Watsonville is a city in Santa Cruz County, United States. The population was 51,199 according to the 2010 census. Located on the central coast of California, the economy centers predominantly around the farming industry, it is known for growing strawberries, lettuce and a host of other vegetables. Watsonville is home to people of varied ethnic backgrounds. There is a large Hispanic population, as well as groups of Croatians, Portuguese and Japanese that live and work in the city; the Pajaro Valley, where Watsonville is located, has a climate, around 60 to 70 degrees Fahrenheit throughout much of the year. This climate makes Watsonville an attractive coastal environment for the neighboring inland communities with hot summers; the Pajaro Valley Unified School District has an attendance of about 18,000 students kindergarten through 12th grades. There are several private religious-based schools in Watsonville such as Notre Dame School, Monte Vista Christian, Salesian Sisters, St. Francis. There are several charter schools and the non-religious independent Pre-K through 12th grade Mount Madonna School.
These schools provide a wide range of educational options for local families. Watsonville is conservative on the political spectrum, average relative to the neighboring communities of Salinas and Prunedale, it is, however, a self-designated sanctuary city. The larger coastal town directly north of Watsonville is the city of Santa Cruz. Santa Cruz is a draw for many young college students who attend Cabrillo College or University of California, Santa Cruz; because Watsonville and Santa Cruz are beach towns, they draw many visitors from San Jose and from the Central Valley areas. Like neighboring Salinas in Monterey County, Watsonville produces a variety of fruits and vegetables apples, blackberries and table mushrooms. Watsonville's land was first inhabited by an Indian tribe called the Costanoans; this tribe settled along the Pajaro Dunes since the land was fertile and useful for the cultivation of their plants and animals. In 1796, European explorers came to the land where they claimed to have seen a big bird along the side of the river, this symbol helped explorers to establish the name of the main river, which they identified as Rio del Pajaro, or River of the Bird.
This river that runs along the boundaries of the city divides the Santa Cruz County and the Monterey County. In 1847, the second wave of European explorers was presented to this land where they decided to settle. Forty of these explorers lived in the city and had animals and some crops. In 1848, the gold rush in the Sierra Mountains was an important event for the city because people began to buy land for the low price that it had, allowing them to acquire large acres of property where farming and ranching would be among the simple practices that would shape the economy of the city; the community was incorporated as the Town of Watsonville on or about March 30, 1868 and named after Judge John Watson. The town changed its name to the City of Watsonville about 1889; the voters adopted a charter in 1903. The Watsonville Railway and Navigation Company operated an interurban railway to Port Watsonville on Monterey Bay where it connected with an overnight produce packet to San Francisco from 1904 to 1913.
The first European land exploration of Alta California, the Spanish Portolà expedition, passed through the area on its way north, camping at one of the lakes north of town for five nights, on October 10–14, 1769. Many of the expedition soldiers were suffering from scurvy, so progress was slow. While the sick recuperated, scouts led by Sergeant Ortega went ahead to find the best way forward. On the fifth day, Franciscan missionary Juan Crespi, traveling with the expedition, noted in his diary that, "This afternoon the explorers returned; the sergeant reported that he had gone ahead twelve leagues without getting any information of the harbor that we are looking for, that he went to the foot of a high, white mountain range."During the October 10 march, the explorers first saw the Coast redwood tree. A bronze plaque at Pinto Lake commemorates the event. On October 15, the expedition continued to the northwest past today's community of Freedom, camping that night at Corralitos Lagoon. Watsonville is located on the Rancho Bolsa del Pajaro Mexican land grant made to Sebastian Rodríguez in 1837.
