, the Conservatives developed new policies.
Rather than continue to oppose government spending and intervention, a policy which hurt the party politically in the time of the Great Depression, the Conservatives changed their policies to support government action where it would lead to economic growth. The party changed its name to the "Progressive Conservative" party after its federal counterpart changed its name to the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 1942 on the insistence of its new leader, John Bracken, whose roots were in the populist Progressive Party; the Conservatives took advantage of Liberal infighting to win a minority government in the 1943 provincial election, reducing the Liberals to third-party status. Drew called another election in 1945, only two years into his mandate; the Tories played up Cold War tensions to win a landslide majority, though it emerged several years that the Tory government had set up a secret department of the Ontario Provincial Police to spy on the opposition and the media. The party would dominate Ontario politics for the next four decades.
Under Drew and his successor, Leslie Frost, the Party was a strong champion of rural issues but invested in the development of civil works throughout the province, including the construction of the 400 series of highways, beginning with the 401 across Toronto. In 1961, John Robarts became the 17th premier of Ontario, he was one of the most popular premiers in years. Under Robarts' lead, the party epitomized power, he was an advocate of individual freedoms and promoted the rights of the provinces against what he saw as the centralizing initiatives of the federal government, while promoting national unity against Quebec separatism. He hosted the 1967 "Confederation of Tomorrow" conference in Toronto in an unsuccessful attempt to achieve an agreement for a new Constitution of Canada. Robarts opposed Canadian medicare when it was proposed, but endorsed it and the party implemented the public health care system that continues to this day, he led the party towards a civil libertarian movement. As a strong believer in the promotion of both official languages, he opened the door to French education in Ontario schools.
In 1971, Bill Davis became the 18th premier. Anti-Catholicism became an issue again in the 1971 election, when the Tories campaigned strenuously against a Liberal proposal to extend funding for Catholic separate schools until Grade 13. Davis reversed himself in 1985, enacted the funding extension as one of his last acts before l
Osgoode Hall is a landmark building in downtown Toronto, Canada. The original 2 1⁄2-storey building was started in 1829 and finished in 1832 from a design by John Ewart and W. W. Baldwin; the structure was named after the first Chief Justice of Upper Canada. It served to house the regulatory body for lawyers in Ontario along with its law school, the only recognized professional law school for the province at the time, it was constructed between 1832 in the late Georgian Palladian and Neoclassical styles. It houses the Ontario Court of Appeal, the Divisional Court of the Superior Court of Justice, the offices of the Law Society of Ontario and the Great Law Library; the six-acre site at the corner of Lot Street and College Avenue was acquired by the Law Society in 1828. At the time, the location was on the northwest edge of the city, which has since grown around the building, it was bounded on its north side by Osgoode Street, on its east side by a street that would be known as Chestnut Street.
The former no longer exists, the latter now stops at Armoury Street as Nathan Phillips Square now lies to the east. The portico of Osgoode Hall's east wing was built at the head of Toronto's York Street to serve as a terminating vista, though it is now obscured by trees planted on the building's lawn. Osgoode Hall, together from which the Osgoode Hall Law School, received its name in honour of William Osgoode, lent in turn to the adjacent Osgoode subway station. Between the rebellions taking place in 1837-8 until 1843, the hall was used as troop barracks; when the Law Society regained possession in 1844, an expansion was designed by Henry Bowyer Lane. In 1846 the Law Society entered into an agreement with the government to house the province's Superior Court at the hall. Today, the building is jointly owned by the Government of Ontario. From 1855 to 1857 the building was refurbished and enlarged again, according to a design by the firm Cumberland and Storm, to accommodate courts with the original 1829 building becoming the east wing.
From 1880 to 1891 the building was again expanded twice in order to accommodate its law school. The building was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1979, by the City of Toronto under the Ontario Heritage Act in 1990. Despite the expansions, the hall presents a unified design in the late Palladian style; the iron fence surrounding the lawns of Osgoode Hall has become a landmark in itself. Its distinctive iron gates are restrictive. Despite this, an incident in the 1950s occurred in which students unsuccessfully attempted to pass a cow through one of the gates; the gates were due to Victorian architectural fashion, rather than wandering cattle. Two libraries are housed within Osgoode Hall: the Great Library of the Law Society of Upper Canada and a smaller library for judges; the Great Library was designed by Cumberland and Storm and features an ornate plaster ceiling, cork floors, iron spiral staircase and etched glass windows. A War Memorial by Frances Norma Loring, sculpted in 1928, was added to the Library in honor of Ontario lawyers and law students killed during the First World War.
