Physical model is a smaller or larger physical copy of an object. The object being modelled may be large; the geometry of the model and the object it represents are similar in the sense that one is a rescaling of the other. However, in many cases the similarity is only approximate or intentionally distorted. Sometimes the distortion is systematic with e.g. a fixed scale horizontally and a larger fixed scale vertically when modelling topography of a large area. Physical models allow visualization, from examining the model, of information about the thing the model represents. A model can be a physical object such as an architectural model of a building. Uses of an architectural model include visualization of internal relationships within the structure or external relationships of the structure to the environment. Other uses of models in this sense are as toys. Instrumented physical models are an effective way of investigating fluid flows for Engineering design. Physical models are coupled with Computational Fluid Dynamics models to optimize the design of equipment and processes.
This includes external flow such as around buildings, people, or hydraulic structures. Wind Tunnel and Water Tunnel testing is used for these design efforts. Instrumented physical models can examine internal flows, for the design of ductwork systems, pollution control equipment, food processing machines, mixing vessels. Transparent flow models are used in this case to observe the detailed flow phenomenon; these models are scaled in terms of both geometry and important forces, for example using Froude number or Reynolds number scaling. A physical model of something large is smaller, of something small is larger. A physical model of something that can move, like a vehicle or machine, may be static, or have parts that can be moved manually, or be powered. A physical model may show inner parts that are not visible; the purpose of a physical model on a smaller scale may be to have a better overview, for testing purposes, as hobby or toy. The purpose of a physical model on a larger scale may be to see the structure of things that are too small to see properly or to see at all, for example a model of an insect or of a molecule.
A physical model of an animal shows the animals physical composition without it walking or flying away, without danger, if the real animal is not available. A soft model of an animal is popular among children and some adults as cuddly toy.some models can be used in different ways as of like prototypes for cars. A model of a person may e.g. be a doll, a statue, in fiction a robotic humanoid, e.g. the mechas in the movie A. I.. A model is a 3D alternative for a 2D representation such as a drawing or photograph, or in the case of a globe, a 3D, undistorted alternative for a flat world map; some of the examples of Physical models: Model airplane Model car Model railway Model rocket Model house Scale model Mathematical model Model organism Model nation Metamodeling Wind tunnel Media related to Modelling at Wikimedia Commons
Plumbing is any system that conveys fluids for a wide range of applications. Plumbing uses pipes, plumbing fixtures and other apparatuses to convey fluids. Heating and cooling, waste removal, potable water delivery are among the most common uses for plumbing, but it is not limited to these applications; the word derives from the Latin for lead, plumbum, as the first effective pipes used in the Roman era were lead pipes. In the developed world, plumbing infrastructure is critical to public sanitation. Boilermakers and pipefitters are not plumbers, although they work with piping as part of their trade, but their work can include some plumbing. Plumbing originated during ancient civilizations such as the Greek, Persian and Chinese cities as they developed public baths and needed to provide potable water and wastewater removal, for larger numbers of people. Standardized earthen plumbing pipes with broad flanges making use of asphalt for preventing leakages appeared in the urban settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization by 2700 BC.
The Romans used lead pipe inscriptions to prevent water theft. The word "plumber" dates from the Roman Empire; the Latin for lead is plumbum. Roman roofs used lead in conduits and drain pipes and some were covered with lead. Lead was used for piping and for making baths. Plumbing reached its early apex in ancient Rome, which saw the introduction of expansive systems of aqueducts, tile wastewater removal, widespread use of lead pipes. With the Fall of Rome both water supply and sanitation stagnated—or regressed—for well over 1,000 years. Improvement was slow, with little effective progress made until the growth of modern densely populated cities in the 1800s. During this period, public health authorities began pressing for better waste disposal systems to be installed, to prevent or control epidemics of disease. Earlier, the waste disposal system had consisted of collecting waste and dumping it on the ground or into a river; the development of separate, underground water and sewage systems eliminated open sewage ditches and cesspools.
Most large cities today pipe solid wastes to sewage treatment plants in order to separate and purify the water, before emptying into streams or other bodies of water. For potable water use, galvanized iron piping was commonplace in the United States from the late 1800s until around 1960. After that period, copper piping took over, first soft copper with flared fittings with rigid copper tubing utilizing soldered fittings; the use of lead for potable water declined after World War II because of increased awareness of the dangers of lead poisoning. At this time, copper piping was introduced as a safer alternative to lead pipes; the major categories of plumbing systems or subsystems are: potable cold and hot tap water supply plumbing drainage venting sewage systems and septic systems with or without hot water heat recycling and graywater recovery and treatment systems Rainwater and subsurface water drainage fuel gas piping hydronics, i.e. heating and cooling systems utilizing water to transport thermal energy, as in district heating systems, like for example the New York City steam system.