Judge John H. Watson and D. S. Gregory laid out the town in 1852. Watsonville was incorporated on March 30, 1868; the main industries in Watsonville are construction and manufacturing. Some of the largest companies headquartered in Watsonville are Monterey Mushrooms, Martinelli's, Fox Racing Shox, Nordic Naturals, Granite Construction, West Marine, California Giant, A&I Transport Inc. and Orion Telescopes & Binoculars. Watsonville is known for the production of crops and goods in the agricultural business along the Northern Pacific Coast; the city's economy is dependent on its agro-business market and in the distribution of crops to different parts of the world. The crops that are fundamental to the economy include: strawberries, broccoli, natural plants, raspberries. Companies such as Driscoll's and California Giant spend around $280 million every year in the processing and transportation of fresh food to most cities in the area, such as San Jose, Castroville and Santa Cruz, California where the numbers of these fruits and vegetables are insufficient for the demand of the people.
The large investments by big corporations in the city and the labor force, which accounts for 75% of Latino workers, have helped the city to become ranked amongst the top most important farming cities in the United States for i
Formula One is the highest class of single-seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile and owned by the Formula One Group. The FIA Formula One World Championship has been one of the premier forms of racing around the world since its inaugural season in 1950; the word "formula" in the name refers to the set of rules to which all participants' cars must conform. A Formula One season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, which take place worldwide on purpose-built circuits and on public roads; the results of each race are evaluated using a points system to determine two annual World Championships: one for drivers, the other for constructors. Drivers must hold valid Super Licences, the highest class of racing licence issued by the FIA; the races must run on tracks graded "1", the highest grade-rating issued by the FIA. Most events occur in rural locations on purpose-built tracks, but several events take place on city streets. Formula One cars are the fastest regulated road-course racing cars in the world, owing to high cornering speeds achieved through the generation of large amounts of aerodynamic downforce.
The cars underwent major changes in 2017, allowing wider front and rear wings, wider tyres, resulting in cornering forces closing in on 6.5g and top speeds of up to 375 km/h. As of 2019 the hybrid engines are limited in performance to a maximum of 15,000 rpm and the cars are dependent on electronics—although traction control and other driving aids have been banned since 2008—and on aerodynamics and tyres. While Europe is the sport's traditional base, the championship operates globally, with 11 of the 21 races in the 2018 season taking place outside Europe. With the annual cost of running a mid-tier team—designing and maintaining cars, transport—being US$120 million, Formula One has a significant economic and job-creation effect, its financial and political battles are reported, its high profile and popularity have created a major merchandising environment, which has resulted in large investments from sponsors and budgets. On 8 September 2016 Bloomberg reported that Liberty Media had agreed to buy Delta Topco, the company that controls Formula One, from private-equity firm CVC Capital Partners for $4.4 billion in cash and convertible debt.
On 23 January 2017 Liberty Media confirmed the completion of the acquisition for $8 billion. The Formula One series originated with the European Grand Prix Motor Racing of the 1930s; the formula is a set of rules. Formula One was a new formula agreed upon after World War II during 1946, with the first non-championship races being held that year. A number of Grand Prix racing organisations had laid out rules for a world championship before the war, but due to the suspension of racing during the conflict, the World Drivers' Championship was not formalised until 1947; the first world championship race was held at Silverstone, United Kingdom in 1950. A championship for constructors followed in 1958. National championships existed in the UK in the 1960s and 1970s. Non-championship Formula One events were held for many years, but due to the increasing cost of competition, the last of these occurred in 1983. On 26 November 2017, Formula One unveiled its new logo, following the 2017 season finale in Abu Dhabi during the Abu Dhabi Grand Prix at Yas Marina Circuit.
The new logo replaced F1's iconic'flying one', the sport's trademark since 1993. After a hiatus in European motor racing brought about by the outbreak of World War II in 1939, the first World Championship for Drivers was won by Italian Giuseppe Farina in his Alfa Romeo in 1950, narrowly defeating his Argentine teammate Juan Manuel Fangio. However, Fangio won the title in 1951, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, his streak interrupted by two-time champion Alberto Ascari of Ferrari. Although the UK's Stirling Moss was able to compete he was never able to win the world championship, is now considered to be the greatest driver never to have won the title. Fangio, however, is remembered for dominating Formula One's first decade and has long been considered the "Grand Master" of Formula One; this period featured teams managed by road car manufacturers Alfa Romeo, Mercedes-Benz, Maserati. The first seasons were run using pre-war cars like Alfa's 158, they were front-engined, with narrow tyres and 1.5-litre supercharged or 4.5-litre aspirated engines.