Behind the Great Library is the American Room, designed by Burke and Horwood in 1895, a more intimate room with a spiral staircase. The Toronto Courthouse at 361 University Avenue directly to the north is accessible through a connecting tunnel. List of oldest buildings and structures in Toronto Osgoode Hall Turns 175 - Documenting a Landmark Web exhibit at the Archives of Ontario Susan Law's personal Osgoode Hall main site Audio Tours of Osgoode Hall from the Law Society of Upper Canada website. Visual Tour of Osgoode Hall from the Law Society of Upper Canada website. Osgoode Hall National Historic Site of Canada. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Information on Osgoode Hall tours and other heritage programs on the Discover Ontario Museums website
Brampton is a city in the Canadian province of Ontario. Situated in Southern Ontario, it is a suburban city in the Greater Toronto Area and the seat of Peel Region; the city has a population of 593,638 as of the Canada 2016 Census. Brampton is Canada's ninth-most populous municipality, the seventy-seventh largest city in North America and the third most populous city in the Greater Golden Horseshoe Region, behind Toronto and Mississauga. Brampton was incorporated as a village in 1853 with 50 residents, taking its name from the market town of Brampton, in Cumbria, England. In 1873, with 2,000 residents, Brampton was incorporated as a town; the city was once known as "The Flower Town of Canada", a title based on its large greenhouse industry. Today, Brampton's major economic sectors include advanced manufacturing, retail administration, logistics and communication technologies and beverage, life sciences, business services. Mass immigration has increased Brampton's population from 10,000 in the 1950s to over 600,000 today.
Prior to the 1800s, all real business in Chinguacousy Township took place at Martin Salisbury's tavern. One mile distant at the corner of Main and Queen streets, now the recognised centre of Brampton, William Buffy's tavern was the only significant building. At the time, the area was referred to as "Buffy's Corners". By 1834, John Elliott laid out the area in lots for sale, calling it "Brampton", soon adopted by others. In 1853, a small agricultural fair was set up by the newly initiated County Agricultural Society of the County of Peel, was held at the corner of Main and Queen streets. Grains, produce and dairy products were up for sale. Horses and cattle, along with other lesser livestock, were sold at market; this agricultural fair became the modern Brampton Fall Fair. In that same year Brampton was incorporated as a village. In 1866, the town became the county seat and the location of the Peel County Courthouse, built in 1865-66. Edward Dale, an immigrant from Dorking, established a flower nursery in Brampton shortly after his arrival in 1863.
Dale's Nursery became the town's largest and most prominent employer, developed a flower grading system, established a global export market for its products. The company chimney was a town landmark, until Brampton Town Council allowed it to be torn down in 1977. At its height, the company had 140 greenhouses, was the largest cut flower business in North America, producing 20 million blooms and introducing numerous rose and orchid varietals and species to the market, it spurred the development of other nurseries in the town. Forty-eight hothouse flower nurseries once did business in the town. In January 1867, Peel County separated from the County of York, a union which had existed since 1851. By 1869, had a population of 1800. A federal grant had enabled the village to found its first public library in 1887, which included 360 volumes from the Mechanic's Institute. In 1907, the library received a grant from the Carnegie Foundation, set up by United States steel magnate and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie, to build a new, expanded library.
The Carnegie libraries were built on the basis of communities coming up with matching funds and guaranteeing maintenance. In 1902, Sir William J. Gage purchased a 3.25 acres part of the gardens and lawns of the Alder Lea estate, built on Main Street by Kenneth Chisolm in 1867 to 1870. Sir William donated 1.7 acres of the property to the town, with a specific condition that it be made into a park. Citizens donated the town used the funds to purchase extra land to ensure a larger park. A group of regional farmers in Brampton had trouble getting insurance from city-based companies. After several meetings in Clairville Hall, they decided to found the County of Peel Farmers Mutual Fire Insurance Company. In 1955, when the company moved to its third and current location, 103 Queen Street West, it took the new name of Peel Mutual Insurance Company, it reigns as the longest-running company in modern Brampton. Harmsworth Decorating Centre was established in 1890, as Harmsworth and Son, operated out of the family's house on Queen Street West.
The current location was purchased on September 1, 1904, after a fire destroyed their original store. Purchased for $1,400, the 24 Main Street South location is the longest-operating retail business in what is now Brampton. In 1974, the two townships of Chinguacousy and Toronto Gore were incorporated into Brampton; the small pine added to the centre of the shield on the Brampton city flag represents Chinguacousy, honouring the Chippewa chief Shinguacose, "The Small Pine." After this merger, outlying communities such as Bramalea, Heart Lake and Professor's Lake, Snelgrove and Mayfield, were developed. In 1963, the town established The Flower Festival of Brampton, based on the Rose Festival of Portland, Oregon in the United States, it began to market itself as the Flower Town of Canada. In a revival of this theme, on 24 June 2002, the City Council established the "Flower City Strategy", to promote a connection to its flower-growing heritage; the intention was to inspire design projects and community landscaping to beautify the city, adopt a sustainable environmental approach, to protect its natural and cultural heritage.
