Folk music includes traditional folk music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th-century folk revival. Some types of folk music may be called world music. Traditional folk music has been defined in several ways: as music transmitted orally, music with unknown composers, or music performed by custom over a long period of time, it has been contrasted with classical styles. The term originated in the 19th century. Starting in the mid-20th century, a new form of popular folk music evolved from traditional folk music; this process and period is reached a zenith in the 1960s. This form of music is sometimes called contemporary folk music or folk revival music to distinguish it from earlier folk forms. Smaller, similar revivals have occurred elsewhere in the world at other times, but the term folk music has not been applied to the new music created during those revivals; this type of folk music includes fusion genres such as folk rock, folk metal, others. While contemporary folk music is a genre distinct from traditional folk music, in U.
S. English it shares the same name, it shares the same performers and venues as traditional folk music; the terms folk music, folk song, folk dance are comparatively recent expressions. They are extensions of the term folklore, coined in 1846 by the English antiquarian William Thoms to describe "the traditions and superstitions of the uncultured classes"; the term further derives from the German expression volk, in the sense of "the people as a whole" as applied to popular and national music by Johann Gottfried Herder and the German Romantics over half a century earlier. Though it is understood that folk music is music of the people, observers find a more precise definition to be elusive; some do not agree that the term folk music should be used. Folk music may tend to have certain characteristics but it cannot be differentiated in purely musical terms. One meaning given is that of "old songs, with no known composers", another is that of music, submitted to an evolutionary "process of oral transmission....
The fashioning and re-fashioning of the music by the community that give it its folk character". Such definitions depend upon " processes rather than abstract musical types...", upon "continuity and oral transmission...seen as characterizing one side of a cultural dichotomy, the other side of, found not only in the lower layers of feudal and some oriental societies but in'primitive' societies and in parts of'popular cultures'". One used definition is "Folk music is what the people sing". For Scholes, as well as for Cecil Sharp and Béla Bartók, there was a sense of the music of the country as distinct from that of the town. Folk music was "...seen as the authentic expression of a way of life now past or about to disappear" in "a community uninfluenced by art music" and by commercial and printed song. Lloyd rejected this in favour of a simple distinction of economic class yet for him true folk music was, in Charles Seeger's words, "associated with a lower class" in culturally and stratified societies.
In these terms folk music may be seen as part of a "schema comprising four musical types:'primitive' or'tribal'. Music in this genre is often called traditional music. Although the term is only descriptive, in some cases people use it as the name of a genre. For example, the Grammy Award used the terms "traditional music" and "traditional folk" for folk music, not contemporary folk music. Folk music may include most indigenous music. From a historical perspective, traditional folk music had these characteristics: It was transmitted through an oral tradition. Before the 20th century, ordinary people were illiterate; this was not mediated by books or recorded or transmitted media. Singers may extend their repertoire using broadsheets or song books, but these secondary enhancements are of the same character as the primary songs experienced in the flesh; the music was related to national culture. It was culturally particular. In the context of an immigrant group, folk music acquires an extra dimension for social cohesion.
It is conspicuous in immigrant societies, where Greek Australians, Somali Americans, Punjabi Canadians, others strive to emphasize their differences from the mainstream. They learn songs and dances that originate in the countries their grandparents came from, they commemorate personal events. On certain days of the year, such as Easter, May Day, Christmas, particular songs celebrate the yearly cycle. Weddings and funerals may be noted with songs and special costumes. Religious festivals have a folk music component. Choral music at these events brings children and non-professional singers to participate in a public arena, giving an emotional bonding, unrelated to the aesthetic qualities of the music; the songs have been performed, by custom, over a long period of time several generations. As a side-effect, the following characteristics are sometimes present: There is no copyright on the songs. Hundreds of folk songs from the 19th century have known authors but have continued in oral tradition to the point where they are considered traditional for purposes of music publishing.
