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|This biographical article related to United States auto racing is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|
Auto racing is a sport involving the racing of automobiles for competition. Almost as soon as automobiles had been invented, races of various sorts were organised, by the 1930s specialist racing cars had developed. There are now numerous different categories, each with different rules and it was won by the carriage of Isaac Watt Boulton. Internal combustion auto racing events began soon after the construction of the first successful gasoline-fueled automobiles, the first organized contest was on April 28,1887, by the chief editor of Paris publication Le Vélocipède, Monsieur Fossier. It ran 2 kilometres from Neuilly Bridge to the Bois de Boulogne, on July 22,1894, the Parisian magazine Le Petit Journal organized what is considered to be the worlds first motoring competition, from Paris to Rouen. One hundred and two competitors paid a 10-franc entrance fee, the first American automobile race is generally held to be the Thanksgiving Day Chicago Times-Herald race of November 28,1895. Press coverage of the event first aroused significant American interest in the automobile, brooklands, in Surrey, was the first purpose-built motor racing venue, opening in June 1907.
It featured a 4.43 km concrete track with high-speed banked corners, One of the oldest existing purpose-built automobile racing circuits in the United States, still in use, is the 2. 5-mile -long Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, Indiana. It is the largest capacity venue of any variety worldwide, with a top capacity of some 257. NASCAR was founded by Bill France, Sr. on February 21,1948, the first NASCAR Strictly Stock race ever was held on June 19,1949, at Daytona Beach, Florida. From 1962, sports cars temporarily took a seat to GT cars. From 1972 through 2003, NASCARs premier series was called the Winston Cup Series, the changes that resulted from RJRs involvement, as well as the reduction of the schedule from 48 to 31 races a year, established 1972 as the beginning of NASCARs modern era. The IMSA GT Series evolved into the American Le Mans Series, the European races eventually became the closely related Le Mans Series, both of which mix prototypes and GTs. The best-known variety of racing, Formula One, which hosts the famous Monaco Grand Prix.
In single-seater, the wheels are not covered, and the cars often have aerofoil wings front, in Europe and Asia, open-wheeled racing is commonly referred to as Formula, with appropriate hierarchical suffixes. In North America, the Formula terminology is not followed, the sport is usually arranged to follow an international format, a regional format, and/or a domestic, or country-specific, format. In North America, the used in the National Championship have traditionally been similar though less sophisticated than F1 cars. The series most famous race is the Indianapolis 500, the other major international single-seater racing series is GP2
Columbus is the capital and largest city of the U. S. state of Ohio. It is the 15th-largest city in the United States, with a population of 850,106 as of 2015 estimates and this makes Columbus the fourth-most populous state capital in the United States, and the third-largest city in the Midwestern United States. It is the city of the Columbus, Metropolitan Statistical Area. With a population of 2,021,632, it is Ohios third-largest metropolitan area, Columbus is the county seat of Franklin County. The city proper has expanded and annexed portions of adjoining Delaware County, named for explorer Christopher Columbus, the city was founded in 1812 at the confluence of the Scioto and Olentangy rivers, and assumed the functions of state capital in 1816. As of 2013, the city has the headquarters of five corporations in the U. S, fortune 500, Nationwide Mutual Insurance Company, American Electric Power, L Brands, Big Lots, and Cardinal Health. In 2012, Columbus was ranked in BusinessWeeks 50 best cities in America.
In 2013, Forbes gave Columbus an A rating as one of the top cities for business in the U. S. and that included the city on its list of Best Places for Business. Columbus was ranked as the No.1 up-and-coming tech city in the nation by Forbes in 2008, and the city was ranked a top-ten city by Relocate America in 2010. In 2007, fDi Magazine ranked the city no.3 in the U. S. for cities of the future, and the Columbus Zoo and Aquarium was rated no.1 in 2009 by USA Travel Guide. The area including modern-day Columbus once comprised the Ohio Country, under the control of the French colonial empire through the Viceroyalty of New France from 1663 until 1763. In the 18th century, European traders flocked to the area, the area found itself frequently caught between warring factions, including American Indian and European interests. In the 1740s, Pennsylvania traders overran the territory until the French forcibly evicted them, in the early 1750s, the Ohio Company sent George Washington to the Ohio Country to survey.
