Majestic Park was one of the first Major League Baseball spring training facilities and was located at the corner of Belding Street and Carson Street in Hot Springs, Arkansas. Today the site is still in use by Champion Christian College. First built by the Detroit Tigers as a practice field in 1908, Majestic Park was the spring training site of the Boston Red Sox and their star pitcher Babe Ruth, Cincinnati Reds, Brooklyn Dodgers and St. Louis Browns; the location became the site of Dean Field /Jaycee Park. Dean Field served as home to the Rogers Hornsby Baseball College; the Hot Springs Bathers minor league team and the Chicago White Sox minor league Spring Training were held at Jaycee Park. Jaycee Park hosted the 1952 Negro League World Series and a 1953 exhibition game featuring Jackie Robinson; the site can claim games featuring both All-time Home Run record holders, Babe Ruth and Hank Aaron as among those who have played at the site. In 1914, Babe Ruth was just beginning his career for the Red Sox, while a young Aaron played in the 1952 Negro League World Series.
Today, the site has four historical plaques, as part of the Hot Springs Historic Baseball Trail. Majestic Field, Rogers Hornsby, Jackie Robinson and Hank Aaron each have historical plaques on the site. Along with Babe Ruth, Jackie Robinson and Hank Aaron, others who performed at the site include Ty Cobb, Honus Wagner, Jimmie Foxx, Gil Hodges, Harry Hooper, Cy Young, Rogers Hornsby, Grover Cleveland Alexander, Herb Pennock, Tris Speaker, Walter Johnson; the Sporting News ranking of the greatest players listed: Babe Ruth, Ty Cobb, Walter Johnson, Hank Aaron and Rogers Hornsby. Called the "birthplace" of Spring Training baseball, Hot Springs first welcomed Major League Baseball in 1886, when the Chicago White Stockings, brought their coaches and players to the city in preparation for the upcoming season. Team President Albert Spalding and the team's player/manager Cap Anson, thought the city was an ideal training site for the players; the first baseball location was Hot Springs Baseball Grounds.
Many other Major League teams began training in Hot Springs. Needing venues for teams to use, Whittington Park was built in 1894, followed by Majestic Park and Fogel Field. 134 members of the Baseball Hall of Fame are documented to have played, in Hot Springs. In 1908, the Detroit Tigers created a practice baseball field at the site. In 1909, the stands forMajestic Park were built at the field by Boston Red Sox owner John I. Taylor, who signed a five-year lease on the property as a Spring Training location. Trolleys were routed to turn around in front of the park; the Majestic name came from the Majestic Hotel in Hot Springs. Two years Taylor would construct Fenway Park for the Red Sox; the Boston Red Sox, Cincinnati Reds, Brooklyn Dodgers and St. Louis Browns held Spring Training Camp at the original Majestic Park; the Boston Red Sox were a dominant team, winning four World Series Championships in their time at Majestic Park. It was in 1918 spring training that the Red Sox first began to use Babe Ruth in the field, instead of at pitcher, to take advantage of his hitting.
On March 29, 1918, the St. Louis, Iron Mountain and Southern Railway, owners of the Majestic Park property cancelled the Red Sox lease for 1919 to utilize a portion of the ballpark area for railroad needs. In 1918, the original Majestic Park facility was demolished, leading to other fields on the property that had ties to the Major Leagues: Dean Field and Jaycee Park; the relocated field was renamed "Dean Field" in 1938 after Hall of Famer Dizzy Dean and his brother "Daffy" Paul Dean. Jaycee Park was built on the adjacent south side of the lot in 1947 to replace Ban Johnson Park, located across town; when Dean Field and Jaycee Park evolved, they hosted the Rogers Hornsby Baseball College, the George Barr Umpire School, the Chicago White Sox Minor League Spring Training and the Hot Springs Bathers as tenants. The minor league Bathers were a Cotton States League team, an affiliate of the Chicago White Sox, St. Louis Cardinals and the Kansas City Athletics. Paul Dean Managed the 1954 team; the Roy Doan Baseball School operated from 1934–38, attracting hundreds of students and utilized Dean Field and other locations throughout Hot Springs.