This has become much less frequent since the 1940s. Today every folk song, recorded is credited with an arranger. Fusion of cultures: Because cultures interact and change over time
The Complete U2
The Complete U2 is a digital box set by Irish rock band U2. It was released on 23 November 2004 by Apple Computer on the iTunes Store, it is the first major release of a purely digital online set by any artist. It contained the complete set of U2 albums, live and unreleased material from 1978 to 2004, with a total of 446 songs; this was accompanied by a PDF containing album art, track listings, band commentary. It retailed for $149.99, but a $50 coupon was included with the U2 Special Edition iPods from the fourth-generation iPod. The video-capable U2 iPods included a code for a 33-minute video of live band performances and interviews; as of 20 December 2007, the set is no longer available for sale. The following albums are only available as part of this set: Early Demos is an EP containing three demos, produced by Barry Devlin and recorded at Keystone Studios in April 1978; these songs are the band's second recorded studio work. "Street Mission" and "The Fool" have not been on any other album. "Shadows and Tall Trees" was the final track on their first studio album Boy, released in 1980.
Live from Boston 1981 is a live album recorded during U2's Boy Tour at Boston's Paradise Rock Club on 6 March 1981. Some of the tracks on this album have been released on other singles previous to the release of this album. Live from the Point Depot is the first official release of the band's bootlegged New Year's Eve show at Dublin's Point Depot in 1989. Unreleased & Rare is a compilation of rare tracks. Most of the unreleased songs were from the band's All That You Can't Leave Behind and How to Dismantle an Atomic Bomb sessions; the album Medium, Rare & Remastered, released in 2009, contains similar tracks. U2 discography List of U2 songs Complete track listing of all 446 songs, with a discussion of excluded and redundant tracks
John Wesley Harding (album)
John Wesley Harding is the eighth studio album by American singer-songwriter Bob Dylan, released on December 27, 1967, by Columbia Records. Produced by Bob Johnston, the album marked Dylan's return to semi-acoustic instrumentation and folk-influenced songwriting after three albums of lyrically abstract, blues-indebted rock music. John Wesley Harding shares many stylistic threads with, was recorded around the same time as, the prolific series of home recording sessions with the Band released in 1975 as The Basement Tapes, released in complete form in 2014 as The Bootleg Series Vol. 11: The Basement Tapes Complete. John Wesley Harding was exceptionally well received by critics and sold well, reaching No. 2 on the U. S. topping the UK charts. The commercial performance was considered remarkable considering that Dylan had kept Columbia from releasing the album with much promotion or publicity. Less than three months after its release, John Wesley Harding was certified gold by the RIAA. "All Along the Watchtower" became one of his most popular songs after Jimi Hendrix's rendition was released in the autumn of 1968.
The album was included in Robert Christgau's "Basic Record Library" of 1950s and 1960s recordings, published in Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies. In 2003, it was ranked No. 301 on Rolling Stone magazine's list of the 500 greatest albums of all time, moving to 303 in the 2012 version of that list. The album is named after Texas outlaw John Wesley Hardin. Dylan went to work on John Wesley Harding in the fall of 1967. By 18 months had passed since the completion of Blonde on Blonde. After recovering from the worst of the results of his motorcycle accident, Dylan spent a substantial amount of time recording the informal basement sessions at West Saugerties, New York. During that time, he stockpiled a large number of recordings, including many new compositions, he submitted nearly all of them for copyright, but declined to include any of them in his next studio release. Instead, Dylan used a different set of songs for John Wesley Harding, it is not known when these songs were written, but none of them have turned up in the dozens of basement recordings that have since surfaced.
According to Robbie Robertson, "As I recall it was just on a kind of whim that Bob went down to Nashville. And there, with just a couple of guys, he put those songs down on tape." Those sessions took place in the autumn of 1967, requiring less than twelve hours over three stints in the studio. Dylan was once again recording with a band, but the instrumentation was sparse. During most of the recording, the rhythm section of drummer Kenneth A. Buttrey and bassist Charlie McCoy were the only ones supporting Dylan, who handled all harmonica, guitar and vocal parts. "I didn't intentionally come out with some kind of mellow sound," Dylan said in 1971. "I would have liked... more piano. More music… I didn't sit down and plan that sound." The first session, held on October 17 at Columbia's Studio A, lasted only three hours, with Dylan recording master takes of "I Dreamed I Saw St. Augustine", "Drifter's Escape", "The Ballad of Frankie Lee and Judas Priest". Dylan returned to the studio on November 6, recording master takes for "All Along the Watchtower", "John Wesley Harding", "As I Went Out One Morning", "I Pity the Poor Immigrant", "I Am a Lonesome Hobo".
