The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
In ball-playing competitive team sports, an interception or pick is a move by a player involving a pass of the ball—whether by foot or hand, depending on the rules of the sport—in which the ball is intended for a player of the same team but caught by a player of the opposing team, who thereby gains possession of the ball for their team. It is seen in football, including American and Canadian football, as well as association football, rugby league, rugby union, Australian rules football and Gaelic football, as well as any sport by which a loose object is passed between players toward a goal. In basketball, a pick is called a steal. In American or Canadian football, an interception occurs when a forward pass is caught by a player of the opposing defensive team; this leads to an immediate change of possession during the play: the defender who caught the ball attempts to move the ball as far towards the opposing end zone as possible. Following the stoppage of play, if the interceptor retained possession of the ball, his team takes over possession at the spot where he was downed.
Because possession is a critical component in these sports, a successful interception can be a dramatic reversal of the teams' fortunes. Interceptions are predominantly made by the secondary or the linebackers, who are closest to the quarterback's intended targets, the wide receivers, running backs, tight ends. Less a defensive lineman may get an interception from a tipped ball, a near sack, a shovel pass, or a screen pass, but are more to force a fumble than get an interception; as soon as a pass is intercepted, everyone on the defense acts as blockers, helping the person with the interception get as much yardage as possible and a touchdown. If the interception occurs on an extra point attempt, rather than an ordinary play from scrimmage, a potential return of the interception to the other end zone is sometimes called a "pick two" as it would be a defensive two point conversion rather than a touchdown. For example, on December 4, 2016, the Kansas City Chiefs strong safety Eric Berry scored the game winning points via a pick two in a 29–28 victory over the Atlanta Falcons.
Berry achieved an ordinary pick six earlier in the same game. If the intercepting team can run out the clock, the intercepting player may down the ball and not attempt to gain any yardage; this eliminates the chance of a fumble. There are player safety implications: when the ball is turned over, the play is now and unexpectedly moving in the opposite direction. All of the players on offense are susceptible to unexpected blocks if not attempting to stop the ball carrier. Additionally, offensive players the quarterback, are inexperienced tacklers and are at risk of injuring themselves while tackling the ball carrier. Only the interception of a forward pass is recorded statistically as an interception, for both the passer and the intercepting player. If a receiver fails to catch the ball and bobbles or tips it before it is intercepted if his action was responsible for the interception, it is always recorded as an interception thrown by the passer; the interception of a lateral pass is recorded as a fumble by the passer.
James Johnson was named the Outstanding Player of the 95th Grey Cup on November 25, 2007, after intercepting a record three passes, including one for a 30-yard touchdown. His defensive efforts helped lead the Saskatchewan Roughriders to a 23–19 victory over their CFL Prairie rival Winnipeg Blue Bombers; this was the first time since 1994 that a defensive player was awarded the Grey Cup's top individual title. His most notable interception of the game was when he intercepted Ryan Dinwiddie's final pass and secured Saskatchewan's victory. Lester Hayes of the Oakland Raiders was one of the National Football League's leaders at interceptions in the late 1970s and early 1980s, he was known for covering his chest and forearms with a copious amount of the adhesive Stickum to help him hold on to the ball. After the NFL outlawed the use of such foreign substances in 1981, Hayes' success rate at interceptions dropped below average though that could be due to his reputation as a "shutdown cornerback", which discouraged opposing teams from throwing to his side of the field.
He continued to use the substance, which he called "pick juice", by having it applied in smaller amounts to his wrists. Paul Krause holds the record for most career interceptions, with 81, is tied for third place for most interceptions by an NFL rookie in his first season, with 12, he played his first three years in the NFL from 1964 to 1967 with the Washington Redskins but was traded to the Minnesota Vikings, where he spent most of his career. Krause appeared in four Super Bowls with the Vikings, he was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1998. Rod Woodson played 16 seasons with Pittsburgh, San Francisco and Oakland, holds the NFL record for most interception returns for touchdown in an NFL career with 12, he holds the NFL record for most total defensive TD returns in a career with 13. Woodson, third on the NFL all-time career interception list with 71, was inducted into the Hall of Fame in 2009. Former New Orleans Saints safety Darren Sharper, most notable for playing 8 seasons with the Green Bay Packers and the Minnesota Vikings from 2005 to 2008, has a career total of 63 interceptions, has returned 11 of those for touchdowns.