In 1939, Hall of Fame player and manager Rogers Hornsby, a former instructor with Roy Doan, started his own Rogers Hornsby Baseball College. Hornsby's six-week event ran until 1952, annually attracting 100-200 prospective professionals and numerous major league scouts. Cy Young, Jimmie Foxx, Tris Speaker and Schoolboy Rowe were among the instructors; the George Barr Umpire School, the first training school for aspiring umpires, operated in Hot Springs through 1940, being held in conjunction with the baseball schools. Babe Ruth played at Majestic Park for six seasons. In 1914, the lefty pitcher first faced Major League players as a young minor leaguer. Ruth would establish himself as a star pitcher. In 1918, during Spring Training, Ruth played first base as an emergency measure in a game against Brooklyn at Whittington Field; the game helped change baseball history. Ruth hit two home runs that day and the second was a reported 573-foot home run that landed in the Arkansas Alligator Farm across the street.
As a result, the Red Sox began to use Ruth as a hitter. With Ruth in the
St. Louis Cardinals
The St. Louis Cardinals are an American professional baseball team based in St. Louis, Missouri; the Cardinals compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the National League Central division. Busch Stadium has been their home ballpark since 2006. One of the most successful franchises in baseball history, the Cardinals have won 11 World Series championships, the second-most in Major League Baseball and the most in the National League, their 19 National League pennants rank third in NL history. In addition, St. Louis has won 13 division titles in the Central divisions. While still in the old American Association, named as the St. Louis Browns, the team won four AA league championships, qualifying them to play in the professional baseball championship tournament of that era, they tied in 1885 and won outright in 1886 and lost in 1888 for the early trophy Hall Cup versus the New York Giants. The others both times against the Chicago Cubs, in the first meetings of the Cardinals–Cubs rivalry between nearby cities of St. Louis and Chicago that continues to this day.
With origins as one of the early professional baseball clubs in St. Louis and the nation, entrepreneur Chris von der Ahe purchased a barnstorming club in 1881 known as the Brown Stockings, established them as charter members of the old American Association base ball league which played 1882 to 1891, the following season. Upon the discontinuation of the AA, St. Louis joined the continuing National League of Professional Base Ball Clubs known as the National League, in 1892. Cardinals achievements that have impacted MLB and sports events in general include manager/owner Branch Rickey's pioneering of the farm system, Rogers Hornsby's two batting Triple Crowns, Dizzy Dean's 30-win season in 1934, Stan Musial's 17 MLB and 29 NL records, Bob Gibson's 1.12 earned run average in 1968, Whitey Herzog's Whiteyball, Mark McGwire breaking the single-season home run record in 1998, the 2011 championship team's unprecedented comebacks. The Cardinals have won 105 or more games in four different seasons and won 100 or more a total of nine times.
Cardinals players have won 20 league MVPs, four batting Triple Crowns, three Cy Young Awards. Baseball Hall of Fame inductees include Lou Brock, Dizzy Dean, Bob Gibson, Whitey Herzog, Rogers Hornsby, Joe Medwick, Stan Musial, Branch Rickey, Red Schoendienst, Ozzie Smith, Bruce Sutter. In 2018, Forbes valued the Cardinals at $1.9 billion, making them the 7th-most valuable franchise in MLB. Since their purchase in 1995, owner William DeWitt, Jr.'s investment group has seen enormous growth from the $147 million purchase price. John Mozeliak is the President of Baseball Operations, Mike Girsch is the general manager and Mike Shildt is the manager; the Cardinals are renowned for their strong fan support: despite being in one of the sport's mid-level markets, they see attendances among the league's highest, are among the Top 3 in MLB in local television ratings. Professional baseball began in St. Louis with the inception of the Brown Stockings in the National Association in 1875; the NA folded following that season, the next season, St. Louis joined the National League as a charter member, finishing in third place at 45-19.