Dylan returned for one last session on November 29. Sometime between the second and third session, Dylan approached Robbie Robertson and Garth Hudson of the Band to complete some overdub work on the basic tracks, but as Robertson recalled: "We did talk about doing some overdubbing on it, but I liked it when I heard it and I couldn't think right about overdubbing on it. So it ended up coming out the way he brought it back." Dylan had arrived in Nashville with a set of songs similar to the feverish yet pithy compositions that came out of the Basement Tapes sessions. They would be given an austere sound that he and his producer Bob Johnston thought sympathetic to their content. Johnston recalls that "he was staying in the Ramada Inn down there, he played me his songs and he suggested we just use bass and guitar and drums on the record. I said fine, but suggested we add a steel guitar, how Pete Drake came to be on that record." The final session did break from the status quo by employing Pete Drake on the final two recordings.
Cut between 9pm and 12 midnight, "I'll Be Your Baby Tonight" and "Down Along the Cove" would be the only two songs featuring Drake's light pedal steel guitar. John Wesley Harding was Dylan's last LP to be issued in both monophonic and stereophonic formats. By the middle of the following year, most of Dylan's LPs would be released in stereophonic. Most of the songs on John Wesley Harding have pared-down lyrics. Though the style remains evocative, continuing Dylan's use of bold imagery and the extravagant surreality that seemed to flow in a stream-of-consciousness fashion has been tamed into something earthier and more to the point. "What I'm trying to do now is not use too many words," Dylan said in a 1968 interview. "There's no line that you can stick your finger through, there's no hole in any of the stanzas. There's no blank filler; each line has something." According to Allen Ginsberg, Dylan had talked to him about his new approach, telling him "he was writing shorter lines, with every line meaning something.
He wasn't just making up a line to go with a rhyme anymore.
Don Edward Fagenson, known as Don Was, is an American musician, record producer and record executive. A bass player, Was led the 1980s funk-rock band Was. In years he produced songs and albums for a large number of popular recording artists. In 2012, he became president of jazz music label Blue Note Records. Born in Detroit, Was graduated from Oak Park High School in the Detroit suburb of Oak Park attended the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor but dropped out after the first year. A journeyman musician, he grew up listening to the Detroit blues sound and the jazz music of John Coltrane and Miles Davis, amongst many others; as a teenager, Was was further influenced by the Beat Generation, most notably John Sinclair. In high school, Was was the lead guitar player in a Detroit rock band called the Saturns; the first recording project that he engineered and produced was in 1971 with drummer Muruga Booker on a recording called Rama Rama / Endless Path. Using the stage name "Don Was", he formed; the group found commercial success in the 1980s – releasing four albums and logging several hit records.
Their biggest hit was "Walk the Dinosaur", off of their album What up, Dog? A jazz/R&B album of Hank Williams covers, "Forever's A Long, Long Time" was released in 1997, under the name Orquestra Was. In 2008, Was reunited for an acclaimed new album titled Boo! and tour. Was has received four Grammy Awards including the 1994 Grammy Award for Producer of the Year, he produced several albums for Bonnie Raitt including her Nick of Time album that won the 1989 Grammy Award for Album of the Year. Don collaborated with co-producer Ziggy Marley, on Family Time, winner of 2009's Best Musical Album For Children, he produced the Rolling Stones 2016 album Blue and Lonesome, which won the Grammy for Best Traditional Blues album. He served as music director and/or consultant for several motion pictures such as Thelma and Louise, The Rainmaker, Hope Floats, Tin Cup, Honeymoon in Vegas, 8 Seconds, The Freshman, Days of Thunder, Michael, Prêt-à-Porter, Boys on the Side, Toy Story and The Paper. In 1997, he directed and produced a documentary, I Just Wasn't Made for These Times, about former Beach Boy Brian Wilson.