Sharper holds th
Thomas John Dempsey is a former American football placekicker in the National Football League for the New Orleans Saints, Philadelphia Eagles, Los Angeles Rams, Houston Oilers and Buffalo Bills. He played college football at Palomar College. Unlike the "soccer style" approach, becoming more and more used during his career, Dempsey's kicking style was the standard straight-toe style. Dempsey is most known for kicking a 63-yard field goal as time expired to give the Saints a 19–17 win over the Detroit Lions on November 8, 1970 at Tulane Stadium in New Orleans. Prior to 1974 the goal posts in the NFL were on the goal lines instead of the end lines, a missed field goal was treated the same as a punt: if it missed, it was a touchback unless it landed in the field of play and was returned. With time running out in the game, the Saints attempted a field goal with holder Joe Scarpati spotting at the Saints' own 37-yard line; the snap from Jackie Burkett was good, Dempsey nailed the field goal with a couple of feet to spare.
The win was one of only two for the Saints in that dismal season. For many years, it was believed that Saints quarterback Billy Kilmer was the holder of that historic kick, but photos of that day, as well as radio and television calls, revealed that Scarpati was the holder. With the kick, Dempsey broke Bert Rechichar's NFL record for longest field goal by seven yards; that record was equaled by Jason Elam in 1998, Sebastian Janikowski in 2011, David Akers in 2012. On December 8, 2013, Matt Prater topped Dempsey's mark by hitting a 64-yard field goal. Dempsey was born without no fingers on his right hand, he wore a modified shoe with enlarged toe surface. This generated controversy about; when reporters would ask him if he thought it was unfair, he said, "Unfair, eh? How'bout you try kickin' a 63 yard field goal to win it with 2 seconds left an' yer wearin' a square shoe, oh yeah, no toes either." Additionally, when an analysis of his kick was carried out by ESPN Sport Science, it was found that his modified shoe had offered him no advantage – in fact, it was found that the smaller contact area could have reduced, not increased, the margin for error.
The league made two rule changes in the subsequent years to discourage further long field goal attempts. The first was in 1974, which moved the goal posts from the goal line to the back of the end zone and awarded the ball to the defense on a missed kick at the spot where the ball was snapped. In 1977, the NFL added a rule, informally known as the "Tom Dempsey Rule", that "any shoe, worn by a player with an artificial limb on his kicking leg must have a kicking surface that conforms to that of a normal kicking shoe." Career high/best bolded In 1983, Dempsey was inducted into the American Football Association's Semi Pro Football Hall of Fame. Dempsey has since retired from football and resides with his wife Carlene, who teaches history at Kehoe-France, a private school in Metairie, Louisiana, a suburb of New Orleans, his house was flooded during Hurricane Katrina in 2005. In January 2013, Dempsey revealed. Psychiatrist Daniel Amen made the initial diagnosis of damage to Dempsey's brain. During medical examinations and scans, Amen found three holes in the brain, along with other damage.
American Football Association 63-yard field goal in 1970 on YouTube
James Ager Worthy is an American former professional basketball player, a commentator, television host, analyst. Named one of the 50 Greatest Players in NBA History, "Big Game James" was a seven-time NBA All-Star, three-time NBA champion, the 1988 NBA Finals MVP with the Los Angeles Lakers in the National Basketball Association. A standout at the University of North Carolina, the 6 ft 9 in small forward shared College Player of the Year honors en route to leading the Tar Heels to the 1982 NCAA Championship. Named the tournament's Most Outstanding Player, he was No. 1 pick of the 1982 NBA draft of the defending NBA champion Lakers. Worthy was born in North Carolina, his 21.5 points, 12.5 rebounds and 5.5 assists per game during his senior season at Ashbrook High led the team to the state championship game. Named both a Parade Magazine and McDonald's All-American, he was selected to play in the 1979 McDonald's All-American Game that featured future NBA Hall of Famers Isiah Thomas, Dominique Wilkins, Ralph Sampson.
After graduating high school, Worthy attended the University of North Carolina. An immediate standout, his freshman year was cut short near mid-season by a broken ankle; as a sophomore, he was a key member of that school's 1981 NCAA runner-up team, starring alongside Al Wood and Sam Perkins. As a junior power forward, Worthy was the leading scorer of a Tar Heels NCAA championship team that featured one of the greatest collections of talent in collegiate basketball history, including future NBA stars Sam Perkins and freshman Michael Jordan. A consensus first team All-American, Worthy shared College Player of the Year honors with Virginia Cavalier Ralph Sampson, he dominated the 1982 championship game against the Georgetown Hoyas, sealing the Tarheels' 63–62 victory by intercepting an inadvertent pass thrown by Hoya point guard Fred Brown with just seconds remaining. His 13–17 shooting, 28 point, 4 rebound finale capped a standout performance throughout the NCAA tournament, earning him its Most Outstanding Player award.