The 1952 and 1953 World Championships were run to Formula Two regulations, for smaller, less powerful cars, due to concerns over the paucity of Formula One cars available. When a new Formula One, for engines limited to 2.5 litres, was reinstated to the world championship for 1954, Mercedes-Benz introduced the advanced W196, which featured innovations such as desmodromic valves and fuel injection as well as enclosed streamlined bodywork. Mercedes drivers won the championship for two years, before the team withdrew from all motorsport in the wake of the 1955 Le Mans disaster. An era of British dominance was ushered in by Mike Hawthorn and Vanwall's championship wins in 1958, although Stirling Moss had been at the forefront of the sport without securing the world title. Between Hawthorn, Jim Clark, Jackie Stewart, John Surtees and Graham Hill, British drivers won nine Drivers' Championships and British teams won fourteen Constructors' Championsh
Darlington Raceway is a race track built for NASCAR racing located near Darlington, South Carolina. It is nicknamed "The Lady in Black" and "The Track Too Tough to Tame" by many NASCAR fans and drivers and advertised as "A NASCAR Tradition." It is of a unique, somewhat egg-shaped design, an oval with the ends of different configurations, a condition which arose from the proximity of one end of the track to a minnow pond the owner refused to relocate. This situation makes it challenging for the crews to set up their cars' handling in a way that will be effective at both ends. Harold Brasington was a retired racer in 1948, who had gotten to know Bill France, Sr. while competing against France at the Daytona Beach Road Course and other dirt tracks in the Southeast and Midwestern United States. He began planning a new speedway after he noticed the huge crowds while attending the 1948 Indianapolis 500 and thought, "If Tony Hulman can do it here, I can do it back home." Brasington bought 70 acres from farmer Sherman Ramsey, started making a race track from a cotton and peanut field.
However, he was forced to create an egg-shaped oval with one corner tighter and more steeply banked because he promised Ramsey that the new track wouldn't disturb Ramsey's minnow pond at the west side of the property. Brasington was able to make the other turn at the east side of the property wide and flat as he wanted, it took a year to build the track. Brasington made a deal in the summer of 1950 with France to run a 500-mile race in Darlington on Labor Day that year; the first Southern 500 carried a record $25,000 purse, was co-sanctioned by NASCAR and its rival Central States Racing Association. More than 80 entrants showed up for the race. Brasington used a 2-week qualifying scheme similar to the one used at the Indianapolis 500. Brasington was inspired by Indianapolis when he had the 75-car field aligned in 25 rows of three cars; these practices have been curtailed over the years as NASCAR adopted a more uniform set of guidelines with regard to the number of cars which could qualify for a race.
The race was won by Johnny Mantz in a car owned by France. In recent years the track has been reconfigured. Seating has been increased to 65,000, although it has been limited by the proximity of a highway behind the back stretch and another pond. Darlington has something of a legendary quality among older fans; the track earned the moniker The Lady in Black because the night before the race the track maintenance crew would cover the entire track with fresh asphalt sealant, in the early years of the speedway, thus making the racing surface dark black. Darlington is known as "The Track Too Tough to Tame" because drivers can run lap after lap without a problem and bounce off of the wall the following lap. Racers will explain that they have to race the racetrack, not their competition. Drivers hitting the wall are considered to have received their "Darlington Stripe" thanks to the missing paint on the right side of the car. On January 28, 2019, it was revealed on ISC's 2018 annual report that the raceway's track seating was reduced from 58,000 to 47,000.