The film debuted at the Sundance Film Festival and won the San Francisco Film Festival's Golden Gate Award. He received the British Academy Award for Best Original Score in recognition of his compositions for the film Backbeat. Was, a fan of the Rolling Stones and saw them in concert when he was age 12 in 1964, produced their albums Voodoo Lounge, Bridges to Babylon, Forty Licks, Live Licks, A Bigger Bang and Blue & Lonesome, he worked on the Rolling Stones's reissues Exile on Main Street, released in May 2010 and Some Girls released in October 2011. Was scoured old master recordings of the albums for lost gems, remastering some songs while producing new vocals and tracks on others. Was produced the B-52's 1989 album Cosmic Thing, which included their smash hit "Love Shack". Since 2008, Was has hosted the proceedings at the Detroit All-Star Revue, an annual showcase of local acts from the Detroit music scene. From 2009 to 2012, Don hosted a weekly radio show on Sirius XM satellite radio's Outlaw Country channel called The Motor City Hayride.
During the 2011 season of American Idol, Was appeared in several episodes producing contestants Haley Reinhart, Scotty McCreery, Paul McDonald, Lauren Alaina and Casey Abrams. In January 2012, he was appointed president of the jazz record label, Blue Note Records in succession to Bruce Lundvall, he won the 2014 Emmy Award for Outstanding Music Direction for his work on the CBS TV special "The Beatles: The Night That Changed America." On November 18, 2015, at DAR Constitution Hall in Washington DC, he led the house band that performed at a concert celebrating Willie Nelson, recipient of the 2015 Library of Congress Gershwin Prize for Popular Song. In 2018, Was joined former Grateful Dead guitarist Bob Weir and drummer Jay Lane to form Bob Weir & Wolf Bros, a trio which undertook a North American tour in the Fall of 2018, continued with a second tour of twenty more shows in the Spring of 2019. Don Was is the father of three sons who are musicians. Don is married to former Virgin Records A&R executive and video director Gemma Corfield, is the brother of Dr. Nancy Fagenson Potok, Chief Statistician of the United States of America, former Principal Associate Director and Chief Financial Officer of the US Census Bureau and Deputy Undersecretary for Economic Affairs at the US Department of Commerce.
1981: Was – Was 1982: The Beat Goes On – Orbit featuring Carol Hall 1983: Born to Laugh at Tornadoes – Was 1984: Into the Hot – Floy Joy 1985: Spoiled Girl – Carly Simon 1986 Weak in the Presence of Beauty – Floy Joy 1986 Madness of It All – The Ward Brothers 1986 Cross That Bridge – The Ward Brothers 1988: What Up, Dog? – Was 1989: Nick of Time – Bonnie Raitt 1989: Cosmic Thing – The B-52s 1990: Take It to Heart – Michael McDonald 1990: Brick by Brick – Iggy Pop 1990: Under the Red Sky – Bob Dylan 1990: To Be Continued – Elton John 1991: Khaled – Khaled 1991: Are
Highway 61 Revisited
Highway 61 Revisited is the sixth studio album by American singer-songwriter Bob Dylan, released on August 30, 1965 by Columbia Records. Having until recorded acoustic music, Dylan used rock musicians as his backing band on every track of the album, except for the closing track, the 11-minute ballad "Desolation Row". Critics have focused on the innovative way Dylan combined driving, blues-based music with the subtlety of poetry to create songs that captured the political and cultural chaos of contemporary America. Author Michael Gray has argued. Leading with the hit single "Like a Rolling Stone", the album features songs that Dylan has continued to perform live over his long career, including "Ballad of a Thin Man" and the title track, he named the album after the major American highway which connected his birthplace of Duluth, Minnesota, to southern cities famed for their musical heritage, including St. Louis, New Orleans, the Delta blues area of Mississippi. Highway 61 Revisited peaked at No. 4 in the United Kingdom.
