The Nintendo 3DS is a handheld game console produced by Nintendo. It is capable of displaying stereoscopic 3D effects without the use of 3D glasses or additional accessories. Nintendo announced the console in March 2010 and unveiled it at E3 2010 on June 15; the console succeeds the Nintendo DS, featuring backward compatibility with older Nintendo DS video games. Its primary competitor was the PlayStation Vita from Sony; the handheld offers new features such as the StreetPass and SpotPass tag modes, powered by Nintendo Network. It is pre-loaded with various applications including these: an online distribution store called Nintendo eShop, a social networking service called Miiverse; the Nintendo 3DS was released in Japan on February 26, 2011, worldwide beginning in March 2011. Less than six months on July 28, 2011, Nintendo announced a significant price reduction from US$249 to US$169 amid disappointing launch sales; the company offered ten free Nintendo Entertainment System games and ten free Game Boy Advance games from the Nintendo eShop to consumers who bought the system at the original launch price.
This strategy was considered a major success, the console went on to become one of Nintendo's most sold handheld consoles in the first two years of its release. As of September 30, 2018, the Nintendo 3DS family of systems combined have sold 73.53 million units. Several redesigns have been made since. An "entry-level" version of the console, the Nintendo 2DS, with a fixed "slate" form factor and lacking autostereoscopic functionality, was released in Western markets in October 2013; the New Nintendo 3DS features a more powerful CPU, a second analog stick called the C-Stick, additional buttons, an improved camera, other changes, was first released in Japan in October 2014. Nintendo began experimenting with stereoscopic 3D video game technology in the 1980s; the Famicom 3D System, an accessory consisting of liquid crystal shutter glasses, was Nintendo's first product that enabled stereoscopic 3D effects. Although few titles were released, Nintendo helped design one—called Famicom Grand Prix II: 3D Hot Rally—which was co-developed by Nintendo and HAL Laboratory and released in 1988.
The Famicom 3D System was never released outside Japan. Despite the limited success, Nintendo would press ahead with 3D development into the 1990s. Gunpei Yokoi, creator of the Game Boy handheld console and popular Metroid video game, developed a new 3D device for Nintendo called the Virtual Boy, it was a portable table-top system consisting of goggles and a controller that used a spinning disc to achieve full stereoscopic monochrome 3D. Released in 1995, the Virtual Boy sold fewer than a million units, spawning only 22 compatible game titles, was considered to be a commercial failure. Shigeru Miyamoto, known for his work on popular game franchises such as Mario and The Legend of Zelda, commented in a 2011 interview that he felt conflicted about Yokoi's decision to use wire-frame models for 3D and suggested that the product may not have been marketed correctly; the failure of the Virtual Boy left many at Nintendo doubting the viability of 3D gaming. Despite this, Nintendo continued to investigate the incorporation of 3D technology into other products.
The GameCube, released in 2001, is another 3D-capable system. With an LCD attachment, it could display true stereoscopic 3D, though only the launch title Luigi's Mansion was designed to utilize it. Due to the expensive nature of the requisite peripheral technology at the time, the GameCube's 3D functionality was never marketed to the public. Nintendo experimented with a 3D LCD during development of the Game Boy Advance SP, but the idea was shelved after it failed to achieve satisfactory results. Another attempt was made in preparation for a virtual navigation guide to be used on the Nintendo DS at Shigureden, an interactive museum in Japan. Nintendo president Hiroshi Yamauchi encouraged additional 3D research in an effort to use the technology in the exhibition. Although the project fell short, Nintendo was able to collect valuable research on liquid crystal which would aid in the development of the Nintendo 3DS. Speculation on the development of a successor to the Nintendo DS began in late 2009.