George Bradley hurled the first no-hitter in Major League history. The NL expelled St. Louis from the league after 1877 due to a game-fixing scandal and the team went bankrupt. Without a league, they continued play as a semi-professional barnstorming team through 1881; the magnitudes of the reorganizations following the 1877 and 1881 seasons are such that the 1875–1877 and 1878–1881 Brown Stockings teams are not considered to share continuity as a franchise with the current St. Louis Cardinals. For the 1882 season, Chris von der Ahe purchased the team, reorganized it, made it a founding member of the American Association, a league to rival the NL. 1882 is considered to be the first year existence of the St. Louis Cardinals; the next season, St. Louis shortened their name to the Browns. Soon thereafter they became the dominant team in the AA, as manager Charlie Comiskey guided St. Louis to four pennants in a row from 1885 to 1888. Pitcher and outfielder Bob Caruthers led the league in ERA and wins in 1885 and finished in the top six in both in each of the following two seasons.
He led the AA in OBP and OPS in 1886 and finished fourth in batting average in 1886 and fifth in 1887. Outfielder Tip O'Neill won the first batting triple crown in franchise history in 1887 and the only one in AA history. By winning the pennant, the Browns played the NL pennant winner in a predecessor of the World Series; the Browns twice met the Chicago White Stockings – the Chicago Cubs prototype – tying one in a heated dispute and winning the other, thus spurring the vigorous St. Louis-Chicago rivalry that ensues to this day. During the franchise's ten seasons in the AA, they compiled an all-time league-high of 780 wins and.639 winning percentage. They lost just 432 contests while tying 21 others; the AA went bankrupt after the 1891 season and the Browns transferred to the National League. This time, the club entered an era of stark futility. Between 1892 and 1919, St. Louis managed just five winning seasons, finis
Georgetown University is a private research university in the Georgetown neighborhood of Washington, D. C. Founded in 1789 as Georgetown College, the university has grown to comprise nine undergraduate and graduate schools, among which are the School of Foreign Service, School of Business, Medical School, Law School. Located on a hill above the Potomac River, the school's main campus is identifiable by its flagship Healy Hall, a National Historic Landmark. Georgetown offers degree programs in forty-eight disciplines, enrolling an average of 7,500 undergraduate and 10,000 post-graduate students from more than 130 countries. Georgetown is the oldest Catholic and Jesuit-affiliated institution of higher education in the United States; the Jesuits have participated in the university's academic life, both as scholars and as administrators, since 1805. The majority of Georgetown students are not Catholic. Georgetown's notable alumni include U. S. President Bill Clinton, U. S. Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia, CIA Director George Tenet, King Felipe of Spain, as well as the royalty and heads of state of more than a dozen countries.
In 2015, Georgetown had 1190 alumni working as diplomats for the U. S. Foreign Service, more than any other university. In 2014, Georgetown ranked second in the nation by the average number of graduates serving in the U. S. Congress. Georgetown is a top feeder school for careers in consulting and investment banking on Wall Street. Georgetown is home to the country's largest student-run business, largest student-run financial institution, the oldest continuously running student theatre troupe, one of the oldest debating societies in the United States; the school's athletic teams are nicknamed the Hoyas and include a men's basketball team that has won a record-tying seven Big East championships, appeared in five Final Fours, won a national championship in 1984. The university has a co-ed sailing team that holds thirteen national championships and one world championship title. Jesuit settlers from England founded the Province of Maryland in 1634. However, the 1646 defeat of the Royalists in the English Civil War led to stringent laws against Roman Catholic education and the extradition of known Jesuits from the colony, including missionary Andrew White, the destruction of their school at Calverton Manor.
