Robert Gordon University
Robert Gordon University called RGU, is a public university in the city of Aberdeen, Scotland. It became a university in 1992, originated from an educational institution founded in the 18th century by Robert Gordon, a prosperous Aberdeen merchant, various institutions which provided adult education and technical education in the 19th and early 20th centuries, it is one of two universities in the city. RGU is a campus university and its single campus in Aberdeen is at Garthdee, in the south-west of the city; the university awards degrees in a wide range of disciplines from BA/BSc to PhD in professional, technical and artistic disciplines and those most applicable to business and industry. A number of traditional academic degree programmes are offered, such as in the social sciences. In addition, the university's academic and research staff produce world-class research in a number of areas. According to the 2013 Times Good University Guide it is the best modern university in the UK, while according to The Guardian University Guide 2013 it is the best modern university in Scotland and 2nd-best in the UK.
It was named Best Modern University in the UK for 2012 by The Sunday Times University Guide. In 2016/17, it was ranked as the top university in Scotland for employment, with 97.6% of graduates in work or further study within six months of leaving university, according to independent survey Destinations of Leavers from Higher Education. The Times Higher Education Student Experience Survey results, published in 2018, demonstrated that RGU is number one in Scotland and top 10th in the UK for the high-quality facilities on campus. In the same survey, the university was placed top in Scotland and 10th in the UK for industry connections; the university derives from Robert Gordon's Hospital, an institution set up in the mid-18th century to provide the poor with a basic education and reasonable start in life, the various educational institutions which developed in Aberdeen to provide adults with technical and artistic training in the evenings and part-time. Following numerous mergers between these establishments, it became Robert Gordon's Technical College in 1910 following further developments became Robert Gordon's Institute of Technology in 1965 and began to conduct increasing amounts of research and provide degree-level education.
It became a university in 1992. Unlike some modern universities in the UK which were created following the government reforms of 1992, it has never been a polytechnic. Robert Gordon was a Scottish merchant, who had grown up in Aberdeen and graduated from Marischal College. Following a successful career in Danzig where he amassed a fortune, he retired to Aberdeen around 1720. In the last decade of his life, he prepared plans for a Hospital similar to that founded in Edinburgh by George Heriot; the purpose of Robert Gordon's Hospital was "the Maintenance, Aliment and Education of young boys whose parents are poor and indigent... and to put them to Trades and Employment". Gordon died in 1731, left his entire fortune to the project. However, it took nearly two decades for buildings to be completed, with the first boys admitted in 1750; the aim was not a sophisticated education. Boys were taken in between 8 and 11 years old and received food, accommodation and a basic education including English, Latin and arithmetic.
They 16 years old as an apprentice in a trade or to a merchant. The Hospital expanded through the 19th centuries. Meanwhile, in the early 19th century, the Industrial Revolution led to a greater need for scientific and technical education for working-class adults, with "Mechanic's Institutes" spreading through Scotland, patterned on that founded by George Birkbeck at Glasgow; the Aberdeen Mechanic's Institution opened in 1824 providing evening classes in subjects such as physics, mathematics, book-keeping, maritime navigation and art. By 1855 it was receiving government funding as the School of Science and Art, with a Technical School founded two years later. Government education reforms in the 1870s saw the "Hospital" system fall out of favour and encouraged mergers with other educational establishments; as part of these reforms, the Aberdeen Mechanic's Institute and Technical School merged with Robert Gordon's Hospital in 1881. The resulting institution was known as Robert Gordon's College.
It provided an education for boys but as a day school only, evening classes for adults in science, technology and general subjects. Art classes offered by the Mechanic's Institution were transferred to a new, independent School of Art close by, paid for by local businessman John Gray and opened in 1885. By the end of the 19th century, Robert Gordon's College was a major provider of technical education, receiving large government grants. Following further reforms, in 1903 the adult education part of the College was designated a Central Institution along with Gray's School of Art, allowing the adult education activities to develop independently rather than under the control of the local School Board; however this was not sufficient to meet demand for technical education, dedicated Technical Colleges were being set up in other Scottish cities. As a result, in 1910 adult education activities were split from the school and became Robert Gordon's Technical College
Barclays plc is a British multinational investment bank and financial services company, headquartered in London. Apart from investment banking, Barclays is organised into four core businesses: personal banking, corporate banking, wealth management, investment management. Barclays traces its origins to a goldsmith banking business established in the City of London in 1690. James Barclay became a partner in the business in 1736. In 1896, several banks in London and the English provinces, including Backhouse's Bank and Gurney's Bank, united as a joint-stock bank under the name Barclays and Co. Over the following decades, Barclays expanded to become a nationwide bank. In 1967, Barclays deployed the world's first cash dispenser. Barclays has made numerous corporate acquisitions, including of London and South Western Bank in 1918, British Linen Bank in 1919, Mercantile Credit in 1975, the Woolwich in 2000 and the North American operations of Lehman Brothers in 2008. Barclays has a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index.
It has a secondary listing on the New York Stock Exchange. Qatar Holdings, an investment vehicle of the State of Qatar, is the largest shareholder of the company. According to a 2011 paper by Vitali et al. Barclays was the most powerful transnational corporation in terms of ownership and thus corporate control over global financial stability and market competition, with AXA and State Street Corporation taking the 2nd and 3rd positions, respectively. Barclays traces its origins back to 1690 when John Freame, a Quaker, Thomas Gould started trading as goldsmith bankers in Lombard Street, London; the name "Barclays" became associated with the business in 1736, when Freame's son-in-law James Barclay became a partner. In 1728 the bank moved to 54 Lombard Street, identified by the'Sign of the Black Spread Eagle', which in subsequent years would become a core part of the bank's visual identity; the Barclay family were connected both as proponents and opponents. David and Alexander Barclay were engaged in the slave trade in 1756.