A tip dunk in front of Patrick Ewing captioned "James Worthy slams the door on Georgetown" made the cover of Sports Illustrated. In the wake of this success Worthy elected to enter the NBA draft, he completed his degree via summer school. He is one of eight UNC players to have their numbers retired; the Los Angeles Lakers had received the Cleveland Cavaliers' 1982 first-round draft pick in a 1979 exchange for Don Ford. The Cavaliers finished with the NBA's worst record in the 1981–82 season, leaving a coin toss to decide whether they or the worst record runner-up San Diego Clippers would get the number one pick in the upcoming draft; the Lakers won the first and only time for a reigning league champion. They chose Worthy; the lanky small forward made an impact as a rookie, averaging 13.4 points per game and shooting a Laker rookie record.579 field goal percentage. With his speed, dynamic ability to score with either hand, dazzling play above the rim, Worthy thrived in the Lakers' high-octane "Showtime" offense.
When not finishing fast breaks with his trademark Statue of Liberty dunks or swooping finger rolls, Worthy was one of the best post players at his position, with a quick spin move and a deadly turnaround jumpshot. His rookie year ended just when he was hitting his stride, breaking his leg on April 10, 1983, while landing improperly after trying to tap in a missed shot against the Phoenix Suns, he was still missed the rest of the season and playoffs. Back and healthy for the opening of the 1983–84 season, Worthy's effective play soon had him replacing All-Star and fan favorite Jamaal Wilkes in the starting line-up; the Lakers dominated throughout the Western Conference Playoffs and faced the Boston Celtics in the Finals. The Lakers made many crucial mistakes during the series. Late in Game 2, Worthy made an errant cross-court pass, picked off by Cedric Maxwell and taken in for the game-tying score. Game 2 was won by the Celtics in overtime; the Celtics would go on to win the series in 7 games and despite the late game mistake in game 2, James Worthy had a strong Finals series with 22.1 pts per game on 63.8% shooting.
The Lakers would go into the off-season bitter about the loss and motivated for 1985. With hard driving coach Pat Riley demanding nothing but a championship ring, the Lakers were on a mission of redemption in 1985. Once again they met the Celtics in the Finals, this time decided in LA's favor on the famed parquet floor of the Boston Garden. During the play-off run to title Worthy emerged as a feared clutch performer, he averaged 21.5 points per game on 62.2% shooting in the playoffs, his play and 23.7 points per game against the Celtics in the Finals confirmed him as one of the league's premier players. It was in 1985 that the goggles emerged after Worthy suffered a scratched cornea during a March 13 game at the Utah Jazz and started wearing the eyewear the next game March 15 versus the Spurs and for the rest of his career; the 1985–86 season held tremendous promise for the Lakers, which all disappeared in a preternatural tip in the Western Conference final by 7' 4" Houston Rockets star Ralph Sampson.
Worthy had continued to improve, raising his scoring from 17.6 to 20 points per game on 58% shooting and was named to the first of seven consecutive All-Star appearances. However, it was during the 1986 offseason that rumors were floated about a Worthy trade package to the Mavericks for Mark Aguirre and Roy Tarpley. Lakers GM Jerry West held his ground in favor of keeping Worthy and the trade never materialized; however the Lakers
The Pro Bowl is the all-star game of the National Football League. From the merger with the rival American Football League in 1970 up through 2013 and since 2017, it is called the AFC–NFC Pro Bowl, matching the top players in the American Football Conference against those in the National Football Conference. From 2014 through 2016, the NFL experimented with an unconferenced format, where the teams were selected by two honorary team captains, instead of selecting players from each conference; the players were picked in a televised "schoolyard pick" prior to the game. Unlike most major sports leagues, which hold their all-star games midway through their regular seasons, the Pro Bowl is played around the end of the NFL season; the first official Pro Bowl was played in January 1951, three weeks after the 1950 NFL Championship Game. Between 1970 and 2009, the Pro Bowl was held the weekend after the Super Bowl. Since 2010, it has been played the weekend before the Super Bowl. Players from the two teams competing in the Super Bowl do not participate.