A water pipe is a pipe or tube made of plastic or metal, that carries pressurized and treated fresh water to a building, as well as inside the building. For many centuries, lead was the favoured material for water pipes, because its malleability made it practical to work into the desired shape; this was a source of lead-related health problems in the years before the health hazards of ingesting lead were understood. Lead water pipes were still used in the early 20th century, remain in many households. In addition, lead-tin alloy solder was used to join copper pipes, but modern practice uses tin-antimony alloy solder instead, in order to eliminate lead hazards. Despite the Romans' common use of lead pipes, their aqueducts poisoned people. Unlike other parts of the world where lead pipes cause poisoning, the Roman water had so much calcium in it that a layer of plaque prevented the water contacting the lead itself. What causes confusion is the large amount of evidence of widespread lead poisoning amongst those who would have had easy access to piped water.
This was an unfortunate result of lead being used in cookware and as an additive to processed food and drink, for example as a preservative in wine. Roman lead pipe inscriptions provided information on the owner to prevent water theft. Wooden pipes were elsewhere during the 16th and 17th centuries; the pipes were hollowed-out logs, which were tapered at the end with a small hole in which the water would pass through. The multiple pipes were sealed together with hot animal fat, they were used in Philadelphia and Montreal in the 1800s, built-up wooden tubes were used in the USA during the 20th century. These pipes, used in place of corrugated iron or reinforced concrete pipes, were made of sections cut from short lengths of wood. Locking of adjacent rings with hardwood dowel pins produced a flexible structure. About 100,000 feet of these wooden pipes were installed during WW2 in drainage culverts, storm sewers and conduits, under highways and at army camps, naval stations and ordnance plants. Cast iron and ductile iron pipe was long a lower-cost alternative to copper, before the advent of durable plastic materials but special non-conductive fittings must be used where transitions are to be made to other metallic pipes, except for terminal fittin
A narrow-gauge railway is a railway with a track gauge narrower than standard 1,435 mm. Most narrow-gauge railways are between 600 1,067 mm. Since narrow-gauge railways are built with tighter curves, smaller structure gauges, lighter rails, they can be less costly to build and operate than standard- or broad-gauge railways. Lower-cost narrow-gauge railways are built to serve industries and communities where the traffic potential would not justify the cost of a standard- or broad-gauge line. Narrow-gauge railways have specialized use in mines and other environments where a small structure gauge necessitates a small loading gauge, they have more general applications. Non-industrial, narrow-gauge mountain railways are common in the Rocky Mountains of the United States and the Pacific Cordillera of Canada, Switzerland, the former Yugoslavia and Costa Rica. In some countries, narrow gauge is the standard. Narrow-gauge trams metre-gauge, are common in Europe. In general, a narrow-gauge railway is narrower than 1,435 mm.
Because of historical and local circumstances, the definition of a narrow-gauge railway varies. The earliest recorded railway appears in Georgius Agricola's 1556 De re metallica, which shows a mine in Bohemia with a railway of about 2 ft gauge. During the 16th century, railways were restricted to hand-pushed, narrow-gauge lines in mines throughout Europe. In the 17th century, mine railways were extended to provide transportation above ground; these lines were industrial. These railways were built to the same narrow gauge as the mine railways from which they developed; the world's first steam locomotive, built in 1802 by Richard Trevithick for the Coalbrookdale Company, ran on a 3 ft plateway. The first commercially successful steam locomotive was Matthew Murray's Salamanca built in 1812 for the 4 ft 1 in Middleton Railway in Leeds. Salamanca was the first rack-and-pinion locomotive. During the 1820s and 1830s, a number of industrial narrow-gauge railways in the United Kingdom used steam locomotives.