The Rose Theatre was named in keeping with this vision and is to
Tony Peter Clement is a Canadian federal politician and Member of Parliament for Parry Sound—Muskoka in Ontario. Before entering federal politics, Clement served as an Ontario cabinet minister, including as Minister of Health and Long-Term Care under premiers Mike Harris and Ernie Eves Moving to federal politics, he was a candidate for the leadership of the Conservative Party of Canada after its formation from the merger of the Progressive Conservative and Canadian Alliance parties in 2003, he lost to Stephen Harper. Clement won the seat of Parry Sound—Muskoka in the 2006 federal election, defeating incumbent Liberal cabinet minister Andy Mitchell; the Conservatives formed government in that election and Clement was appointed Minister of Health and Minister for FedNor. He later served as President of the Treasury Board. Clement was re-elected despite the Conservative defeat in the 2015 election. On July 12, 2016, he announced his second bid for the leadership of the Conservative Party but withdrew on October 13, 2016.
From his initial election in 2006, Clement sat as a Conservative member until he resigned at the request of Conservative leader Andrew Scheer on November 7, 2018 due to a sexting scandal. Clement now sits as an independent MP. Clement was born Tony Peter Panayi in Manchester, the son of Carol Ann and Peter Panayi, his father was a Greek Cypriot and his mother was Jewish. He emigrated to Canada in childhood with his parents, his parents divorced and his mother married Ontario politician John Clement. Tony adopted his stepfather's surname; as a student at the University of Toronto, Clement was elected twice, both as an undergraduate and as a law student, to the university's Governing Council. He was president of the campus Progressive Conservatives, he first attracted the attention of the media in 1986, when he created a new society to invite the South African ambassador to Canada, Glenn Babb, to speak after the International Law Society had withdrawn its invitation, deeming it too controversial because of the issue of apartheid.
Clement argued in favour of inviting Babb on the grounds of free speech. An attempt by four law professors for a court injunction barring "any representative of the Republic of South Africa to expound, explain or otherwise to solicit public support for his Government's policy of apartheid" was rejected by the court. A graduate of the University of Toronto, Clement completed degrees in political science in 1983 and law in 1986, he was called to the Ontario Bar in 1988. Clement is married to Lynne Golding, a partner and Chair of the Health Law Practice at the international law firm, Fasken Martineau DuMoulin. Clement became president of the Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario in 1990 and was a close ally of then-party leader Mike Harris, he ran, for Metro Toronto Council in 1994, losing to future mayor David Miller in the ward of Parkdale-High Park. He served as Harris' Assistant Principal Secretary from 1992 to 1995 and played a leading role in drafting policy directives for the Common Sense Revolution.
Clement was elected to the Legislative Assembly of Ontario in the provincial election of 1995, defeating incumbent Liberal Bob Callahan by over 6,000 votes in the riding of Brampton South. After serving as a Parliamentary Assistant for two years, he was appointed Minister of Transportation on October 10, 1997, he represented the Progressive Conservative government on a variety of televised discussion panels, gaining the reputation of a rising star in the party. Clement was returned in the provincial election of 1999 in the new riding of Brampton West—Mississauga, defeating Liberal candidate Vic Dhillon by over 8,000 votes, he was promoted to Minister of the Environment on June 17, 1999, served in this capacity until May 3, 2000. In this role, he implemented the program known as Ontario's Drive Clean, which mandated periodic emissions tests on vehicles in southern Ontario. Clement was appointed Minister of Municipal Affairs and Housing on October 25, 1999, held this position until February 8, 2001.
On February 8, 2001, Clement was appointed Minister of Long-Term Care. He initiated primary care reform, oversaw the implementation of Telehealth Ontario and expanded Ontario's hospitals system. Clement entered into a public-private partnership for a hospital redevelopment in Brampton. Clement ran for leadership in the 2002 Ontario Progressive Conservative Party leadership election and finished third on the first ballot. Clement placed his support behind victorious candidate Ernie Eves on the second ballot; when Eves became Premier, he kept Clement in the Health portfolio. Clement was prominent when Toronto suffered an outbreak of SARS in the summer of 2003, travelling to Geneva in a successful bid to urge the World Health Organization to lift a travel ban to Canada's largest city; the Eves government was defeated in the 2003 provincial election, Clement was unexpectedly defeated by Vic Dhillon by about 2,500 votes in a rematch of 1999. Clement afterwards worked as a counsel for Bennett Jones LLP.
He was a small business owner and a visiting professor at the University of Toronto Faculty of Law. Clement first became prominent in federal politics in 2000, sitting on the steering committee for the United Alternative; this initiative was meant to provide a framework for the Reform Party and Progressive Conservative Party to unite under a single banner. It did not accomplish this end, but nonetheless led to the formation of the Canadian Alliance that year. Soon after the 2