For years, the game has suffered from lack of interest due to perceived low quality, with observers and commentators expressing their disfavor with it in its current state. It draws lower TV ratings than regular season NFL games, although the game draws similar ratings to other major all-star games, such as the Major League Baseball All-Star Game. However, the biggest concern of teams is to avoid injuries to the star players; the Associated Press wrote that players in the 2012 game were "hitting each other as though they were having a pillow fight". Between 1980 and 2016, the game was played at Aloha Stadium in Hawaii except for two years. On June 1, 2016, the NFL announced that they reached a multi-year deal to move the game to Orlando, Florida as part of the league's ongoing efforts to make the game more relevant; the first "Pro All-Star Game", featuring the all-stars of the 1938 season, was played on January 15, 1939 at Wrigley Field in Los Angeles. The NFL All-Star Game was played again in Los Angeles in 1940 and in New York and Philadelphia in 1941 and 1942 respectively.
Although planned as an annual contest, the all-star game was discontinued after 1942 because of travel restrictions put in place during World War II. During the first five all-star games, an all-star team would face that year's league champion; the league champion won the first four games before the all-stars were victorious in the final game of this early series. The concept of an all-star game was not revived until June 1950, when the newly christened "Pro Bowl" was approved; the game was sponsored by the Los Angeles Publishers Association. It was decided that the game would feature all-star teams from each of the league's two conferences rather than the league champion versus all-star format, used previously; this was done to avoid confusion with the Chicago College All-Star Game, an annual game which featured the league champion against a collegiate all-star team. The teams would be led by the coach of each of the conference champions. Prior to the Pro Bowl, following the 1949 season, the All-America Football Conference, which contributed three teams to the NFL in a partial merger in 1950, held its own all-star game, the Shamrock Bowl.
The first 21 games of the series were played in Los Angeles. The site of the game was changed annually for each of the next seven years before the game was moved to Aloha Stadium in Halawa, Hawaii for 30 straight seasons from 1980 through 2009; the 2010 Pro Bowl was played at Sun Life Stadium, the home stadium of the Miami Dolphins and host site of Super Bowl XLIV, on January 31, the first time that the Pro Bowl was held before the championship game. With the new rule being that the conference teams do not include players from the teams that will be playing in the Super Bowl, the Pro Bowl returned to Hawaii in 2011 but was again held during the week before the Super Bowl, where it remained for three more years; the 2012 game was met with criticism from fans and sports writers for the lack of quality play by the players. On October 24, 2012, NFL Commissioner Roger Goodell had second thoughts about the Pro Bowl, telling a Sirius XM show that if the players did not play more competitively, he was "not inclined to play it anymore".
During the ensuing off-season, the NFL Players Association lobbied to keep the Pro Bowl, negotiated several rule changes to be implemented for the 2014 game. Among them, the teams will no longer be AFC vs. NFC, instead be selected by captains in a fantasy draft. For the 2014 game, Jerry Rice and Deion Sanders were chosen as alumni captains, while their captains were Drew Brees and Robert Quinn, along with Jamaal Charles and J. J. Watt. On April 9, 2014, the NFL announced that the 2015 Pro Bowl would be played the week before the Super Bowl at University of Phoenix Stadium in Glendale, Arizona on January 25, 2015; the game returned to Hawaii in 2016, the "unconferenced" format was its last. For 2017, the league considered hosting the game at Maracanã Stadium in Rio de Janeiro, which if approved would be the first time the game had been hosted outside the United States; the NFL is considering future Pro Bowls in Mexico and Germany. The NFL hopes that by leveraging international markets with the star power of Pro Bowls, international pop
Arthur Bruce Heyman was an American professional basketball player. Playing for Duke University in college, in 1963 he was USBWA Player of the Year, AP Player of the Year, UPI Player of the Year, Sporting News Player of the Year, Helms Foundation College Player of the Year, a consensus first-team All-American, ACC Player of the Year, ACC Athlete of the Year; that year he was the first overall pick in the first round of the 1963 NBA draft. He went on to have a 310 game professional career in the NBA and ABA. Heyman, Jewish, was born in New York City, lived in Rockville Centre, New York, Oceanside, New York. After attending Oceanside High School in Nassau County, New York, the 6'5" guard/forward was recruited by many schools, signed a letter of intent to play for the North Carolina Tar Heels. At the last moment, Heyman changed his mind and agreed to play for the Tar Heels' greatest rivals, the Duke Blue Devils. Due to NCAA eligibility rules that prohibited freshmen from playing varsity sports, Heyman played his first year at racially segregated Duke with the freshman team, which compiled a record of 10–5, including three victories over the Tar Heels.
