Pierre Henri Clostermann was a French flying ace. Joining the Free French Air Force in Britain in 1942, Clostermann scored 33 recorded victories, earning the accolade "France's First Fighter" from General Charles de Gaulle, his many decorations included the Grand-Croix of the French Légion d'Honneur, the Croix de Guerre, the DFC and bar. His wartime reminiscences. After the war, he worked as an engineer and became a député. Clostermann was born in Curitiba, into a French diplomatic family, he was the only son of Madeleine Carlier from Jacques Clostermann from Alsace. After receiving flying tuition from German pilot Karl Benitz, he completed his secondary education in France and gained his private pilot's licence in 1937. On the outbreak of war the French authorities refused his application for service, so he travelled to Los Angeles to become a commercial pilot, studying at the California Institute of Technology. Clostermann joined the Free French Air Force in Britain in March 1942. After training at RAF Cranwell and 61 OTU, Clostermann, a sergeant pilot, was posted in January 1943 to No. 341 Squadron RAF, flying the Supermarine Spitfire.
He scored his first two victories on 27 July 1943. With 33 recorded victories to his name, he received at only 24 years of age, a Commendation by General Charles de Gaulle, who called him "France's First Fighter". While serving in Lincolnshire, Pierre met and married Lydia Jeanne Starbuck at St Denys Church in Sleaford. In October 1943, Clostermann was commissioned and assigned to No. 602 Squadron RAF, remaining with the unit for the next ten months. He flew a variety of missions including fighter sweeps, bomber escorts, high-altitude interdiction over the Royal Navy's Scapa Flow base, strafing or dive-bombing attacks on V-1 launch sites on the French coast. Clostermann served through D-Day and was one of the first Free French pilots to land on French soil, at temporary airstrip B-11, near Longues-sur-Mer, Normandy on 18 June 1944, touching French soil for the first time in more than four years. Clostermann was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross shortly afterwards, after which he was reassigned to French Air Force Headquarters.
In December 1944, Clostermann returned to the front line on secondment to the RAF as a supernumerary flight lieutenant. Clostermann joined No. 274 Squadron RAF flying the new Hawker Tempest Mk V. In an aircraft which he dubbed Le Grand Charles, Clostermann flew an intensive and successful round of fighter sweeps, airfield attacks, "rat scramble" interceptions of Messerschmitt 262 jet fighters, rail interdiction missions over northern Germany over the next two months. In March 1945, Clostermann served with No. 56 Squadron before a transfer to No. 3 Squadron. On 24 March 1945 he was wounded in the leg by German flak and after belly-landing his badly damaged aircraft, he was hospitalized for a week. From 8 April he was commander of "A" Flight, No. 3 Squadron RAF. Clostermann was awarded a bar to his DFC for his successful tour of duty, he had to bail out for the first time on 12 May 1945, when during a victory fly-past, another Tempest collided with his aircraft, as a result of this horrific collision the four planes of his flight went down, with three pilots dying.
Clostermann's parachute opened just a few yards above the ground. Clostermann continued operations with No. 122 Wing RAF until he left the military altogether on 27 July 1945 with the rank of wing commander. In his 432 sorties, Clostermann was credited with 33 victories and five "probables", with eight more "damaged", he claimed 225 motor vehicles destroyed, 72 locomotives, five tanks, two E-boats. Many references credit him with 29 to 33 victories, although these include his "ground" kills of enemy aircraft. Recent, more detailed analysis of his combat reports and squadron accounts indicate that his true score was 11 destroyed, with another seven, for a total of 15–18 victories. Clostermann wrote a successful book, The Big Show, on his experiences in the war. One of the first post-war fighter pilot memoirs, its various editions have sold over two and a half million copies. William Faulkner commented that this is the finest aviation book to come out of World War II; the book was reprinted, in expanded form, in both paperback and hardcover editions in 2004.