At the time, Nintendo controlled as much as 68.3 percent of the handheld gaming market. In October 2009, tech tabloid Bright Side of News reported that Nvidia, a graphics processing unit developer that made headway with its Tegra System-on-Chip processors, had been selected by Nintendo to develop hardware for their next generation portable game console; that month, speaking about the future for Nintendo's portable consoles, company president Satoru Iwata mentioned that while mobile broadband connectivity via subscription "doesn't fit Nintendo customers", he was interested in exploring options like Amazon's Whispernet found on the Amazon Kindle which provides free wireless connectivity to its customers for the sole purpose of browsing and purchasing content from the Kindle Store. Nintendo had expressed interest in motion-sensing capabilities since the development of the original Nintendo DS, an alleged comment by Satoru Iwata from a 2010 interview with Asahi Shimbun implied that the successo
The Nintendo eShop is a digital distribution service powered by the Nintendo Network for the Nintendo 3DS, Wii U, Nintendo Switch and by a dedicated online infrastructure for the Nintendo Switch. Launched in June 2011 on the Nintendo 3DS, the eShop was enabled by the release of a system update that added the functionality to the Nintendo 3DS's HOME Menu, it is the successor to both DSi Shop. Unlike on the Nintendo 3DS, the eShop was made available on the launch date of the Wii U, although a system update is required in order to access it, it is a multitasking application, which means it is accessible when a game is running in the background through the system software, though this feature is exclusive to the Wii U and the Nintendo Switch. The Nintendo eShop features downloadable games, applications, streaming videos, consumer rating feedback, other information on upcoming game releases; the Nintendo eShop icon appears as part of the HOME Menu on the Wii U, Nintendo 3DS, Nintendo Switch. It requires an Internet connection to access.
The two versions of the Nintendo eShop between the Nintendo 3DS and Wii U were independent of each other. Whilst this still remains true, after the implementation of Nintendo Network ID for the Nintendo 3DS, users that register the same ID account between both systems could share certain data between both versions of the eShop, such as a combined funds balance, home address, saved credit and debit card information, wish list entries, linked Club Nintendo accounts. With the release of the Nintendo Switch version of the Nintendo eShop, balance stored on a Nintendo Network ID can be shared or transferred to a Nintendo Account to be spent on the Nintendo Switch; the eShop stores a record of all downloads and purchases, allowing users to re-download purchased software at no additional charge, provided the software is still available on the eShop. Downloads can be started or they can be queued up and be pushed to the console while it is not in use or when the eShop application is not running. Users upgrading from a Nintendo DSi system can transfer their previous DSiWare purchases to the Nintendo 3DS, with limited exceptions, such as Flipnote Studio and the DSi web browser.
A December 2011 update enabled a similar feature allowing users to transfer their purchases between 3DS systems. Prior to the implementation of Nintendo Network ID for the Nintendo 3DS in December 2013, only five transfers between Nintendo 3DS systems were permitted; the limit on system transfers has since been permanently waived. Unlike the Wii Shop Channel and the DSi Shop services, which use Nintendo Points for purchases, the Nintendo eShop lists pricing in the appropriate regional currencies, such as dollars and euros. Accounts can be funded using prepaid cards purchased in stores; the Nintendo eShop can be accessed any time via the HOME menu screen when a game is running. This feature, however, is only available on Nintendo Switch. Background downloading is possible via SpotPass while using any other application on the Wii U or Nintendo Switch, while in Sleep Mode on Nintendo 3DS. 10 downloads can be queued at a time. The status of the downloads can be checked on the HOME menu under the "Download Manager".
If notifications are activated, a pop-up message will appear in the top right corner of the screen to notify the user that a download is finished. The Nintendo eShop supports user reviews of games and other media. After an eShop title has been acquired and used for at least one hour, users can submit a review consisting of a crescent range of one to five "stars", representing the title's quality. Users can categorize games by age and gender, as being suitable for either hardcore or casual gamers; the Wii U has Miiverse integration for user reviews on the Nintendo eShop. On September 13, 2012, during a Japanese Nintendo Direct presentation, Satoru Iwata introduced a new dimension to Nintendo's online offering, called Deluxe Digital Promotion /Nintendo Network Premium, it was a loyalty program similar to PlayStation Plus offered on PlayStation Network and Xbox Live Gold on Xbox Live. Consumers who purchase the Wii U Deluxe Pack in North America, or the Wii U Premium Pack in Europe and Japan, will receive a free two-year subscription to this service which lets Wii U owners receive points for each digital purchase.