During one of the Duke-North Carolina freshman games, North Carolina freshman Dieter Krause attacked Heyman, leading to a melee where the two coaches had to be restrained from attacking each other. Heyman needed five stitches after the attack. During his sophomore season, Heyman starred for the varsity team, North Carolina and Duke again were at each other's throats. On February 4, 1961, the Duke and North Carolina freshman teams had played the first game of the double header. There were multiple fights during the game, North Carolina had finished the game with only three players on the floor. During the varsity game that night, Heyman was involved in two incidents, where he first pushed over a fan who he thought was attacking him, in the closing minutes of the game, while trying to protect a slim Duke lead, Heyman committed a hard foul against future Hall of Fame coach Larry Brown, attempting to drive to the hoop. Brown threw the ball and a punch at Heyman, touching off a general melee, which saw future basketball executive Donnie Walsh a substitute player for North Carolina attack Heyman.
The melee lasted about ten minutes, despite Heyman being ejected for fighting, his 36 points had given Duke the victory, 81–77. Brown and Heyman were all suspended for the remainder of the ACC season. Heyman was allowed to play in non-conference games, the ACC Tournament. However, Duke failed to make the postseason, despite Heyman being voted the tournament's outstanding player, losing the ACC Tournament final to the Wake Forest Demon Deacons and their All American Len Chappell, 96–81. At the time, only the league champion was admitted to the NCAA Tournament, league rules prohibited ACC teams from playing in the NIT Tournament. Heyman finished the season averaging 25 points and nearly 11 rebounds per game, despite his suspension, Heyman was voted to the All-ACC basketball first team, he won numerous national plaudits, being named to the UPI and AP Third-Team All American squad. In 1962, Heyman's junior year, he again had a great year (scoring 25.3 points per game, averaging over 11 rebounds per game, but Duke failed to make the post season, being upset by the Clemson Tigers in the ACC Tournament semi-final.
Heyman was once again voted to the All-ACC Basketball first team, the AP and UPI Second Team All-American squad. However, during Heyman's 1963 senior year, Heyman unleashed his best season yet. Duke won the regular season conference title, but to make the NCAA tournament, they would have to win the ACC Tournament, their first game was against 8th seed Virginia, a game in which the Blue Devils won handily, 89–79. In the tournament semi finals, the Blue Devils defeated the North Carolina State Wolfpack, 82–65. In the final, they had a chance to get revenge for the 1961 tournament final loss, as they faced off against Wake Forest. Heyman and Duke avenged that 1961 loss, defeating the Demon Deacons 68–57, earning the Blue Devils the right to play in the 1963 NCAA Tournament; the Blue Devils were given a bye to play in the round of 16, they defeated New York University, who had Happy Hairston and Barry Kramer, 81-76 in the East regional semi-finals, with Heyman scoring 22 points, adding 13 rebounds.
In the East Regional final and the Blue Devils defeated Saint Joseph's University, 73–59, to advance to the Final Four for the first time in school history. Despite Heyman's 29 points and 12 rebounds in the semi-finals, the Blue Devils succumbed 94-75 to eventual national champion Loyola of Chicago. In the consolation game, Heyman completed his college career when Duke defeated Oregon State 85-63. In this game, Heyman scored 22 points, added seven rebounds. Art Heyman was named MVP of the 1963 NCAA tournament though Duke finished third. Heyman again won the plaudits of the sportswriters, winning the AP National Player of the Year award, the ACC Player of the Year award, the Oscar Robertson Trophy. Heyman averaged 25.1 points per game and scoring 1,984 points while at Duke University, which were both school records at that time. Heyman is one of three athletes in ACC History to have been elected unanimously to the All-ACC Men's Basketball team three times, along with David Thompson and Tyler Hansbrough.
Heyman's success in college led to him being selected first in the 1963 NBA draft by the New York Knicks. During his first season with the team, he averaged
Michael Jeffrey Jordan known by his initials, MJ, is an American former professional basketball player, the principal owner and chairman of the Charlotte Hornets of the National Basketball Association. He played 15 seasons in the NBA for the Chicago Bulls and Washington Wizards, his biography on the official NBA website states: "By acclamation, Michael Jordan is the greatest basketball player of all time." He was one of the most marketed athletes of his generation and was considered instrumental in popularizing the NBA around the world in the 1980s and 1990s. Jordan played three seasons for coach Dean Smith at the University of North Carolina; as a freshman, he was a member of the Tar Heels' national championship team in 1982. Jordan joined the Bulls in 1984 as the third overall draft pick, he emerged as a league star and entertained crowds with his prolific scoring. His leaping ability, demonstrated by performing slam dunks from the free throw line in Slam Dunk Contests, earned him the nicknames Air Jordan and His Airness.