During most of the remainder of Maryland's colonial period, Jesuits conducted Catholic schools clandestinely. It was not until after the end of the American Revolution that plans to establish a permanent Catholic institution for education in the United States were realized; because of Benjamin Franklin's recommendation, Pope Pius VI appointed former Jesuit John Carroll as the first head of the Roman Catholic Church in the United States though the papal suppression of the Jesuit order was still in effect. Carroll began meetings of local clergy in 1783 near Annapolis, where they orchestrated the development of a new university. On January 23, 1789, Carroll finalized the purchase of the property in Georgetown on which Dahlgren Quadrangle was built. Future Congressman William Gaston was enrolled as the school's first student on November 22, 1791, instruction began on January 2, 1792. During its early years, Georgetown College suffered from considerable financial strain; the Maryland Society of Jesus began its restoration in 1805, Jesuit affiliation, in the form of teachers and administrators, bolstered confidence in the college.
The school relied on private sources of funding and the limited profits from local lands, donated to the Jesuits. To raise money for Georgetown and other schools in 1838, Maryland Jesuits conducted a mass sale of some 272 slaves to two Deep South plantations in Maringouin, Louisiana from their six in Maryland, ending their slaveholding. President James Madison signed into law Georgetown's congressional charter on March 1, 1815, creating the first federal university charter, which allowed it to confer degrees, with the first bachelor's degrees being awarded two years later. In 1844, the school received a corporate charter, under the name "The President and Directors of Georgetown College", affording the growing school additional legal rights. In response to the demand for a local option for Roman Catholic students, the Medical School was founded in 1851; the U. S. Civil War affected Georgetown as 1,141 students and alumni enlisted in one army or the other, the Union Army commandeered university buildings.
By the time of President Abraham Lincoln's May 1861 visit to campus, 1,400 troops were living in temporary quarters there. Due to the number of lives lost in the war, enrollment levels remained low until well after the war. Only seven students graduated in 1869, down from over 300 in the previous decade; when the Georgetown College Boat Club, the school's rowing team, was founded in 1876 it adopted two colors: blue, used for Union uniforms, gray, used for Confederate uniforms. These colors signified the peaceful unity among students. Subsequently, the school adopted these as its official colors. Enrollment did not recover until during the presidency of Patrick Francis Healy from 1873 to 1881. Born in Georgia as a slave by law and mixed-race by ancestry, Healy was the first head of a predominantly white American university of acknowledged African descent, he identified as Irish Catholic, like his father, was educated in Catholic schools in the United States and France. He is credited with reforming the undergraduate curriculum, lengthening the medical and law programs, creating the Alumni Association.
One of his largest undertakings was the construction of a major new building, subsequently named Healy Hall in his honor. For his work, Healy is known as the school's "second fo
Palace of the Fans
Palace of the Fans was a Major League baseball park located in Cincinnati, Ohio. It was the home of the Cincinnati Reds from 1902 through 1911; the ballpark was on an asymmetrical block bounded by Findlay Street, Western Avenue, York Street and McLean Avenue. The "Findlay and Western" intersection was the home field of the Reds from 1884 through June 24, 1970, when the team moved to Riverfront Stadium; the location of the diamond and the main grandstand seating area was shifted several times during the 86½ seasons that the Reds played there. The Palace of the Fans was the second of three parks that stood on the site: 1884–1901: League Park 1902–1911: Palace of the Fans 1912–1970: Redland Field, renamed Crosley Field in 1934 In 1900, the southwest grandstand of League Park, the home of the Reds since their days in the American Association, burned to the ground; the Reds were forced to spend most of May and June on the road while League Park was reconfigured to move the grandstand to its old location in the southeast corner.
However, Reds owner John Brush decided to build a new grandstand for the 1901 season. The Palace of the Fans, so audaciously named presented a striking appearance. Designed in a neo-classic style reminiscent of Chicago's World's Columbian Exposition of 1893, the Palace featured an extravagant facade, with 22 hand-carved Corinthian columns with elaborate details at the top, opera-style private boxes in front of the covered grandstand; the grandstand sat atop carriage stalls so that the wealthy could drive directly to the game, an early precursor of "luxury suites". It was built of concrete, was the second park to use concrete for the bulk of its construction; the grandstand was unique: a blend of Roman and Greek styling that had never been used before in a grandstand, has never been seen since. The 3,000-seat grandstand featured 19 "fashion boxes" along the front railing that could hold 15 or more well-to-do fans. Beneath the grandstand, at field level, was standing room for 640 more spectators in a rowdy section known as "Rooter's Row."