In 1842, the first narrow-gauge steam locomotive outside the UK was built for the 1,100 mm -gauge Antwerp-Ghent Railway in Belgium. The first use of steam locomotives on a public, passenger-carrying narrow-gauge railway was in 1865, when the Ffestiniog Railway introduced passenger service after receiving its first locomotives two years earlier. Many narrow-gauge railways were part of industrial enterprises and served as industrial railways, rather than general carriers. Common uses for these industrial narrow-gauge railways included mining, construction, tunnelling and conveying agricultural products. Extensive narrow-gauge networks were constructed in many parts of the world. Significant sugarcane railways still operate in Cuba, Java, the Philippines, Queensland, narrow-gauge railway equipment remains in common use for building tunnels; the first use of an internal combustion engine to power a narrow-gauge locomotive was in 1902. F. C. Blake built a 7hp petrol locomotive for the Richmond Main Sewerage Board sewage plant at Mortlake.
This 2 ft 9 in gauge locomotive was the third petrol-engined locomotive built. Extensive narrow-gauge rail systems served the front-line trenches of both sides in World War I, they were a short-lived military application, after the war the surplus equipment created a small boom in European narrow-gauge railway building. Narrow-gauge railways cost less to build because they are lighter in construction, using smaller cars and locomotives, smaller bridges and tunnels, tighter curves. Narrow gauge is used in mountainous terrain, where engineering savings can be substantial, it is used in sparsely populated areas where the potential demand is too low for broad-gauge railways to be economically viable. This is the case in parts of Australia and most of Southern Africa, where poor soils have led to population densities too low for standard gauge to be viable. For temporary railways which will be removed after short-term use, such as logging, mining or large-scale construction projects, a narrow-gauge railway is cheaper and easier to install and remove.
Such railways have vanished, due to the capabilities of modern trucks. In many countries, narrow-gauge railways were built as branch lines to feed traffic to standard-gauge lines due to lower construction costs; the choice was not between a narrow- and standard-gauge railway, but between a narrow-gauge railway and none at all. Narrow-gauge railways cannot interchange rolling stock with the standard- or broad-gauge railways with which they link, the transfer of passengers and freight require time-consuming manual labour or substantial capital expenditure; some bulk commodities, such as coal and gravel, can be mechanically transshipped, but this is time-consuming, the equipment required for the transfer is complex to maintain. If rail lines with other gauges coexist in a network, in times of peak demand i
The Royal Navy is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years War against the Kingdom of France; the modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century. From the middle decades of the 17th century, through the 18th century, the Royal Navy vied with the Dutch Navy and with the French Navy for maritime supremacy. From the mid 18th century, it was the world's most powerful navy until surpassed by the United States Navy during the Second World War; the Royal Navy played a key part in establishing the British Empire as the unmatched world power during the 19th and first part of the 20th centuries. Due to this historical prominence, it is common among non-Britons, to refer to it as "the Royal Navy" without qualification. Following World War I, the Royal Navy was reduced in size, although at the onset of World War II it was still the world's largest.
By the end of the war, the United States Navy had emerged as the world's largest. During the Cold War, the Royal Navy transformed into a anti-submarine force, hunting for Soviet submarines and active in the GIUK gap. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, its focus has returned to expeditionary operations around the world and remains one of the world's foremost blue-water navies. However, 21st century reductions in naval spending have led to a personnel shortage and a reduction in the number of warships; the Royal Navy maintains a fleet of technologically sophisticated ships and submarines including two aircraft carriers, two amphibious transport docks, four ballistic missile submarines, six nuclear fleet submarines, six guided missile destroyers, 13 frigates, 13 mine-countermeasure vessels and 22 patrol vessels. As of November 2018, there are 74 commissioned ships in the Royal Navy, plus 12 ships of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary; the RFA replenishes Royal Navy warships at sea, augments the Royal Navy's amphibious warfare capabilities through its three Bay-class landing ship vessels.
It works as a force multiplier for the Royal Navy doing patrols that frigates used to do. The total displacement of the Royal Navy is 408,750 tonnes; the Royal Navy is part of Her Majesty's Naval Service, which includes the Royal Marines. The professional head of the Naval Service is the First Sea Lord, an admiral and member of the Defence Council of the United Kingdom; the Defence Council delegates management of the Naval Service to the Admiralty Board, chaired by the Secretary of State for Defence. The Royal Navy operates three bases in the United Kingdom; as the seaborne branch of HM Armed Forces, the RN has various roles. As it stands today, the RN has stated its 6 major roles as detailed below in umbrella terms. Preventing Conflict – On a global and regional level Providing Security At Sea – To ensure the stability of international trade at sea International Partnerships – To help cement the relationship with the United Kingdom's allies Maintaining a Readiness To Fight – To protect the United Kingdom's interests across the globe Protecting the Economy – To safe guard vital trade routes to guarantee the United Kingdom's and its allies' economic prosperity at sea Providing Humanitarian Aid – To deliver a fast and effective response to global catastrophes The strength of the fleet of the Kingdom of England was an important element in the kingdom's power in the 10th century.