The album was ranked No. 4 on Rolling Stone's "500 Greatest Albums of All Time". "Like a Rolling Stone" was a top-10 hit in several countries, was listed at No. 1 on Rolling Stone's 500 Greatest Songs of All Time list. Two other songs, "Desolation Row" and "Highway 61 Revisited", were listed at No. 187 and No. 373 respectively. In his memoir Chronicles: Volume One, Dylan described the kinship he felt with the route that supplied the title of his sixth album: "Highway 61, the main thoroughfare of the country blues, begins about where I began. I always felt like I'd started on it, always had been on it and could go anywhere down in to the deep Delta country, it was the same road, full of the same contradictions, the same one-horse towns, the same spiritual ancestors... It was my place in the universe, always felt like it was in my blood."When he was growing up in the 1950s, Highway 61 stretched from Thunder Bay – north of the Canada–US border), through Duluth, where Dylan was born, from St. Paul, all the way down to New Orleans.
Along the way, the route passed near the birthplaces and homes of influential musicians such as Muddy Waters, Son House, Elvis Presley and Charley Patton. The "empress of the blues", Bessie Smith, died after sustaining serious injuries in an automobile accident on Highway 61. Critic Mark Polizzotti points out that blues legend Robert Johnson is alleged to have sold his soul to the devil at the highway's crossroads with Route 49; the highway had been the subject of several blues recordings, notably Roosevelt Sykes' "Highway 61 Blues" and Mississippi Fred McDowell's "61 Highway". Dylan has stated that he had to overcome considerable resistance at Columbia Records to give the album its title, he told biographer Robert Shelton: "I wanted to call that album Highway 61 Revisited. Nobody understood it. I had to go up the fucking ladder until the word came down and said:'Let him call it what he wants to call it'." Michael Gray has suggested that the title of the album represents Dylan's insistence that his songs are rooted in the traditions of the blues: "Indeed the album title Highway 61 Revisited announces that we are in for a long revisit, since it is such a long, blues-travelled highway.
Many bluesmen had been there before, all recording versions of a blues called'Highway 61'." In May 1965, Dylan returned from his tour of England feeling exhausted and dissatisfied with his material. He told journalist Nat Hentoff: "I was going to quit singing. I was drained." The singer added, "It's tiring having other people tell you how much they dig you if you yourself don't dig you."As a consequence of his dissatisfaction, Dylan wrote 20 pages of verse he described as a "long piece of vomit". He reduced this to a song with four verses and a chorus—"Like a Rolling Stone", he told Hentoff that writing and recording the song washed away his dissatisfaction, restored his enthusiasm for creating music. Describing the experience to Robert Hilburn in 2004, nearly 40 years Dylan said: "It's like a ghost is writing a song like that... You don't know what it means except the ghost picked me to write the song."Highway 61 Revisited was recorded in two blocks of recording sessions that took place in Studio A of Columbia Records, located in Midtown Manhattan.
The first block, June 15 and June 16, was produced by Tom Wilson and resulted in the single "Like a Rolling Stone". On July 25, Dylan performed his controversial electric set at the Newport Folk Festival, where some of the crowd booed his performance. Four days after Newport, Dylan returned to the recording studio. From July 29 to August 4, he and his band completed recording Highway 61 Revisited, but under the supervision of a new producer, Bob Johnston. Tom Wilson produced the initial recording sessions for Highway 61 Revisited on June 15–16, 1965. Dylan was backed by Bobby Gregg on drums, Joe Macho, Jr. on bass, Paul Griffin on piano, Frank Owens on guitar. For lead guitar, the singer recruited Michael Bloomfield of the Paul Butterfield Blues Band; the musicians began the June 15 session by recording a fast version of "It Takes a Lot to Laugh, It Takes a Train to Cry" and the song "Sitting on a Barbed Wire Fence", omitted from the Highway 61 album. Dylan and his band next attempted to record "Like a Rolling Stone".
"Barbed Wire Fence", the fast version of "It Takes a Lot to Laugh", an early take of "Like a Rolling Stone" were released on The Bootleg Series Volumes 1–3 1961–1991. The musicians returned to Studio A the following day, when they devoted the entire session to
Eric Garth Hudson is a Canadian multi-instrumentalist. As the organist and saxophonist for Canadian-American rock group the Band, he was a principal architect of the group's unique sound. Hudson has been called "the most brilliant organist in the rock world" by Keyboard magazine; as of 2019, Hudson and fellow musician Robbie Robertson are the last original members of The Band who are still alive. A master of the Lowrey organ, Hudson's orchestral tone sense and style anticipated many of the sonic advances of the polyphonic synthesizer, his other primary instruments are piano, electronic keyboards and accordion. He has been a much-in-demand and respected session musician, performing with dozens of artists and earning the accolades of many, including Elton John, who has cited him as an early influence. Hudson was born in Windsor, Canada, his parents, Fred James Hudson and Olive Louella Pentland, were musicians. His mother sang, his father, a farm inspector who had fought as a fighter pilot in World War I, played drums, C melody saxophone, clarinet and piano.