This section was so close to the players, the fans could take part in on-field conversations. Rooters Row was strategically placed by the bar; the facade behind home plate contained the word "CINCINNATI". This was of no benefit to anyone in attendance, assuming they knew where they were, but it ensured that pictures of the stands would inform viewers. However, the designers of the park forgot to include clubhouses for the players; the original 1884 stand remained as right field seating. A less elaborate stand connected the new structures. Both the contemporary club owners and modern baseball historians consider the 1902 structure to be a new ballpark. Cincinnati fans not interested in the hype continued to call the facility "League Park", hence the alternate historical name, "League Park III". On Opening Day, April 17, 1902, some 10,000 spectators crowded into the park and watched the Reds lose to the Chicago Colts, 6-1; the Reds had little on-field success during their stay at the Palace, but one event foreshadowed an historic development on this site: night baseball.
On June 19, 1909, an exhibition game was held at the Palace under temporary lighting developed by George F. Cahill; this was not the first time night baseball had been attempted, but this experiment was deemed a success. Nothing would come of it, until the 1930s when night ball came to be seen as a necessity for boosting attendance. Meanwhile, as with the original Columbian Exposition buildings, the Palace soon lost its lustre. For one thing, the seating area was too small. Over time, the structure fell into a state of disrepair. Another fire damaged the stands significantly; the Palace was done after 10 seasons. When it opened, the Palace had been described as "the handsomest grounds in the country"; as the Palace prepared for its final game in 1911, the not-yet-built Redland Field was predicted to be "a modern and sumptuous stand, the equal of anything in the country." The last game played at the Palace was on October 12, 1911, against the Cubs, the same team they played when the park was opened.
By opening day of 1912, the Reds had an new arena waiting for them on the site: Redland Field, which would become known as Crosley Field. Cincinnati's Crosley Field: The Illustrated History of a Classic Ballpark by Greg Rhodes and John Erardi, 1995, Road West Publishing Baseball Library.com Green Cathedrals, by Phil Lowry, 1992 Baseball Parks of North America, by Michael Benson, 1989 The Cincinnati Reds, by Lee Allen, Putnam, 1948
League Park (Cincinnati)
League Park was a Major League baseball park located in Cincinnati, United States. It was the home of the Cincinnati Reds from 1884 through 1901; the ballpark was on an asymmetrical block bounded by Findlay Street, Western Avenue, York Street and McLean Avenue. The "Findlay and Western" intersection was the home field of the Reds from 1884 through June 24, 1970, when the team moved to Riverfront Stadium; the location of the diamond and the main grandstand seating area was shifted several times during the 86½ seasons the Reds played on the site. League Park was the first of three parks to stand on the site: 1884–1901: League Park 1902–1911: Palace of the Fans 1912–1970: Redland Field, renamed Crosley Field in 1934 During the Cincinnati Reds' first two seasons, the club played at the Bank Street Grounds. Following the 1883 season, the Reds were forced to abandon the park, because the lease had been bought out from under them by the new Cincinnati entry in the one-year wonder called the Union Association.
The Reds had to find a new location, they found one less than a mile away from their old park, a few blocks to the southeast on Western Avenue, at the northwest corner of where Findlay Street intersected Western. Thus the Reds remained in the West End, fans had only to traverse Western Avenue to see the team of their choice; the new facility was variously called Cincinnati Base Ball Grounds, Western Avenue Grounds, American Park, its most enduring pre-1912 name, League Park. The small grandstand for the new park was built in the southeast corner of the block, tucked into the acute angle made by the intersection. Although the diamond would be moved back and forth between the southeast and the southwest corners several times, the little 1884 structure would be retained for 28 seasons, would come in handy. However, it got off to a bad start, it was constructed hastily, during the opening day game a portion of the stand collapsed, killing one spectator and injuring several others. The park was very short to right field, with balls hit over the right field fence counting only as a double, until additional land was acquired a few weeks into the season.