Members who buy games and apps through the Wii U Nintendo eShop will receive ten percent of the price back in the form of Nintendo Points, which can subsequently be put towards future online purchases on both the Wii U and Nintendo 3DS eShop. The promotion was available through March 31, 2015; the program was discontinued on April 1, 2015 and the URL just leads to a discontinuation message and the reader gets a URL redirecting to Nintendo's official website. The service was never implemented beyond its promotional period, albeit succeeding the program My Nintendo features a similar concept for anyone who links their Nintendo Network ID to their Nintendo Account profile, where users can earn Gold Points via any Nintendo eShop purchase and redeem them for full downloads or discount coupons available; the following types of games and media are available to download from the Nintendo eShop: An extension of the WiiWare and DSiWare series of downloadable software, these titles have been created to utilize the capabilities of the Wii U and Nintendo 3DS respectively.
These can be videos, or games. The majority of Wii U, Nintendo 3DS, Nintendo Switch, as well as select Wii retail software titles are
A Scanner Darkly (film)
A Scanner Darkly is a 2006 American adult animated science-fiction thriller film directed by Richard Linklater, based on the novel of the same name by Philip K. Dick; the film tells the story of identity and deception in a near-future dystopia under intrusive high-tech police surveillance in the midst of a drug addiction epidemic. The film was shot digitally and animated using interpolated rotoscope, an animation technique in which animators trace over the original footage frame by frame, for use in live-action and animated films, giving the finished result a distinctive animated look; the film was written and directed by Richard Linklater and features the voices of Keanu Reeves, Robert Downey Jr. Woody Harrelson, Winona Ryder. Steven Soderbergh and George Clooney are among the executive producers. A Scanner Darkly had a limited release in July 7, 2006, a wider release that month; the film was screened at the 2006 Cannes Film Festival and the 2006 Seattle International Film Festival, nominated for the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation, Long Form in 2007.
The United States has lost the war on drugs. Substance D, a powerful and dangerous drug that causes bizarre hallucinations, has swept the country. 20% of the total population is addicted. In response, the government has developed an invasive, high-tech surveillance system and a network of undercover officers and informants. Bob Arctor is one of these undercover agents, assigned to immerse himself in the drug's underworld and infiltrate the supply chain. Sometime in the past, Arctor abandoned his wife and two children, leaving him alone in a now-rundown suburban house in Anaheim, California; the three spend their days having long, paranoiac conversations. At the police station, Arctor maintains privacy by wearing a "scramble suit" that changes every aspect of his appearance and he is known only by the code name "Fred." Arctor's senior officer, "Hank", all other undercover officers wear scramble suits, protecting their identities from each other. Since going undercover, Arctor himself has become addicted to Substance D and has befriended the main woman he has been spying on: a cocaine addict and Substance D supplier named Donna.
Arctor hopes to purchase large enough quantities of Substance D from Donna so that she is forced to introduce him to her own supplier, but he has developed unrequited romantic feelings towards her. At work, Hank orders Arctor to increase surveillance on Arctor his associates. Arctor, has to plan his double life, though his prolonged use of Substance D is damaging his brain, causing him to sometimes forget his own identity. Meanwhile, the justified paranoia of Arctor's housemates reaches extreme levels, Barris secretly communicates to the police his exaggerated belief that Donna and Arctor are terrorists. After Barris supplies the police with a faked recording proving his claims about Donna and Arctor, Hank orders that Barris be held on charges of providing false information. After Barris's arrest, Hank reveals to Arctor that he has deduced him to be the true identity of "Fred" by a process of elimination. Arctor repeats his own name in a disoriented, unfamiliar tone. Hank informs him that the real purpose of the surveillance was to catch Barris, not Arctor, that the police were deliberately increasing Barris's paranoia until he attempted to cover his tracks.