For many years, Darlington was the site of two annual Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series races. One, the Rebel 400, was held in the spring while the other, the Southern 500, was always held on Labor Day weekend. In 2003, the Labor Day race was given to California Speedway, the Southern 500 was moved to November 2004 and was run as part of the Chase for the Nextel Cup. In 2005, NASCAR eliminated the Southern 500 altogether as a result of the Ferko lawsuit, offending many fans who had followed the sport for generations; the race was merged into the 400-mile spring race, moved to Mother's Day weekend. A 500-mile race named after a Dodge vehicle was held for the next four years, before the race was given the Southern 500 moniker in 2009; the move was the result of several factors. Darlington suffered from poor ticket sales in the spring. Part of this is due to the track's location in the Textile Belt of South Carolina, where there has been an ongoing general economic decline for many years. Additionally, there is little of interest to the average fan from outside the Darlington area other than the events at the track itself.
Many newer NASCAR venues are near major cities to avoid this problem. A further factor in the move was an ongoing desire by NASCAR to spread its events out over more of the country. However, the novelty having now worn off of many of these newer races and venues, several of them are now suffering much worse attendance than Darlington has experienced. Darlington received a $10 million upgrade in the largest investment in the track's history; this followed a $6 million upgrade the previous year, which included an entire repaving of the oval for the first time since 1995. In 2014, Darlington was run in April. In 2015, the Southern 500 returned to its traditional Labor Day weekend date. Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series Qualifying: Aric Almirola, 26.705 s – 184.145 miles per hour, April 11, 2014 Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series Race: Matt Kenseth, 3 h 32 min 29 s – 141.383 miles per
1952 Indianapolis 500
The 36th International 500-Mile Sweepstakes was held at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway on Friday, May 30, 1952. The event was part of the 1952 AAA National Championship Trail and was race 2 of 8 in the 1952 World Championship of Drivers. Troy Ruttman won the race for car owner J. C. Agajanian. Ruttman, aged 22 years and 80 days, set the record for the youngest 500 winner in history, it was the last dirt track car to win at Indy. Ruttman's win saw him become the youngest winner of a World Drivers' Championship race, a record he would hold for 51 years until the 2003 Hungarian Grand Prix when Spanish driver Fernando Alonso won at the age of 22 years and 26 days. Bill Vukovich led 150 laps, he nursed his car to a stop against the outside wall, preventing other cars from getting involved in the incident. In the third year that the 500 was included in the World Championship, Ferrari entered the race with Alberto Ascari; the effort gained considerable attention. It was the only World Championship race in 1952 that Ascari did not win.
Fifth place finisher Art Cross was voted the Rookie of the Year. Though at least one rookie starter was in the field every year dating back to 1911, this was the first time the now-popular award was designated. Time trials was scheduled for four days. Saturday May 17 – Pole Day time trials Sunday May 18 – Second day time trials Saturday May 24 – Third day time trials Sunday May 25 – Fourth day time trials Monday May 26 – Fifth day time trials Notes^1 – 1 point for fastest lead lap Pole position: Fred Agabashian – 4:20.85 Agabashian's Cummins Diesel Special was the first entry in the Indianapolis 500 to be powered by a turbocharged engine. Gear-driven centrifugal blowers known as "superchargers" had been used since the 1920s to increase the volumetric efficiency and power output of racing engines, but the Cummins Diesel was the first to make use of the "free" energy contained in the engine exhaust stream to drive a turbine wheel connected to a centrifugal blower. Fastest Lead Lap: Bill Vukovich – 1:06.60 As of 2015, Troy Ruttman remains the youngest driver to win the Indianapolis 500, at 22 years and 80 days.