This made the field regulation-sized. The first game to be played at American Park was on April 9, 1884, it was an exhibition game against the National League Cleveland Blues. The Reds first official home opening day at American Park was on May 1, 1884 against their American Association rival the Columbus Buckeyes. Cincinnati lost that game 10-9 in heartbreaking fashion; the season itself saw a good deal of competition between the Unions. Although many called the Union the "Onion League" due to its lopsided distribution of talent, the Cincinnati Unions were a strong team and drew fans away from the Reds. Once the Union folded, the Reds opted to remain at Findlay and Western, would continue to do so for the better part of nine decades, thus the Reds had the city to themselves in 1885. Although the Reds were not participants in the 1885 World Series, their ballpark was; the contest, between the Chicago White Stockings of the NL and the St. Louis Browns of the AA, staged some of its games at neutral sites.
The Reds' ballpark was the site for the final two games of the Series, a disputed match that ended in a draw. When the Reds returned to the National League in 1890, the name of the park would come to be known as League Park, in reference to the team's original and now current circuit. In those days, the National League was referred to in media as "the League", since there was only one "League" and one "Association". In 1894 the ballpark went through some major changes; the owner of the Reds, John Brush, would add an amphitheater. In order to build a new grandstand he had the diamond shifted from the southeast corner to the southwest corner. Brush chose to retain the old seating as a right field pavilion; this would prove to be a wise decision. The name of the ballpark was not changed; because of the relocated diamond, some historians refer to it as League Park II. The center field area was painted black in 1895 to form a batter's eye screen; some sources claim. On May 28 1900, the ballpark caught on fire.
The Reds considered moving to East End Park where the short-lived "Kelly's Killers" Association club had played in 1891. Instead, they opted to shift the diamond back to its original location in the southeast corner, reusing the original grandstand, not harmed in the fire due to a gap between the two seating areas, they played a month's worth of games on the road, returning to their reconfigured home on June 28. After a season and a half of playing in the charred ballpark, the Reds built what they expected to be a more permanent new grandstand, again in the southwest corner, retaining the original seating, again with a gap between the seating areas that would prove fortuitous; the original seating had changed somewhat over time, as the middle section no longer sat higher than the rest, the entire structure was roofed. The look of the new grandstand was striking, the owners named it Palace of the Fans. While the park was still referred to as League Park until 1911, the grandstand nickname is what the park has become known as today.
Cincinnati's Crosley Field: The Illustrated History of a Classic Ballpark by Greg Rhodes and John Erardi, 1995, Road West Publishing Baseball Library.com Green Cathedrals, by Phil Lowry, 1992 Baseball Parks of North America, by Michael Benson, 1989 The Cincinnati R
The Baltimore Orioles are an American professional baseball team based in Baltimore, Maryland. As one of the American League's eight charter teams in 1901, this particular franchise spent its first year as a major league club in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, as the Milwaukee Brewers before moving to St. Louis, Missouri, to become the St. Louis Browns. After 52 often-beleaguered years in St. Louis, the franchise was purchased in November 1953 by a syndicate of Baltimore business and civic interests led by attorney/civic activist Clarence Miles and Mayor Thomas D'Alesandro Jr; the team's current majority owner is lawyer Peter Angelos. The Orioles adopted their team name in honor of the official state bird of Maryland. Nicknames for the team include the "O's" and the "Birds"; the Orioles experienced their greatest success from 1966 to 1983, when they made six World Series appearances, winning three of them. This era of the club featured several future Hall of Famers who would be inducted representing the Orioles, such as third baseman Brooks Robinson, outfielder Frank Robinson, starting pitcher Jim Palmer, first baseman Eddie Murray, shortstop Cal Ripken Jr. and manager Earl Weaver.