Fighting for control of the territory in the French and Indian War became part of the international Seven Years War, during this period, the region routinely suffered turmoil and battles. The 1763 Treaty of Paris ceded the Ohio Country to the British Empire, after the American Revolution, the Ohio Country became part of the Virginia Military District, under the control of the United States. Colonists from the East Coast moved in, but rather finding a empty frontier, they encountered people of the Miami, Wyandot, Shawnee. The tribes resisted expansion by the fledgling United States, leading to years of bitter conflict, the decisive Battle of Fallen Timbers resulted in the Treaty of Greenville, which finally opened the way for new settlements. By 1797, a surveyor from Virginia named Lucas Sullivant had founded a permanent settlement on the west bank of the forks of the Scioto River
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
The 17th International 500-Mile Sweepstakes was held at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway on Thursday, May 30,1929. Ray Keech, who finished fourth a year earlier, took the lead for the time on lap 158. Keech won for car owner Maude A. Yagle, the first and to-date, only two weeks after winning the race, Ray Keech was fatally injured in a crash at Altoona Speedway on June 15,1929. The race was part of the 1929 AAA Championship Car season, the 1929 edition was the last contested with the supercharged 91 1⁄2 cu. in. The supercharged front-wheel drive Miller 8s dominated qualifying, sweeping the front row, a total of twelve front-wheel drive machines made the field, but Keechs rear-wheel-drive Simplex Piston Ring Special took the victory. All three cars of the front row, as well as the first two cars of the row, dropped out before the halfway point. Pole-sitter Cliff Woodbury crashed on lap 4, and become the first pole position winner in Indy history to finish last. Defending race winner Louis Meyer was leading in the second half and he finished second just over six minutes behind Keech, with the lengthy pit stop the deciding margin.
The hard luck story of the race belonged to Lou Moore, after finishing second in 1928, Moore was on his way to back-to-back runner-up finishes. With two laps to go, his engine threw a rod, due to the rules at the time, since Moore was not running at the finish, he was scored behind all finishers. He fell all the way back to 13th position, behind four cars that actually had fewer laps than he had and it was the final race of the Roaring Twenties and the final race before the Stock Market Crash and Great Depression. The facility was expanded in 1929 to include a golf course, dubbed the Speedway Golf Course, it featured nine holes outside the track, and nine holes inside the track, and was designed by Bill Diddel. Also during the month, scenes for the movie Speedway were being filmed, the 1929 race would be the final year contested with the supercharged 91 1⁄2 cu. in. Rickenbackers desire was to move away from the supercharged, specialized racing machines that had taken over the Speedway through the 1920s, contrary to popular belief, the proposed rules changes were not made in response to the stock market crash of 1929 and the subsequent Great Depression.
The rule changes for 1930 were in fact being laid out as early as 1928, in addition, the 1929 race would be the final for the foreseeable future to be without riding mechanics. From 1930 and beyond, the rules were once again going to mandate two-man cars. With the 91 1⁄2 c. i. d engines on their way out, qualifying speeds were expected to be fast. For 1929, riding mechanics were optional, however, no teams utilized them, jimmy Gleasons car carried #53, the first number over 50 in the history of the race
The 13th International 500-Mile Sweepstakes Race was held at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway on Saturday, May 30,1925. Race winner Peter DePaolo became the first driver to complete the 500 miles in five hours. Norman Batten drove 21 laps of relief while DePaolo had his hands bandaged due to blisters, leon Duray won the pole position with a 4-lap track record of 113.196 mph. Peter DePaolo, who qualified second, set the 1-lap track record at 114.285 mph, for 1925, riding mechanics were optional, however, no teams utilized them
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
The 20th International 500-Mile Sweepstakes Race was held at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway on Monday, May 30,1932. Attrition is the story of the race, with 26 of the 40 cars dropping out due to crashes or mechanical failure, a record eight different drivers led laps during the race, with no driver seemingly able to hold the lead without experiencing some sort of trouble. For the third year in a row, Billy Arnold looks as if he will be the dominant car, rookie Bob Carey hit the wall while leading. Fred Frame took the lead for good on lap 152, Frame was accompanied by riding mechanic Jerry Houck. In the third year of the formula, speeds were beginning to increase once again. Lou Moore qualified for the position with an average speed of 117.363 mph. Likewise on race day, Frames winning average speed of 104.144 mph broke Peter DePaolos record set back in 1925, the race was part of the 1932 AAA Championship Car season. The month was marred by two fatalities during practice, riding mechanic Harry Cox was killed in a crash on May 25, and driver M. C.