At one point Aethelred II had an large fleet built by a national levy of one ship for every 310 hides of land, but it is uncertain whether this was a standard or exceptional model for raising fleets. During the period of Danish rule in the 11th century, the authorities maintained a standing fleet by taxation, this continued for a time under the restored English regime of Edward the Confessor, who commanded fleets in person. English naval power declined as a result of the Norman conquest. Following the Battle of Hastings, the Norman navy that brought over William the Conqueror disappeared from records due to William receiving all of those ships from feudal obligations or because of some sort of leasing agreement which lasted only for the duration of the enterprise. More troubling, is the fact that there is no evidence that William adopted or kept the Anglo-Saxon ship mustering system, known as the scipfryd. Hardly noted after 1066, it appears that the Normans let the scipfryd languish so that by 1086, when the Doomsday Book was completed, it had ceased to exist.
According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, in 1068, Harold Godwinson's sons Godwine and Edmund conducted a ‘raiding-ship army’ which came from Ireland, raiding across the region and to the townships of Bristol and Somerset. In the following year of 1069, they returned with a bigger fleet which they sailed up the River Taw before being beaten back by a local earl near Devon. However, this made explicitly clear that the newly conquered England under Norman rule, in effect, ceded the Irish Sea to the Irish, the Vikings of Dublin, other Norwegians. Besides ceding away the Irish Sea, the Normans ceded the North Sea, a major area where Nordic peoples traveled. In 1069, this lack of naval presence in the North Sea allowed for the invasion an
Carlisle is a historic city and the county town of Cumbria. In Cumberland, it is the administrative centre of the City of Carlisle district in North West England. Carlisle is located at the confluence of the rivers Eden and Petteril, 10 miles south of the Scottish border, it is the largest settlement in the county of Cumbria, serves as the administrative centre for both Carlisle City Council and Cumbria County Council. At the time of the 2001 census, the population of Carlisle was 71,773, with 100,734 living in the wider city. Ten years at the 2011 census, the city's population had risen to 75,306, with 107,524 in the wider city; the early history of Carlisle is marked by its status as a Roman settlement, established to serve the forts on Hadrian's Wall. During the Middle Ages, because of its proximity to the Kingdom of Scotland, Carlisle became an important military stronghold; the castle now houses the Duke of the Border Regiment Museum. In the early 12th century, Henry I allowed the foundation of a priory in Carlisle.
The town gained the status of a city when its diocese was formed in 1133, the priory became Carlisle Cathedral. The introduction of textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution began a process of socioeconomic transformation in Carlisle, which developed into a densely populated mill town. This, combined with its strategic position, allowed for the development of Carlisle as an important railway town, with seven railway companies sharing Carlisle railway station. Nicknamed the Great Border City, Carlisle today is the main cultural and industrial centre for north Cumbria, it is home to the main campuses of the University of Cumbria and a variety of museums and heritage centres. The former County Borough of Carlisle had held city status until the Local Government Act 1972 was enacted in 1974. What is known of the ancient history of Carlisle is derived from archaeological evidence and the works of the Roman historian Tacitus; the earliest recorded inhabitants were the Carvetii tribe of Britons who made up the main population of ancient Cumbria and North Lancashire.
According to Boethius and John of Fordun, Carlisle existed before the arrival of the Romans in Britain and was one of the strongest British towns at the time. In the time of the emperor Nero, it was said to have burned down; the Roman settlement was named Luguvalium, based on a native name, reconstructed as Brittonic *Luguwaljon, " of Luguwalos", a masculine Celtic given name meaning "strength of Lugus". Excavations undertaken along Annetwell Street in the 1970s dated the Roman timber fort constructed at the site of present Carlisle Castle to the winter of AD 73, protecting a strategic location overlooking the confluence of the Caldew and Eden rivers; this walled civitas the only one in northwest Britain served as the tribal centre of the Carvetii on the model of other such sites in Roman Britain. In 79, the two Roman generals Gnaeus Julius Agricola and Quintus Petillius Cerialis advanced through Solway as they continued their campaign further north; as a result, it is that greater control was achieved at Carlisle over anti-imperial groups.