It was adapted in comic book form by Manuel Perales, in close collaboration with Clostermann. Clostermann wrote Flames in the Sky, a collection of heroic air combat exploits from both Allied and Axis sides. After the war, Clostermann continued his career as an engineer, participating in the creation of Reims Aviation, supporting the Max Holste Broussard prototype, acting as a representative for Cessna, working for Renault. In parallel, Clostermann had a successful political career, serving eight terms as a député in the French National Assembly between 1946 and 1969, he briefly re-enlisted in the Armée de l'Air in 1956–57 to fly ground attack missions during the Algerian War. He subsequently wrote a novel based on his experiences there, entitled "Leo 25 Airborne". During the 1982 Falklands War between Argentina and the UK, Clostermann praised Argentine pilots for their courage; as a result of this perceived "betrayal" of the RAF, Clostermann attracted hostility from parts of the English press.
He attracted controversy in France for his vehement anti-war stance in the run-up to the 1991 Gulf War. (See letter sent to
Pierre Joubert (illustrator)
Pierre Joubert was a French illustrator and comics artist. He was associated with the creation of Scouting and the popular look of Boy Scouts in France and Belgium, comparable to the American artist Norman Rockwell. Pierre Joubert was born in Paris. Joubert was a young Scout himself, attended the École des Arts Appliqués in Paris, his first amateur drawings appeared in Scouts de France in 1926. He graduated to the magazine L'Illustration in 1927 through 1934, but continued to focus on Scout-centered art in Scouting publications. Joubert was an illustrator of calendars, boys' adventure novels the Signe de Piste line; the style of Joubert's illustrations depicted idealized boys experiencing the glories of Scouting and comradeship. Joubert is considered, owing to his eye for trend and his mass-market exposure, to have had reflective influence on boy-culture in France from the 1930s until the close of the 1960s, he made the comic book Gribouille and two books of the Pouf series. Joubert had his controversial side.
He did work for some right-wing Catholic journals and, as with any artist, the particulars of his patrons have been imputed to him. Not long before his death, Joubert produced a large volume of memoirs and reprinted art, Souvenirs en vrac, he died in La Rochelle at age 91. The Jungle Book by Rudyard Kipling Treasure Island by Robert Louis Stevenson Official Site Books and media of the artist's work Pierre Joubert was the draftsman of the newspaper of the World Scout Jamboree of 1947 in Moisson, France: Jamboree 1947 Pierre Joubert at the Lambiek Comiclopedia
Scotland Yard is a metonym for the headquarters of the Metropolitan Police Service, the territorial police force responsible for policing most of London. The name derives from the location of the original Metropolitan Police headquarters at 4 Whitehall Place, which had a rear entrance on a street called Great Scotland Yard; the Scotland Yard entrance became the public entrance to the police station, over time the street and the Metropolitan Police became synonymous. The New York Times wrote in 1964 that just as Wall Street gave its name to New York's financial district, Scotland Yard became the name for police activity in London; the force moved from Great Scotland Yard in 1890, to a newly completed building on the Victoria Embankment, the name "New Scotland Yard" was adopted for the new headquarters. An adjacent building was completed in 1906. A third building was added in 1940. In 1967, the MPS moved its headquarters from the three-building complex to a tall, newly constructed building on Broadway in Victoria.
In summer 2013, it was announced that the force would move to the Curtis Green Building –, the third building of New Scotland Yard's previous site – and that the headquarters would be renamed Scotland Yard. In November 2016, MPS moved to its new headquarters, which continues to bear the name of "New Scotland Yard." Scotland Yard building is now owned by Indian billionaire Yusuff Ali M. A. chairman of Lulu Group International. The Metropolitan Police Service is responsible for law enforcement within Greater London, excluding the square mile of the City of London, covered by the City of London Police. Additionally, the London Underground and National Rail networks are the responsibility of the British Transport Police; the Metropolitan Police was formed by Robert Peel with the implementation of the Metropolitan Police Act, passed by Parliament in 1829. Peel, with the help of Eugène-François Vidocq, selected the original site on Whitehall Place for the new police headquarters; the first two commissioners, Charles Rowan and Richard Mayne, along with various police officers and staff, occupied the building.
A private house, 4 Whitehall Place backed onto a street called Great Scotland Yard. By 1887, the Metropolitan Police headquarters had expanded from 4 Whitehall Place into several neighbouring addresses, including 3, 5, 21 and 22 Whitehall Place; the service outgrew its original site, new headquarters were built on the Victoria Embankment, overlooking the River Thames, south of what is now the Ministry of Defence's headquarters. In 1888, during the construction of the new building, workers discovered the dismembered torso of a female. In 1890, police headquarters moved to the new location, named New Scotland Yard. By this time, the Metropolitan Police had grown from its initial 1,000 officers to about 13,000 and needed more administrative staff and a bigger headquarters. Further increases in the size and responsibilities of the force required more administrators and space. Therefore, new buildings were constructed and completed in 1906 and 1940, so that New Scotland Yard became a three-building complex..