The Orioles have won a total of nine division championships, six pennants, three wild card berths. After suffering a stretch of 14 straight losing seasons from 1998 to 2011, the team qualified for the postseason three times under manager Buck Showalter and general manager Dan Duquette, including a division title and advancement to the American League Championship Series for the first time in 17 years in 2014. However, the 2018 team finished with a franchise-worst record of 47–115, prompting the team to move on from Showalter and Duquette following the season's conclusion; the Orioles' current manager is Brandon Hyde, while Mike Elias serves as general manager and executive vice president. The Orioles are well known for their influential ballpark, Oriole Park at Camden Yards, which opened in 1992 in downtown Baltimore; the modern Orioles franchise can trace its roots back to the original Milwaukee Brewers of the minor Western League, beginning in 1894, when the league reorganized. The Brewers were there when the WL renamed itself the American League in 1900.
At the end of the 1900 season, the American League removed itself from baseball's National Agreement. Two months the AL declared itself a competing major league; as a result of several franchise shifts, the Brewers were one of only two Western League teams that didn't fold, move or get kicked out of the league. In its first game in the American League, the team lost to the Detroit Tigers 14–13 after surrendering a nine-run lead in the 9th inning. To this day, it is a major league record for the biggest deficit overcome that late in the game. In the first American League season in 1901, they finished last with a record of 48–89, its lone Major League season, the team played at Lloyd Street Grounds, between 16th and 18th Streets in Milwaukee. After one year in Milwaukee the club relocated to St Louis, for a while enjoyed some success in the 1920s behind Hall of Fame first baseman George Sisler. However, the team's fortunes declined from on, as playing success and gate receipts instead went to the Browns' own tenants at Sportsman's Park, the National League Cardinals.
During this period the Browns only won one pennant, in the 1944 season stocked with wartime replacement players, lost to the Cardinals in the third and last World Series played in one ballpark. In 1953, with the Browns unable to afford stadium upkeep, owner Bill Veeck sold Sportsman's Park to the Cards and attempted to move the club back to Milwaukee, but this was vetoed by the other Major League owners. Instead, Veeck sold his franchise to a partnership of Baltimore businessmen; the Miles-Krieger -Hoffberger group renamed their new team the Baltimore Orioles soon after taking control of the franchise. The name has a rich history in Baltimore. In 1901, Baltimore and John McGraw were awarded an expansion franchise in the growing American League, naming the team the Orioles. After a battle with Ban Johnson, the Head of the American League in 1902, McGraw took many of the top players including Walter Scott "Steve" Brodie, Dan McGann, Roger Bresnahan, Joe McGinnity to the New York Giants; as an affront to Johnson, McGraw kept the black and orange colors of the New York Giants, which San Francisco wears to this day.
In 1903, the franchise—the remaining players and debts, the corporation—was transferred to New York where they were nicknamed the Highlanders until circa 1912, by which time Yanks or Yankees had taken over as their popular moniker. As a member of the high-minor league level International League, the Orioles competed at what is now known as the AAA level from 1903 to 1953; when Oriole Park burned down in 1944, the team moved to a temporary home, Municipal Stadium, where they won the Junior World Series. Their large postseason crowds caught the attention of the major leagues leading to a new MLB franchise in Baltimore. After starting the 1954 campaign with a two-game split agai
Cincinnati Red Stockings
The Cincinnati Red Stockings of 1869 were baseball's first all-professional team, with ten salaried players. The Cincinnati Base Ball Club formed in 1866 and fielded competitive teams in the National Association of Base Ball Players 1867–1870, a time of a transition that ambitious Cincinnati, Ohio businessmen and English-born ballplayer Harry Wright shaped as much as anyone. Major League Baseball recognized those events by sponsoring a centennial of professional baseball in 1969. Thanks to their on-field success and the continental scope of their tours, the Red Stockings established styles in team uniforms and team nicknames that have some currency in the 21st century, they established a particular color, red, as the color of Cincinnati, they provide the ultimate origin for the use of "Red Sox" in Boston. The Cincinnati Base Ball Club, or Cincinnati Club, was established July 23, 1866 at a downtown law office, drawing up a constitution and by-laws and electing officers including Alfred T. Goshorn, President.