Ruttman became the youngest driver to win a race counting for the Formula One championship. His record was broken by Fernando Alonso at the 2003 Hungarian Grand Prix. Alberto Ascari marked the first instance of a driver competing for the World Drivers' Championship to race in the 500. Although he finished 31st at Indy, he went on to win all of the remaining races and the title. 1952 was the only occasion when the fastest and slowest qualifiers for the race started next to each other. The race was carried live on the radio on the Indianapolis Motor Speedway Radio Network. During the offseason, the Speedway management created the network to handle broadcasting duties in-house; the arrangement was under the flagship of 1070 WIBC-AM of Indianapolis, featured a crew that consisted of WIBC talent. WIBC landed exclusive rights of the broadcast in the Indianapolis market, which would draw the ire of the other major stations in the area. In years, the broadcast would be carried on all five stations inside the city.
Sid Collins served as booth announcer. Jim Shelton was among the turn reporters, reporting from turn 4. Gordon Graham reported from victory lane. Like previous years, the broadcast featured live coverage of the start, the finish, 15-minute live updates throughout the race. At least twenty stations around the county picked up the broadcast. World Drivers' Championship standingsNote: Only the top five positions are included. Only the best 4 results counted towards the Championship. Indianapolis 500 History: Race & All-Time Stats – Official Site Van Camp's Pork & Beans Presents: Great Moments From the Indy 500 – Fleetwood Sounds, 1975
1954 Formula One season
The 1954 Formula One season was eighth season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured a number of non-championship races; the World Championship of Drivers was contested over a nine race series which commenced on 17 January and ended on 24 October 1954. The championship was won by Juan Manuel Fangio who drove, won races, for both Maserati and Mercedes-Benz over the course of the series. Argentine drivers gained the first two positions in the championship with José Froilán González placing second to his compatriot Fangio. With Formula One changing to 2.5 litre unsupercharged engines for 1954, Mercedes re-entered grand prix racing for the first time since the Second World War at the French Grand Prix with a streamlined single seater which Fangio and Karl Kling took to a 1–2 win. Fangio's French success had come after switching from the Maserati team, with whom he had won the first two Grands Prix of the season. Although the streamlined, closed-wheel body proved unsuitable for Silverstone, Mercedes produced a more conventional open-wheel body for the Nürburgring race.
Reigning champion Alberto Ascari had a less successful switch of teams, choosing to leave Ferrari for the newly formed Lancia team. Lancia's car, the D50, was not ready until the final World Championship race, meaning he had to sit out most of his title defence. Championship points were awarded for first five places in each race on an 8, 6, 4, 3, 2 basis with 1 point awarded for the fastest lap. Only the best five of nine scores counted towards the championship. Points for shared drives were divided between the drivers, regardless of who had driven more laps unless one of the drivers was deemed to have completed "insufficient distance". Drivers who shared more than one car during a race received points only for their highest finish. Argentine Onofre Marimón was killed during practice for the German Grand Prix driving a Maserati 250F, it was the first fatality at a championship Formula One race weekend. The following races counted towards the 1954 World Championship of Drivers. All championship races were open to cars complying with FIA Formula One regulations with the exception of the Indianapolis 500, for cars complying with AAA National Championship regulations, counted towards the 1954 AAA Championship.
The Dutch Grand Prix was supposed to be held at Zandvoort but there was no money for the race to be held, it was cancelled. The German Grand Prix was given the honorary title of being the European Grand Prix of 1954; the following teams and drivers competed in the 1954 FIA World Championship of Drivers. Italics indicate fastest lap Bold indicates pole position † Position shared between multiple drivers of the same car ‡ Several cars were shared in this race. See the race page for details. Only the best 5 results counted towards the Championship. Numbers without parentheses are Championship points; the following is a summary of the races for Formula One cars staged during the 1954 season that did not count towards the 1954 World Championship of Drivers
1952 Formula One season
The 1952 Formula One season was the sixth season of FIA Formula One motor racing. In comparison to previous seasons, the 1952 season consisted of a small number of Formula One races, following the decision to run all the Grand Prix events counting towards the World Championship of Drivers to Formula Two regulations rather than Formula One; the Indianapolis 500 was still run to AAA regulations as in previous seasons. The 3rd FIA World Championship of Drivers, which began on 18 May and ended on 7 September after eight races, was won by Alberto Ascari, driving for Scuderia Ferrari. In addition to the Formula One races and the World Championship Formula Two races, numerous other Formula Two races, which did not count towards the Championship, were held during the year. Alfa Romeo, unable to fund a new car, withdrew from racing, while BRM had been preparing two V16-powered cars for the season but withdrew them before an April race at Valentino Park, whilst attempting to enlist Juan Manuel Fangio as teammate to Stirling Moss, leaving Ferrari as the only serious Formula One contender.