This is indicated from the reconstruction of the fort at Carlisle in 83 using oak timbers from further afield, rather than local alder. At this time the Roman fort was garrisoned by a 500-strong cavalry regiment, the Ala Gallorum Sebosiana. By the early 2nd century, Carlisle was established as a prominent stronghold. The'Stanegate' frontier, which consisted of Luguvalium and several other forts in a line east to Corbridge, was proving a more stable frontier against the Picts than those established deeper into Caledonia. In 122, the province was visited by Hadrian, who approved a plan to build a wall the length of the frontier. A new fort, was built at Carlisle in the Stanwix area of the city north of the river, it was the largest fort along the length of Hadrian's Wall and was completed in stone by around 130. Like Luguvalium, which lay within sight, Petriana housed a 1,000-strong cavalry regiment, the Ala Gallorum Petriana, the sole regiment of this size along the wall. Hadrian's successor Antoninus Pius attempted to move further north.
It was not a success and, after 20 years, the garrisons returned to Hadrian's Wall. Until 400, the Roman occupation fluctuated in importance. At one time, it broke off from Rome, he was assassinated and suffered damnatio memoriae, but a surviving reference to him has been uncovered in Carlisle. Coins excavated in the area suggest that Romans remained in Carlisle until the reign of Emperor Valentinian II, from 375 to 392; the period of late antiquity after Roman rule saw Cumbria organised as the native British kingdom of Rheged. It is that the kingdom took its name from a major stronghold within it. King Urien and his son and successor Owain became the subjects of a great deal of Arthurian legend, their capital has been identified as the Cair Ligualid listed by Nennius among the 28 cities of Britain, which developed into Caer-luel, whence the city's modern Welsh name Caerliwelydd. Rheged came under Northumbrian control before 730 by inheritance after Rienmelth, daughter of Royth and great-granddaughter of Urien, married Oswy, King of Northumbria.
For the rest of the first millennium, Carlisle was an important stronghold c
St. Gallen or traditionally St Gall, in German sometimes Sankt Gallen is a Swiss town and the capital of the canton of St. Gallen, it evolved from the hermitage of Saint Gall, founded in the 7th century. Today, it represents the center of eastern Switzerland, its economy consists of the service sector. Internationally, the town is known as the home of the University of St. Gallen, one of world's leading business schools; the main tourist attraction is the Abbey of a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Abbey's renowned library contains books from the 9th century; the official language of St. Gallen is German, but the main spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect; the city has good transport links to the rest of the country and to neighbouring Germany and Austria. It functions as the gate to the Appenzellerland; the city of St. Gallen grew around the Abbey of St Gall, founded in the 8th century; the abbey is said to have been built at the site of the hermitage of Irish missionary Gallus, who according to legend had established himself by the river Steinach in AD 612.
The monastery itself was founded by Saint Othmar in c. 720. The abbey prospered in the 9th century and became a site of pilgrimage and a center of trade, with associated guest houses and other facilities, a hospital, one of the first monastery schools north of the Alps. By the tenth century, a settlement had grown up around the abbey. In 926 Magyar raiders attacked surrounding town. Saint Wiborada, the first woman formally canonized by the Vatican saw a vision of the impending attack and warned the monks and citizens to flee. While the monks and the abbey treasure escaped, Wiborada chose to stay behind and was killed by the raiders. Between 924 and 933 the Magyars again threatened the abbey, its books were removed for safekeeping to Reichenau. Not all the books were returned. On 26 April 937 a fire consumed much of the abbey. However, the library was spared. About 954 a protective wall was raised around the abbey. A wall with gates and towers was built in 953/954 under abbot Anno and 971-975 under abbot Notker, first establishing the abbey and its associated settlement as a city.
From the 12th century, the city of St. Gall pushed for independence from the abbey. In 1180, an imperial reeve, not answerable to the abbot, was installed in the city. In 1207, Abbot Ulrich von Sax was granted the rank of Imperial Prince by Philip of Swabia, King of the Germans; as an ecclesiastical principality, the Abbey of St. Gallen was to constitute an important territorial state and a major regional power in northern Switzerland; the city of St. Gallen proper progressively freed itself from the rule of the abbot. Abbot Wilhelm von Montfort in 1291 granted special privileges to the citizens. By about 1353 the guilds, headed by the cloth-weavers guild, had gained control of the civic government. In 1415 the city bought its liberty from the German king Sigismund. In 1405, the Appenzell estates of the abbot rebelled and in 1411 they became allies of the Old Swiss Confederation. A few months the town of St. Gallen became an ally, they joined the "everlasting alliance" as full members of the Confederation in 1454 and in 1457 became free from the abbot.