The first two buildings are now a Grade I listed structure known as the Norman Shaw Buildings. The original building at 4 Whitehall Place still has a rear entrance on Great Scotland Yard. Stables for some of the mounted branch are still located at 7 Great Scotland Yard, across the street from the first headquarters. By the 1960s the requirements of modern technology and further increases in the size of the force meant that it had outgrown its three-building complex on Victoria Embankment. In 1967 New Scotland Yard moved to a newly constructed building on Broadway, an existing office block acquired under a long-term lease. From 1967 to 2016, the third building of the first New Scotland Yard was used as the base for the Met's Territorial Support Group; the Met's senior management team, who oversee the service, were based at New Scotland Yard at 10 Broadway, close to St. James's Park station, along with the Met's crime database; this uses a national computer system developed for major crime enquiries by all British forces, called Home Office Large Major Enquiry System, more referred to by the backronym HOLMES, which recognises the great fictional detective Sherlock Holmes.
The training programme is called'Elementary', after Holmes's well-known, yet apocryphal, phrase "elementary, my dear Watson". Administrative functions are based at the Empress State Building, communication handling at the three Metcall complexes, rather than at Scotland Yard. During the 2000s, a number of security measures were added to the exterior of New Scotland Yard, including concrete barriers in front of ground-level windows as a countermeasure against car bombing, a concrete wall around the entrance to the building, a covered walkway from the street to the entrance into the building. Armed officers from the Diplomatic Protection Group patrolled the exterior of the building along with security staff. In 2008, the Metropolitan Police Authority bought the freehold of the building for around £120 million. In May 2013 the Metropolitan Police confirmed that the New Scotland Yard building on Broadway would be sold and the force's headquarters would be moved back to the Curtis Green Building on the Victoria Emb
The Ingenious Gentleman Sir Quixote of La Mancha, or just Don Quixote, is a Spanish novel by Miguel de Cervantes. Published in two parts, in 1605 and 1615, Don Quixote is the most influential work of literature from the Spanish Golden Age and the entire Spanish literary canon; as a founding work of modern Western literature, it appears high on lists of the greatest works of fiction published, such as the Bokklubben World Library collection that cites Don Quixote as the authors' choice for the "best literary work written". The story follows the adventures of a noble named Alonso Quixano who reads so many chivalric romances that he loses his sanity and decides to become a knight-errant, reviving chivalry and serving his country, under the name Don Quixote de la Mancha, he recruits a simple farmer, Sancho Panza, as his squire, who employs a unique, earthy wit in dealing with Don Quixote's rhetorical orations on antiquated knighthood. Don Quixote, in the first part of the book, does not see the world for what it is and prefers to imagine that he is living out a knightly story.
Throughout the novel, Cervantes uses such literary techniques as realism and intertextuality. The book had a major influence on the literary community, as evidenced by direct references in Alexandre Dumas' The Three Musketeers, Mark Twain's Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Edmond Rostand's Cyrano de Bergerac, as well as the word quixotic and the epithet Lothario; the 19th-century German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer cited Don Quixote as one of the four greatest novels written, along with Tristram Shandy, La Nouvelle Héloïse, Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre. When first published, Don Quixote was interpreted as a comic novel. After the French Revolution, it was better known for its central ethic that individuals can be right while society is quite wrong and seen as disenchanting. In the 19th century, it was seen as a social commentary, but no one could tell "whose side Cervantes was on". Many critics came to view the work as a tragedy in which Don Quixote's idealism and nobility are viewed by the post-chivalric world as insane, are defeated and rendered useless by common reality.