A few years Goshorn earned international fame as Director-General of the Centennial Exposition held 1876 in Philadelphia. Founding member George B. Ellard led the Union Cricket Club, the relationship between them proved decisive for the baseball club's success. After playing four matches that summer, Cincinnati joined the NABBP for 1867 and concluded an agreement to play at the Union Cricket Club grounds. George Ellard's son says that "a great number of the cricket club members" joined and so "the team was strengthened and interest in baseball gained a new impetus." Plans for a new clubhouse and "more substantical" enclosing fence were approved in April and the commercial basis was approved in June: members of both clubs admitted free to all matches. Ladies free.". The team was soon nicknamed "Red Stockings" in reference to the main feature of the uniforms designed by Ellard. Harry Wright had migrated from New York in 1866 for a job as "club pro" at the Union Cricket Club. Next year he picked up similar baseball duties, but the lingo is stretched to call him a baseball "manager" from that time.
His first team may have been local to a man, but he both developed and imported players to represent the club in competitive play for the 1868 season. The first team won 16 matches with regional opponents, losing only to the touring Nationals from Washington; as for most hosts on that tour, it was a "bad loss" on the scorecard but an instructive one for Cincinnati: the players, the club, the fans, the local newspapers. Everyone learned advanced points of play and, from their different perspectives, witnessed the gulf in playing strength. About half of the 1868 Red Stockings were eastern imports compensated somehow; the two leading batsmen, John Hatfield and Fred Waterman arrived from the New York Mutuals, one of the strongest teams anywhere and another team pushing the bounds of the amateur code. Asa Brainard had been the Brooklyn Excelsiors' regular pitcher for four seasons, succeeded in 1867 by Candy Cummings. Catcher Doug Allison was from the Geary club of Philadelphia, one of the stronger clubs in that city.
There was one local recruit, from the rival Buckeye club: Charlie Gould at first base. Harry Wright remained the first pitcher, sharing that position and second base with Brainard, three other incumbents remained in the outfield and at shortstop; the 1868 team played a heavy schedule including a late eastern tour, once again dominating the western teams but losing seven of 43 matches in all. When the NABBP permitted professional members for 1869, Harry Wright and George Ellard organized a professional team: ten men on salary for eight months, March 15 to November 15. Wright coordinated the team defense, a novelty from any position. Younger brother and shortstop George Wright, new to the team in 1869, was its best player, maybe the best of his time; the professional Cincinnati Red Stockings played their first game May 4, 1869, with a 45–9 win over the Great Westerns of Cincinnati. The team won 57 games and lost zero, counting only matches with Association clubs, they played over 70 games counting outside teams.
Its commercial tour of continental scope, visiting both Boston and San Francisco, was unprecedented and may be unrepeated. The first season ended November 6 at home with the Cincinnatis beating the Mutuals of New York 17–8. With the same regular nine, the 1870 team continued to win perhaps 24 games before losing 8–7 in eleven innings to the Brooklyn Atlantics in Brooklyn, June 14; the Red Stockings remained one of the few strongest teams on the field, losing only six games, but attendance declined badly at home. In 1869, the Red Stockings posted a perfect 67–0 record, the only perfect season in professional baseball history; this was the first team to play on the West coasts in the same season. More than 2,000 people greeted the team when it arrived in San Francisco at 10:00 p.m. “They helped nationalize the game and put Cincinnati on the map as a baseball town,” said Greg Rhodes, a Reds historian who wrote “The First Boys of Summer”, along with Enquirer reporter John Erardi, about the 1869–1870 Red Stockings.
On June 14, 1870, after 81 consecutive wins since assembling as the first professional team, the Cincinnati Red Stockings lost 8–7 to the Brooklyn Atlantics before a crowd of 20,000 at the Capitoline Grounds. Bob Ferguson scored the winning run in the 11th inning on a hit by pit