Hudson moved with his family to London, around 1940. Classically trained in piano, music theory and counterpoint, Hudson wrote his first song at the age of eleven and first played professionally with dance bands in 1949 at the age of twelve, he attended Broughdale Public School and Medway High School before studying music at the University of Western Ontario. During this period, he grew frustrated with the rigidity of the classical repertoire, leading him to drop out after a year. In 1958, he joined a rock and roll band, he was reported to have said that he gained some performance experience from playing at his uncle's funeral parlor. In December 1961, the 24-year-old Hudson joined the Hawks, the backing band for Ronnie Hawkins, which consisted of 21-year-old Levon Helm on drums, 18-year-old Robbie Robertson on guitar, 18-year-old Rick Danko on bass and 18-year-old Richard Manuel on piano. Fearing that his parents would think he was squandering his years of music education by playing in a rock and roll band, Hudson joined the band on the condition he be given the title "music consultant" and that his bandmates each pay him $10 a week for music lessons.
Revealing a bit of the thinking behind his early fears, in The Last Waltz Hudson told interviewer-director Martin Scorsese: "There is a view that jazz is'evil' because it comes from evil people, but the greatest priests on 52nd Street and on the streets of New York City were the musicians. They were doing the greatest healing work, they knew how to punch through music that would cure and make people feel good." Hudson was one the few organ players in rock and roll and rhythm and blues to eschew the Hammond organ. Upon joining the Hawks, Hudson took the opportunity to negotiate the procurement of a new Lowrey organ as part of his compensation; the Lowrey organ offered a different mix of features, Hudson stayed with Lowrey right through Ronnie Hawkins and the Hawks, Bob Dylan and the Band, playing three different models: a Festival console, replaced by a Lincolnwood TSO-25 during 1969, still a horseshoe console H25 model, as depicted in The Last Waltz. Under the strict supervision of Hawkins, the Hawks became an accomplished band.
They split from Hawkins in 1963, recorded two singles and toured continually, playing in bars and clubs billed as Levon and the Hawks. Hudson started work as a session musician in 1965, playing on John Hammond, Jr.'s So Many Roads along with Robertson and Helm. In August 1965, they were introduced to Bob Dylan by manager Albert Grossman's assistant, Mary Martin. In October and the Hawks recorded the single "Can You Please Crawl Out Your Window?", in January 1966 they recorded material with Dylan for what would turn into the Blonde on Blonde album. Dylan recruited the band to accompany him on his controversial 1966 "electric" tour of the United States and Europe. Subsequent to Bob Dylan's motorcycle accident in July 1966, the group settled in a pink house in West Saugerties, New York, near Woodstock. Dylan was a frequent visitor, Hudson's recordings of their collaborations resulted in The Basement Tapes. By 1968, the group recorded Music from Big Pink; the album was recorded in New York. Capitol announced that the group would be called the Crackers, but when Music From Big Pink was released they were named the Band.
The album includes Hudson's organ showcase, "Chest Fever", a song that in the Band's live shows would be vastly expanded by a solo organ introduction, entitled "The Genetic Method", an improvisational work that would be played differently at each performance. An example can be heard on the live album Rock of Ages. Hudson is adept at the accordion, which he played on some of the group's recordings, such as "Rockin Chair", from The Band, his saxophone solo work can be heard on such songs as "Tears of Rage" and "Unfaithful Servant". Hudson is credited with playing all of the brass and woodwinds on the studio version of "Ophelia" from the 1975 album Northern Lights - Southern Cross; this album, the first to be recorded in the Band's Shangri-La recording studio in Malibu, California saw Hudson adding