By the 20th century, the novel had come to occupy a canonical space as one of the foundations of modern literature. Cervantes wrote that the first chapters were taken from "the archives of La Mancha", the rest were translated from an Arabic text by the Moorish author Cide Hamete Benengeli; this metafictional trick appears to give a greater credibility to the text, implying that Don Quixote is a real character and that the events related occurred several decades prior to the recording of this account. However, it was common practice in that era for fictional works to make some pretense of being factual, such as the common opening line of fairy tales "Once upon a time in a land far away...". In the course of their travels, the protagonists meet innkeepers, goat-herders, priests, escaped convicts and scorned lovers; the aforementioned characters sometimes tell tales that incorporate events from the real world, like the conquest of the Kingdom of Maynila or battles in the Eighty Years' War. Their encounters are magnified by Don Quixote's imagination into chivalrous quests.
Don Quixote's tendency to intervene violently in matters irrelevant to himself, his habit of not paying debts, result in privations and humiliations. Don Quixote is persuaded to return to his home village; the narrator says that records of it have been lost. Alonso Quixano, the protagonist of the novel, is a Hidalgo, nearing 50 years of age, living in an unnamed section of La Mancha with his niece and housekeeper, as well as a boy, never heard of again after the first chapter. Although Quixano is a rational man, in keeping with the humoral physiology theory of the time, not sleeping adequately—because he was reading—has caused his brain to dry; as a result, he is given to anger and believes every word of these fictional books of chivalry to be true. Imitating the protagonists of these books, he decides to become a knight-errant in search of adventure. To these ends, he dons an old suit of armour, renames himself "Don Quixote", names his exhausted horse "Rocinante", designates Aldonza Lorenzo, a neighboring farm girl, as his lady love, renaming her Dulcinea del Toboso, while she knows nothing of this.
Expecting to become famous he arrives at an inn, which he believes to be a castle. He spends the night holding vigil over his armor and becomes involved in a fight with muleteers who try to remove his armor from the horse trough so that they can water their mules. In a pretended ceremony, the innkeeper sends him on his way. Don Quixote next "frees" a young boy named Andres, tied to a tree and beaten by his master, makes his master swear to treat the boy fairly. Don Quixote encounters traders from Toledo, who "insult" the imaginary Dulcinea, he attacks them, only to be
A comics artist is a person working within the comics medium on comic strips, comic books, or graphic novels. The term may refer to any number of artists who contribute to produce a work in the comics form, from those who oversee all aspects of the work to those who contribute only a part. Within the comic strip format, it is typical for one creator to produce the whole strip. However, it is not uncommon for the writing of the strip and the drawing of the art to be carried out by two different people, a writer and an artist. In some cases, one artist might draw key figures. Many strips were the work of two people. Shortly after Frank Willard began Moon Mullins in 1923, he hired Ferd Johnson as his assistant. For decades, Johnson received no credit. Willard and Johnson traveled about Florida, Los Angeles and Mexico, drawing the strip while living in hotels and farmhouses. At its peak of popularity during the 1940s and 1950s, the strip ran in 350 newspapers. According to Johnson, he had been doing the strip solo for at least a decade before Willard's death in 1958: "They put my name on it then.
I had been doing it about 10 years before that because Willard had heart attacks and strokes and all that stuff. The minute my name went on that his name went off, 25 papers dropped the strip; that shows you that, although I had been doing it ten years, the name means a lot." With regards to the comic book format, the work can be split in many different ways. The writing and the creation of the art can be split between two people, an example being From Hell, written by Alan Moore and drawn by Eddie Campbell; the writing of a comic book story can sometimes be shared between two people, with one person writing the plot and another the script. The artistic work is subdivided on work produced for the larger comic book publishers, with four people working on the art: a penciller, an inker, a colorist and a letterer. Sometimes this combination of four artists is augmented by a breakdown artist. However, this occurs only when an artist fails to meet a deadline or when a writer, sometimes referred to as a scripter, produces breakdown art.