Jones died from injuries suffered in a crash on May 27. The deadline for entries to be received was midnight on Monday May 2, teams and drivers began arriving at the Speedway in early April, setting up shop in Gasoline Alley. In addition, Tom Bealls popular diner was open in the garage area. Tony Gulotta was on the track in the Hunt Special on April 6, making news in mid-April was Argentine driver Juan Gaudino, who arrived on April 13 to enter the race for the first time. Gaudino had intended to enter in 1931, but withdrew after a crash in South America just before he was to make the trip, on Monday April 18, Joe Russo was practicing on the track when he lost control at the north end and crashed into the retaining wall. He suffered minor injuries to his head and face, and needed three stitches to his lip, the frame of the car was bent, but the car was expected to be repaired. Pink Donaldson, and Bert Lustig, all arrived from the west coast on April 21, Some of the biggest news came on April 27.
Babe Stapp was seriously injured in a crash at Legion Ascot Speedway, by the end of April, at least nine cars were already at the Speedway being prepped. Drivers were even spending some time at the Speedway Golf Course. The deadline for entries to be received was midnight on Monday May 2, Though initially down from the previous year, at least 40 cars had submitted entries by May 1, and more were expected when postmarked entries were all processed. Sunday May 1, Tony Gulotta and Luther Johnson teamed up to test one of the Studebaker entries for 660 miles at an speed of 102.6 mph
Altoona is a city in south central Pennsylvania Blair County, United States. It is the city of the Altoona Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 46,320 at the time of the 2010 Census and this includes the adjacent boroughs of Hollidaysburg and Duncansville, adjacent townships of Logan, Blair, Frankstown and Tyrone, as well as nearby boroughs of Bellwood and Newry. Having grown around the industry, the city is currently working to recover from industrial decline. The city is home to the Altoona Curve baseball team of the Double A Eastern League and it houses the 75-plus-year-old Altoona Symphony Orchestra, under the direction of Teresa Cheung. As a major town, Altoona was founded by the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1849 as the site for a shop. Altoona was incorporated as a borough on February 6,1854, and as a city under legislation approved on April 3,1867, one explanation of the citys name is that the word Altoona is a derivative of the Latin word altus, meaning high. This explanation is contradicted by Pennsylvania Place Names, although Altoona, in Blair Country, is popularly known as the Mountain City, its name has no direct or indirect etymological relation to the Latin adjective altus, signifying elevated, lofty.
Two very different explanations of the origin of name are current. He was the oldest continuous resident of the city and he was much respected, and had long been one of the private pensioners of Andrew Carnegie. The etymological derivation of the name Altona is not known with certainty, the town grew rapidly in the late 19th century, its population approximately 2,000 in 1854,10,000 in 1870, and 20,000 in 1880. The demand for locomotives during the Civil War stimulated much of this growth, Altoona was the site of the first Interstate Commission meeting to create and design the Gettysburg National Cemetery following the devastating Battle of Gettysburg. The centrality and convenience of the rail transportation brought these two important gatherings to the city during the war. Horseshoe Curve, a section of track built by the PRR, has become a tourist attraction. The curve was used to trains to a sufficient elevation to cross the Allegheny Ridge to the west. The PRR built many of its own locomotives at the Works, some 7,873 in all, PRR had significant influence on the city, creating the citys fire departments and relocating the hospital to a site nearer to the shops gates.
Today, the department employs 65 personnel and is the largest career department between Harrisburg and Pittsburgh. PRR sponsored a city band and constructed Cricket Field, in 1853, the PRR built the Mechanics Library, the first industrial library in the nation which exists today as the Altoona Area Public Library