However, in 1451 the abbey became an ally of Zurich, Lucerne and Glarus who were all members of the Confederation. Ulrich Varnbüler was an early mayor of St. Gallen and one of the most colorful. Hans, the father of Ulrich, was prominent in city affairs in St. Gallen in the early 15th century. Ulrich entered public affairs in the early 1460s and attained the various offices and honours that are available to a talented and ambitious man, he demonstrated fine qualities as field commander of the St. Gallen troops in the Burgundian Wars. In the Battle of Grandson his troops were part of the advance units of the Confederation and took part in their famous attack. A large painting of Ulrich returning triumphantly to a hero's welcome in St. Gallen is still displayed in St. Gallen. After the war, Varnbüler represented St. Gallen at the various parliaments of the Confederation. In December 1480, Varnbüler was offered the position of mayor for the first time. From that time on, he served in several leadership positions and was considered the city's intellectual and political leader.
According to Vadian, who understood his contemporaries well, "Ulrich was a intelligent and eloquent man who enjoyed the trust of the citizenry to a high degree." His reputation among the Confederates was substantial. However, in the late 1480s, he became involved in a conflict, to have serious negative consequences for him and for the city. In 1463, Ulrich Rösch had assumed the management of the abbey of Saint Gall, he was an ambitious prelate, whose goal was to return the abbey to prominence by every possible means, following the losses of the Appenzell War. His restless ambition offended the material interests of his neighbours; when he arranged for the help of the Pope and the Emperor to carry out a plan to move the abbey to Rorschach on Lake Constance, he encountered stiff resistance from the St. Gallen citizenry, other clerics, the Appenzell nobility in the Rhine Valley, who were concerned for their holdings. At this point, Varnbüler entered the conflict against the prelate, he wanted to restrain the increase of the abbey's power and at the same time increase
Wales is a country, part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, the Bristol Channel to the south, it had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales has over 1,680 miles of coastline and is mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon, its highest summit; the country has a changeable, maritime climate. Welsh national identity emerged among the Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, Wales is regarded as one of the modern Celtic nations. Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of England's conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century; the whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. Distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism and the Labour Party.
Welsh national feeling grew over the century. Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters. At the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, development of the mining and metallurgical industries transformed the country from an agricultural society into an industrial nation. Two-thirds of the population live in South Wales, including Cardiff, Swansea and the nearby valleys. Now that the country's traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales' economy depends on the public sector and service industries and tourism. Although Wales shares its political and social history with the rest of Great Britain, a majority of the population in most areas speaks English as a first language, the country has retained a distinct cultural identity and is bilingual. Over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west.
From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the "land of song", in part due to the eisteddfod tradition. At many international sporting events, such as the FIFA World Cup, Rugby World Cup and the Commonwealth Games, Wales has its own national teams, though at the Olympic Games, Welsh athletes compete as part of a Great Britain team. Rugby union is seen as an expression of national consciousness; the English words "Wales" and "Welsh" derive from the same Germanic root, itself derived from the name of the Gaulish people known to the Romans as Volcae and which came to refer indiscriminately to all non-Germanic peoples. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the Britons in particular, Wēalas when referring to their lands; the modern names for some Continental European lands and peoples have a similar etymology. In Britain, the words were not restricted to modern Wales or to the Welsh but were used to refer to anything that the Anglo-Saxons associated with the Britons, including other non-Germanic territories in Britain and places in Anglo-Saxon territory associated with Britons, as well as items associated with non-Germanic Europeans, such as the walnut.
The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales. These words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning "fellow-countrymen"; the use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the post-Roman Era of the Welsh people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland. It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, different from other peoples. In particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage and language to the Welsh; the word came into use as a self-description before the 7th century. It is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. In Welsh literature, the word Cymry was used throughout the Middle Ages to describe the Welsh, though the older, more generic term Brythoniaid continued to be used to describe any of the Britonnic peoples and was the more common literary term until c. 1200. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh.
Until c. 1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland. The Latinised forms of these names, Cambrian and Cambria, survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales and the Welsh people. Examples include the Cambrian Mountains, the newspaper Cambrian News, the organisations Cambrian Airways, Cambrian Railways, Cambrian Archaeological Association and the Royal Cambrian Academy of Art. Outside Wales, a related form survives as the name Cumbria in North West England, once a part of Yr Hen Ogledd; the Cumbric language, thought to