Breakdown art is where the story has been laid out roughly in pencils to indicate panel layouts and character positions within panels but with no details. Such roughs are sometimes referred to as "layouts." The norm of four artists is sometimes reduced to three if the penciller inks his own work being credited within the book as a penciller/inker. John Byrne and Walt Simonson are artists; that these roles are interchangeable, many artists can fulfill different roles. Stan Sakai is a regarded letterer of comic books who creates his own series, Usagi Yojimbo. Producing his autobiographical works, Eddie Campbell has created both scripts and art, plus teaming with his daughter on the coloring. On Cerebus, for the majority of the run, Dave Sim created everything except the backgrounds, which were drawn by Gerhard. Glossary of comics terminology Daily comic strip Mangaka Sunday comics Sunday strip Comic Creators at Curlie
New Guinea is a large island separated by a shallow sea from the rest of the Australian continent. It is the world's third-largest island, after Australia and Greenland, covering a land area of 785,753 km2, arguably the largest wholly or within the Southern Hemisphere and Oceania; the eastern half of the island is the major land mass of the independent state of Papua New Guinea. The western half, referred to as either Western New Guinea or West Papua, has been administered by Indonesia since 1963 and comprises the provinces of Papua and West Papua; the island has been known by various names: The name Papua was used to refer to parts of the island before contact with the West. Its etymology is unclear; the name came from papo and ua, which means "not united" or, "territory that geographically is far away". Ploeg reports that the word papua is said to derive from the Malay word papua or pua-pua, meaning "frizzly-haired", referring to the curly hair of the inhabitants of these areas. Another possibility, put forward by Sollewijn Gelpke in 1993, is that it comes from the Biak phrase sup i papwa which means'the land below' and refers to the islands west of the Bird's Head, as far as Halmahera.
Whatever its origin, the name Papua came to be associated with this area, more with Halmahera, known to the Portuguese by this name during the era of their colonization in this part of the world. When the Portuguese and Spanish explorers arrived in the island via the Spice Islands, they referred to the island as Papua. However, the name New Guinea was used by Westerners starting with the Spanish explorer Yñigo Ortiz de Retez in 1545, referring to the similarities of the indigenous people's appearance with the natives of the Guinea region of Africa; the name is one of several toponyms sharing similar etymologies meaning "land of the blacks" or similar meanings, in reference to the dark skin of the inhabitants. The Dutch, who arrived under Jacob Le Maire and Willem Schouten, called it Schouten island, but this name was used only to refer to islands off the north coast of Papua proper, the Schouten Islands or Biak Island; when the Dutch colonized it as part of Netherlands East Indies, they called it Nieuw Guinea.
The name Irian was used in the Indonesian language to refer to the island and Indonesian province, as "Irian Jaya Province". The name was promoted in 1945 by brother of the future governor Frans Kaisiepo, it is taken from the Biak language of Biak Island, means "to rise", or "rising spirit". Irian is the name used in the Biak language and other languages such as Serui and Waropen; the name was used until 2001, when the name Papua was again used for the province. The name Irian, favored by natives, is now considered to be a name imposed by the authority of Jakarta. New Guinea is an island to the north of the Australian mainland, but south of the equator, it is isolated by the Arafura Sea to the west, the Torres Strait and Coral Sea to the east. Sometimes considered to be the easternmost island of the Indonesian archipelago, it lies north of Australia's Top End, the Gulf of Carpentaria and Cape York peninsula, west of the Bismarck Archipelago and the Solomon Islands Archipelago. Politically, the western half of the island comprises two provinces of Indonesia: Papua and West Papua.
The eastern half forms the mainland of the country of Papua New Guinea. The shape of New Guinea is compared to that of a bird-of-paradise, this results in the usual names for the two extremes of the island: the Bird's Head Peninsula in the northwest, the Bird's Tail Peninsula in the southeast. A spine of east–west mountains, the New Guinea Highlands, dominates the geography of New Guinea, stretching over 1,600 km from the'head' to the'tail' of the island, with many high mountains over 4,000 m; the western-half of the island of New Guinea contains the highest mountains in Oceania, rising up to 4,884 m high, higher than Mont Blanc in Europe, ensuring a steady supply of rain from the equatorial atmosphere. The tree line is around 4,000 m elevation and the tallest peaks contain permanent equatorial glaciers—which have been retreating since at least 1936. Various other smaller mountain ranges occur both west of the central ranges. Except in high elevations, most areas possess a warm humid climate throughout the year, with some seasonal variation associated with the northeast monsoon season.