Hank reprimands Arctor for becoming addicted to Substance D, warns him that he will be disciplined with just a fine but a few months of penal labor. Hank "phones" Donna, asks her to take Arctor to New-Path, a corporation that runs a series of rehabilitation clinics, Arctor, becoming more disoriented, leaves Hank's office, cursing Hank aloud. Afterwards, Hank enters the locker room and removes his scramble suit, revealing his true identity to the audience: Donna. At the New-Path clinic, Arctor experiences the symptoms of Substance D withdrawal, including more severe brain damage, he mindlessly repeats what others tell him and utters simplistic responses. Some time Donna converses with a fellow police officer and the audience learns that New-Path is responsible for the manufacture and distribution of Substance D. Donna expresses her growing ethical aversion to their police work, in which they deliberately selected Arctor—without his knowledge—to become addicted to Substance D all along. Donna and Mike debate whether Arctor's mind will recover enough so that he grasps the situation and returns from serving his sentence with substantial evidence to shut down New-Path.
In the final scene, New-Path gives Arctor a new name "Bruce" and sends him from the clinic to a labor camp at an isolated New-Path farm, where he spots rows of blue flowers hidden between rows of corn. These flowers, referenced throughout the film, are the source of Substance D; as the film ends, Arctor hides a blue flower in his boot prepared to hand it over
Waking Life is a 2001 American philosophical adult animated docufiction film directed by Richard Linklater. The film explores a wide range of philosophical issues including the nature of reality and lucid dreams, the meaning of life, free will, existentialism, it is centered on a young man who wanders through a succession of dream-like realities wherein he encounters a series of individuals who engage in insightful philosophical discussions. The film was rotoscoped, although it was shot using digital video of live actors with a team of artists drawing stylized lines and colors over each frame with computers, rather than being filmed and traced onto cels on a lightbox; the film contains several parallels to Linklater's 1991 film Slacker. Ethan Hawke and Julie Delpy reprise their characters from Before Sunrise in one scene. Waking Life premiered at the 2001 Sundance Film Festival. An unnamed young man lives an ethereal existence that lacks transitions between everyday events and progresses toward an existential crisis.
He observes but participates in philosophical discussions involving other characters—ranging from quirky scholars and artists to everyday restaurant-goers and friends—about such issues as metaphysics, free will, social philosophy, the meaning of life. Other scenes do not include the protagonist's presence, but rather, focus on a random isolated person, group of people, or couple engaging in such topics from a disembodied perspective. Along the way, the film touches upon existentialism, situationist politics, the film theory of André Bazin, lucid dreaming, makes references to various celebrated intellectual and literary figures by name; the protagonist begins to realize that he is living out a perpetual dream, broken up only by occasional false awakenings. So far he is a passive onlooker, though this changes during a chat with a passing woman who approaches him. After she greets him and shares her creative ideas with him, he reminds himself that she is a figment of his own dreaming imagination.
Afterwards, he starts to converse more with other dream characters, but he begins to despair about being trapped in a dream. The protagonist's final talk is with a character whom he encountered earlier in the film; this last conversation reveals this other character's understanding that reality may be only a single instant that the individual interprets falsely as time. The protagonist is last seen walking into a driveway when he begins to levitate, paralleling a scene at the start of the film of a floating child in the same driveway; the protagonist uncertainly reaches toward the car's handle, but is too swiftly lifted above the vehicle and over the trees. He rises into the endless blue expanse of the sky. Wiley Wiggins plays the protagonist; the film features appearances from a wide range of actors and non-actors, including: In a 2001 interview Linklater estimated that the idea for the film came "before I was interested in film 20 years ago". Despite the long gestation process in his head, Linklater noted that before he came up with the idea of rotoscoping, the film "didn't quite work" calling it "too blunt, too realistic" stating that "I think to make a realistic film about an unreality the film had to be a realistic unreality".
Adding to the dream-like effect, the film used an animation technique based on rotoscoping. Animators overlaid live action footage with animation that approximates the images filmed; this technique is similar in some respects to the rotoscope style of 1970s filmmaker Ralph Bakshi. Rotoscoping itself, was not Bakshi's invention, but that of experimental silent film maker Max Fleischer, who patented the process in 1917. A variety of artists were employed, so the feel of the movie continually changes, gets stranger as time goes on; the result is a shifting dreamscape. The animators used inexpensive "off-the-shelf" Apple Macintosh computers; the film was produced using Rotoshop, a custom-made rotoscoping program that creates blends between key frame vector shapes, which makes use of virtual "layers", created for the production by Bob Sabiston. Linklater used this animation method again for his 2006 film A Scanner Darkly. Waking Life premiered at the Sundance Film Festival in January 2001, was given a limited release in the United States on October 19, 2001.