This led World Championship organizers to run their races for Formula Two, utilising 2-litre aspirated engines, which meant larger fields and a greater variety of cars if the victories all went to Ferrari. Ascari won the six Grands Prix he entered, missing the Swiss race because he was at Indianapolis qualifying for the Indianapolis 500 – the first European to do so in the World Championship era. Maserati and Gordini offered little challenge, but Mike Hawthorn's drives in his Cooper would earn him a works Ferrari drive in 1953. Reigning champion Fangio, badly injured in an early season crash at Monza, took no part in the championship, but was to go on to drive for BRM; the 1952 World Championship of Drivers was contested over an eight race series. All 1952 World Championship Grand Prix events were restricted to Formula Two cars and the Indianapolis 500-Mile Race, which counted towards the 1952 AAA Championship, was contested by AAA National Championship cars; the Spanish Grand Prix was scheduled to be held on October 26 at the Pedralbes Circuit in Barcelona, but was cancelled.
The following teams and drivers competed in the 1952 FIA World Championship of Drivers. The list does not include those. * Car entered only in the Indianapolis 500 race Points were awarded to top five finishers in each race on an 8–6–4–3–2 basis. One point was awarded for fastest lap. Points for shared drives were divided between the drivers, regardless of who had driven more laps. Only the best four of eight scores counted towards the World Championship. Italics indicate fastest lap Bold indicates pole position † Position shared between more drivers of the same car Only the best four results counted towards the Championship. Numbers without parentheses are Championship points. Other Formula One/Formula Two races, which did not count towards the World Championship of Drivers, were held in 1952
Kurtis Kraft was an American designer and builder of race cars. The company built midget cars, sports cars, sprint cars, Bonneville cars, USAC Championship cars, it was founded by Frank Kurtis. Kurtis built some low fiberglass bodied two-seaters sports cars under his own name in Glendale, California between 1949 and 1955. Ford running gear was used. About 36 cars had been made when the licence was sold to Earl "Madman" Muntz who built the Muntz Jet. In 1954 and 1955, road versions of their Indianapolis racers were offered. Kurtis Kraft created over 550 ready-to-run midget cars, 600 kits; the Kurtis Kraft chassis midget car featured a smaller version of the Offenhauser motor. The National Midget Auto Racing Hall of Fame describes the combination as "virtually unbeatable for over twenty years." Kurtis Kraft created 120 Indianapolis 500 cars, including five winners. Kurtis sold the midget car portion of the business to Johnny Pawl in the late 1950s, the quarter midget business to Ralph Potter in 1962.
Frank Kurtis was the first non-driver inducted in the National Midget Auto Racing Hall of Fame. Zeke Justice and Ed Justice of the Justice Brothers both worked at Kurtis-Kraft after World War II. Zeke Justice was the first employee at Kurtis-Kraft; the FIA World Drivers' Championship included the Indianapolis 500 between 1950 and 1960, so many Kurtis Kraft cars are credited with competing in that championship. One Kurtis midget car was entered in the 1959 Formula One United States Grand Prix driven by Rodger Ward, it was not designed for European-style road racing and with an undersized engine it circulated at the back of the field for 20 laps before retiring with clutch problems. From 1950 to 1960, the Indianapolis 500 was part of the FIA World Championship