The highest peaks on the island of New Guinea are: Puncak Jaya, sometimes known by its former Dutch name Carstensz Pyramid, is a mist-covered limestone mountain peak on the Indonesian side of the border. At 4,884 metres, Puncak Jaya makes New Guinea the world's fourth-highest landmass after Afro-Eurasia and Antarctica. Puncak Mandala located in Papua, is the second-highest peak on the island at 4,760 metres. Puncak Trikora in Papua, is 4,750 metres. Mount Wilhelm is the highest peak on the PNG side of the border at 4,509 metres, its granite peak is the highest point of the Bismarck Range. Mount Giluwe 4,368 metres is the second-highest summit in PNG, it is the highest volcanic peak in Oceania. Another major habitat featur
A television show is any content produced for broadcast via over-the-air, cable, or internet and viewed on a television set, excluding breaking news, advertisements, or trailers that are placed between shows. Television shows are most scheduled well ahead of time and appear on electronic guides or other TV listings. A television show might be called a television program if it lacks a narrative structure. A television series is released in episodes that follow a narrative, are divided into seasons or series – yearly or semiannual sets of new episodes. A show with a limited number of episodes may be called serial, or limited series. A one-time show may be called a "special". A television film is a film, broadcast on television rather than released in theaters or direct-to-video. Television shows can be viewed as they are broadcast in real time, be recorded on home video or a digital video recorder for viewing, or be viewed on demand via a set-top box or streamed over the internet; the first television shows were experimental, sporadic broadcasts viewable only within a short range from the broadcast tower starting in the 1930s.
Televised events such as the 1936 Summer Olympics in Germany, the 1937 coronation of King George VI in the UK, David Sarnoff's famous introduction at the 1939 New York World's Fair in the US spurred a growth in the medium, but World War II put a halt to development until after the war. The 1947 World Series inspired many Americans to buy their first television set and in 1948, the popular radio show Texaco Star Theater made the move and became the first weekly televised variety show, earning host Milton Berle the name "Mr Television" and demonstrating that the medium was a stable, modern form of entertainment which could attract advertisers; the first national live television broadcast in the US took place on September 4, 1951 when President Harry Truman's speech at the Japanese Peace Treaty Conference in San Francisco was transmitted over AT&T's transcontinental cable and microwave radio relay system to broadcast stations in local markets. The first national color broadcast in the US occurred on January 1, 1954.
During the following ten years most network broadcasts, nearly all local programming, continued to be in black-and-white. A color transition was announced for the fall of 1965, during which over half of all network prime-time programming would be broadcast in color; the first all-color prime-time season came just one year later. In 1972, the last holdout among daytime network shows converted to color, resulting in the first all-color network season. Television shows are more varied than most other forms of media due wide variety formats and genres that can be presented. A show may non-fictional, it may be historical. They could be instructional or educational, or entertaining as is the case in situation comedy and game shows. A drama program features a set of actors playing characters in a historical or contemporary setting; the program follows their adventures. Except for soap opera-type serials, many shows before the 1980s, remained static without story arcs, the main characters and premise changed little.
If some change happened to the characters' lives during the episode, it was undone by the end. Because of this, the episodes could be broadcast in any order. Since the 1980s, there are many series that feature progressive change to the plot, the characters, or both. For instance, Hill Street Blues and St. Elsewhere were two of the first American prime time drama television series to have this kind of dramatic structure. While the series, Babylon 5 is an extreme example of such production that had a predetermined story running over its intended five-season run. In 2012, it was reported that television was growing into a larger component of major media companies' revenues than film; some noted the increase in quality of some television programs. In 2012, Academy-Award-winning film director Steven Soderbergh, commenting on ambiguity and complexity of character and narrative, stated: "I think those qualities are now being seen on television and that people who want to see stories that have those kinds of qualities are watching television."
When a person or company decides to create a new series, they develop the show's elements, consisting of the concept, the characters, the crew, cast. They "pitch" it to the various networks in an attempt to find one interested enough to order a prototype first episode of the series, known as a pilot. Eric Coleman, an animation executive at Disney, told an interviewer, "One misconception is that it's difficult to get in and pitch your show, when the truth is that development executives at networks want much to hear ideas, they want much to get the word out on what types of shows they're looking for."To create the pilot, the structure and team of the whole series must be put together. If audiences respond well to the pilot, the network will pick up the show to air it the next season. Sometimes they save it for mid-season, or father review. Other times, they pass forcing the show's creator to "shop it around" to other networks. Many shows never make it past the pilot stage; the show hires a stable of writers, who usually