Critical reaction has been positive. It holds a rating of 80% across 137 reviews on review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes — with critical consensus that "the talky, animated Waking Life is a unique, cerebral experience" — and an average score of 82/100 on Metacritic, based on 31 reviews. Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times gave the film four stars out of four, describing it as "a cold shower of bracing, clarifying ideas". Ebert included the film on his list of "Great Movies". Lisa Schwarzbaum of Entertainment Weekly awarded the film an "A" rating, calling it "a work of cinematic art in which form and structure pursues the logic-defying subjects of dreaming and moviegoing," while Stephen Holden of The New York Times wrote it was "so verbally dexterous and visually innovative that you can't absorb it unless you have all your wits about you". Dave Kehr of The New York Times found the film to be "lovely, funny" and stated that it "never feels heavy or over-ambitious
Lars von Trier
Lars von Trier is a Danish film director and screenwriter with a prolific and controversial career spanning four decades. His work is known for its technical innovation. Among his more than 100 awards and 200 nominations at film festivals worldwide, von Trier has received: the Palme d'Or, the Grand Prix, the Prix du Jury, the Technical Grand Prize at the Cannes Film Festival. In March 2017, he began filming The House That Jack Built, an English-language serial killer thriller. Von Trier is the founder and shareholder of the international film production company Zentropa Films, which has sold more than 350 million tickets and garnered seven Academy Award nominations over the past 25 years. Von Trier was born in Kongens Lyngby, north of Copenhagen, to Inger Høst and Fritz Michael Hartmann, he received his surname from Høst's husband, Ulf Trier, whom he believed was his biological father until 1989. He studied film theory at the University of Copenhagen and film direction at the National Film School of Denmark.
At 25, he won two Best School Film awards at the Munich International Festival of Film Schools for Nocturne and Last Detail. The same year, he added the German nobiliary particle "von" to his name as a satirical homage to the self-invented titles of directors Erich von Stroheim and Josef von Sternberg, saw his graduation film Images of Liberation released as a theatrical feature. In 1984, The Element of Crime, von Trier's breakthrough film, received twelve awards at seven international festivals including the Technical Grand Prize at Cannes, a nomination for the Palme d'Or; the film's slow, non-linear pace and multi-leveled plot design, dark dreamlike visual effects combine to create an allegory for traumatic European historical events. His next film, was shown at Cannes in the Un Certain Regard section; the film features two story lines that collide: the chronicle of two filmmakers in the midst of developing a new project, a dark science fiction tale of a futuristic plague – the film von Trier and Vørsel are depicted making.
Von Trier has referred to his films as falling into thematic and stylistic trilogies. This pattern began with The Element of Crime, the first of the Europa trilogy, which illuminated traumatic periods in Europe both in the past and the future, it includes The Element of Crime and Europa. Von Trier directed Medea for television, it is based on a screenplay by Carl Th. Dreyer and stars Udo Kier. Trier completed the Europa trilogy in 1991 with Europa, which won the Prix du Jury at the 1991 Cannes Film Festival, picked up awards at other major festivals. In 1990 he directed the music video for the song "Bakerman" by Laid Back; this video was re-used in 2006 by artist Shaun Baker in his remake of the song. Seeking financial independence and creative control over their projects, in 1992 von Trier and producer Peter Aalbæk Jensen founded the film production company Zentropa Entertainment. Named after a fictional railway company in Europa, their most recent film at the time, Zentropa has produced many movies other than Trier's own, as well as several television series.