He gained a reputation for being one of the best defensive players in basketball. In 1991, he won his first NBA championship with the Bulls, followed that achievement with titles in 1992 and 1993, securing a "three-peat". Although Jordan abruptly retired from basketball before the beginning of the 1993–94 NBA season, started a new career in Minor League Baseball, he returned to the Bulls in March 1995 and led them to three additional championships in 1996, 1997, 1998, as well as a then-record 72 regular-season wins in the 1995–96 NBA season. Jordan retired for a second time in January 1999, but returned for two more NBA seasons from 2001 to 2003 as a member of the Wizards. Jordan's individual accolades and accomplishments include six NBA Finals Most Valuable Player Awards, ten scoring titles, five MVP Awards, ten All-NBA First Team designations, nine All-Defensive First Team honors, fourteen NBA All-Star Game selections, three All-Star Game MVP Awards, three steals titles, the 1988 NBA Defensive Player of the Year Award.
He holds the NBA records for highest career regular season scoring average and highest career playoff scoring average. In 1999, he was named the greatest North American athlete of the 20th century by ESPN, was second to Babe Ruth on the Associated Press' list of athletes of the century. Jordan is a two-time inductee into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame, having been enshrined in 2009 for his individual career, again in 2010 as part of the group induction of the 1992 United States men's Olympic basketball team, he became a member of the FIBA Hall of Fame in 2015. Jordan is known for his product endorsements, he fueled the success of Nike's Air Jordan sneakers, which were introduced in 1984 and remain popular today. Jordan starred as himself in the 1996 film Space Jam. In 2006, he became part-owner and head of basketball operations for the Charlotte Bobcats, bought a controlling interest in 2010. In 2014, Jordan became the first billionaire player in NBA history, he is the third-richest African-American, behind Robert F. Oprah Winfrey.
Jordan was born in Brooklyn, New York, to Deloris, who worked in banking, James R. Jordan Sr. an equipment supervisor. His family moved to Wilmington, North Carolina. Jordan is the fourth of five children, he has two older brothers, Larry Jordan and James R. Jordan, Jr. one older sister and one younger sister, Roslyn. Jordan's brother James retired in 2006 as the Command Sergeant Major of the 35th Signal Brigade of the XVIII Airborne Corps in the U. S. Army. Jordan attended Emsley A. Laney High School in Wilmington, where he highlighted his athletic career by playing basketball and football, he tried out for the varsity basketball team during his sophomore year, but at 5'11", he was deemed too short to play at that level. His taller friend, Harvest Leroy Smith, was the only sophomore to make the team. Motivated to prove his worth, Jordan became the star of Laney's junior varsity team, tallied several 40-point games; the following summer, he trained rigorously. Upon earning a spot on the varsity roster, Jordan averaged more than 25 points per game over his final two seasons of high school play.
As a senior, he was selected to play in the 1981 McDonald's All-American Game and scored 30 points, after averaging 27 points, 12 rebounds and 6 assists per game for the season. Jordan was recruited by numerous college basketball programs, including Duke, North Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia. In 1981, Jordan accepted a basketball scholarship to North Carolina, where he majored in cultural geography; as a freshman in coach Dean Smith's team-oriented system, he was named ACC Freshman of the Year after he averaged 13.4 ppg on 53.4% shooting. He made the game-winning jump shot in the 1982 NCAA Championship game against Georgetown, led by future NBA rival Patrick Ewing. Jordan described this shot as the major turning point in his basketball career. During his three seasons at North Carolina, he averaged 17.7 ppg on 54.0% shooting, added 5.0 rpg. He was selected by consensus to the NCAA All-American First Team in both his sophomore and junior seasons. After winning the Naismith and the Wooden College Player of the Year awards in 1984, Jordan left North Carolina one year before his scheduled graduation to enter the 1984 NBA draft.
The Chicago Bulls selected Jordan after Hakeem Olajuwon and Sam Bowie. One of the primary reasons why Jordan was not drafted