It has produced hardcore sex films: Constance, Pink Prison, HotMen CoolBoyz, All About Anna. To make money for his newly founded company, von Trier made The Kingdom and The Kingdom II, a pair of miniseries recorded in the Danish national hospital, the name "Riget" being a colloquial name for the hospital known as Rigshospitalet in Danish. A projected third season of the series was derailed by the death in 1998 of Ernst-Hugo Järegård, who played Dr. Helmer, that of Kirsten Rolffes, who played Mrs. Drusse, in 2000, two of the major characters. In 1995 von Trier and Thomas Vinterberg presented their manifesto for a new cinematic movement, which they called Dogme 95; the Dogme 95 concept, which led to international interest in Danish film, inspired filmmakers all over the world. In 2008, together with their fellow Dogme directors Kristian Levring and Søren Kragh-Jacobsen, von Trier and Thomas Vinterberg received the European film award for European Achievement in World Cinema. In 1996 von Trier conducted an unusual theatrical experiment in Copenhagen involving 53 actors, which he titled Psychomobile 1: The World Clock.
A documentary chronicling the project was directed by Jesper Jargil, was released in 2000 with the title De Udstillede. Von Trier achieved his greatest international success with his Golden Heart trilogy; each film in the trilogy is about naive heroines who maintain their "golden hearts" despite the tragedies they experience. This trilogy consists of: Breaking the Waves, The Idiots, Dancer in the Dark. While all three films are sometimes associated with the Dogme 95 movement, only The Idiots is a certified Dogme 95 film. Breaking the Waves, the first film in his Golden Heart trilogy, won the Grand Prix at the Cannes Film Festival and featured Emily Watson, nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actress, its grainy images, hand-held photography, pointed towards Dogme 95 but violated several of the manifesto's rules, therefore d
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The Five Obstructions
The Five Obstructions is a 2003 Danish documentary film directed by Lars von Trier and Jørgen Leth. The film is conceived as a documentary, but incorporates lengthy sections of experimental films produced by the filmmakers; the premise is that von Trier has created a challenge for his friend and mentor, Jørgen Leth, another renowned filmmaker. Lars von Trier's favorite film is Leth's The Perfect Human, von Trier gives Leth the task of remaking The Perfect Human five times, each time with a different "obstruction" imposed by von Trier, it has been said that "oth this film and Dogville show a more mature von Trier, one, more aware of and accountable to the full implications of the torture and victimization he has employed in his films in exploring how those who victimize others in the name of righteousness become victims their own self-righteousness." Leth must remake the film in Cuba, with no set, with no shot lasting longer than twelve frames, he must answer the questions posed in the original film.
Leth must remake the film in the worst place in the world but not show that place onscreen. The meal must be included. Leth remakes the film in the red light district of Mumbai, only hiding it behind a translucent screen; because Leth failed to complete the second task von Trier punishes him, telling him to either remake the film in any way he chooses, or else to repeat it again with the second obstruction in Mumbai. Leth remakes the film in Brussels, using split-screen effects. Leth must remake the film as a cartoon, he does so with the aid of Bob Sabiston, a specialist in rotoscoping, who creates animated versions of shots from the previous films. As such the final product is technically an animation but not a cartoon. Von Trier considers the task to be completed successfully; the fifth obstruction is that von Trier has made the fifth version, but it must be credited as Leth's, Leth must read a voice-over narration, ostensibly from his own perspective but in fact one written by von Trier. In 2010 Variety reported rumors that Lars von Trier, Martin Scorsese, Robert De Niro planned to work on a remake of Scorsese's film Taxi Driver with the film made with same restrictions as were used in The Five Obstructions.
In 2014 Paul Schrader, the screenwriter for Taxi Driver said. He said, "It was a terrible idea" and "in Marty's mind, it never was something that should be done." The Five Obstructions received positive reviews from critics. It holds a 79/100 on Metacritic, Rotten Tomatoes reports 88% approval among 59 critics, it was voted one of the 30 best films of the 2000s in a poll for Sight & Sound. Hjort, Mette; the Five Obstructions. In Livingston, Paisley Nathan; the Routledge Companion to Philosophy and Film. Routledge Philosophy Companions. London: Routledge, pp. 631–640. ISBN 978-0-415-77166-5. Retrieved 11 October 2010. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list The Five Obstructions on IMDb Movies You May Have Missed – Episode 18: "We Challenge You to Watch The Five Obstructions" The Five Obstructions at Rotten Tomatoes The Five Obstructions at AllMovie