David Barclay of Youngsbury, on the other hand, was a noted abolitionist, Verene Shepherd, the Jamaican historian of diaspora studies, singles out the case of how he chose to free his slaves in that colony. In 1776 the firm was styled "Barclay and Bening" and so remained until 1785, when another partner, John Tritton, who had married a Barclay, was admitted, the business became "Barclay, Bevan and Tritton". In 1896 several banks in London and the English provinces, notably Backhouse's Bank of Darlington and Gurney's Bank of Norwich, united under the banner of Barclays and Co. a joint-stock bank. Between 1905 and 1916 Barclays extended its branch network by making acquisitions of small English banks. Further expansion followed in 1918 when Barclays amalgamated with the London and South Western Bank and in 1919 when the British Linen Bank was acquired by Barclays Bank, although the British Linen Bank retained a separate board of directors and continued to issue its own bank notes. In 1925 the Colonial Bank, National Bank of South Africa and the Anglo-Egyptian Bank were amalgamated and Barclays operated its overseas operations under the name Barclays Bank – Barclays DCO.
In 1938 Barclays acquired the first Indian exchange bank, the Central Exchange Bank of India, which had opened in London in 1936 with the sponsorship of Central Bank of India. In 1941 during the Nazi Occupation of France, a branch of Barclays in Paris headed by Marcel Cheradame worked directly with the invading force. Senior officials at the bank volunteered the names of Jewish employees as well as ceding an estimated 100 Jewish bank accounts to the Nazi occupiers; the Paris branch used its funds to increase the operational power of a large quarry that helped produce steel for the Nazis. There was no evidence of contact between the head office in London and the branch in Paris during the occupation. Marcel Cheradame was kept as the branch manager. In May 1958, Barclays was the first UK bank to appoint a female bank manager. Hilda Harding managed Barclays' Hanover Square branch in London until her retirement in 1970. In 1965, Barclays established Barclays Bank of California in San Francisco. Barclays launched the first credit card in the UK, Barclaycard, in 1966.
On 27 June 1967, Barclays deployed the world's first cash machine, in Enfield. The British actor Reg Varney was the first person to use the machine. In 1969, a planned merger with Martins Bank and Lloyds Bank was blocked by the Monopolies and Mergers Commission, but the acquisition of Martins Bank on its own was permitted; that year, the British Linen Bank subsidiary was sold to the Bank of Scotland in exchange for a 25% stake, a transaction that became effective from 1971. Barclays DCO changed its name to Barclays Bank International in 1971. In August 1975, following the secondary banking crash, Barclays acquired Mercantile Credit Company. In 1980, Barclays Bank International expanded its business to include commercial credit and took over American Credit Corporation, renaming it Barclays American Corporation; the following year Barclays Bank and Barclays Bank International merged, as part of the corporate reorganisation the former Barclays Bank plc became a group holding company, renamed Barclays plc, UK retail banking was integrated under the former BBI, renamed Barclays Bank PLC from Barclays Bank Limited.
In 1986 Barclays sold its South African business operating under the Barclays National Bank name after protests against Barclays' involvement in South Africa and its apartheid government. That year Barclay
An investment bank is a financial services company or corporate division that engages in advisory-based financial transactions on behalf of individuals and governments. Traditionally associated with corporate finance, such a bank might assist in raising financial capital by underwriting or acting as the client's agent in the issuance of securities. An investment bank may assist companies involved in mergers and acquisitions and provide ancillary services such as market making, trading of derivatives and equity securities, FICC services. Most investment banks maintain prime brokerage and asset management departments in conjunction with their investment research businesses; as an industry, it is broken up into the Bulge Bracket, Middle Market, boutique market. Unlike commercial banks and retail banks, investment banks do not take deposits. From the passage of Glass–Steagall Act in 1933 until its repeal in 1999 by the Gramm–Leach–Bliley Act, the United States maintained a separation between investment banking and commercial banks.
Other industrialized countries, including G7 countries, have not maintained such a separation. As part of the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010, the Volcker Rule asserts some institutional separation of investment banking services from commercial banking. All investment banking activity is classed as either "sell side" or "buy side"; the "sell side" involves trading securities for cash or for other securities, or the promotion of securities. The "buy side" involves the provision of advice to institutions. Private equity funds, mutual funds, life insurance companies, unit trusts, hedge funds are the most common types of buy-side entities. An investment bank can be split into private and public functions with a Chinese wall separating the two to prevent information from crossing; the private areas of the bank deal with private insider information that may not be publicly disclosed, while the public areas, such as stock analysis, deal with public information. An advisor who provides investment banking services in the United States must be a licensed broker-dealer and subject to U.
S. Securities and Exchange Commission and Financial Industry Regulatory Authority regulation; the Dutch East India Company was the first company to issue bonds and shares of stock to the general public. It was the first publicly traded company, being the first company to be listed on an official stock exchange; the Dutch helped lay the foundations of the modern practice of investment banking. Investment banking has changed over the years, beginning as a partnership firm focused on underwriting security issuance, i.e. initial public offerings and secondary market offerings and mergers and acquisitions, evolving into a "full-service" range including securities research, proprietary trading, investment management. In the 21st century, the SEC filings of the major independent investment banks such as Goldman Sachs and Morgan Stanley reflect three product segments: investment banking, asset management, trading and principal investments. In the United States, commercial banking and investment banking were separated by the Glass–Steagall Act, repealed in 1999.
The repeal led to more "universal banks" offering an greater range of services. Many large commercial banks have therefore developed investment banking divisions through acquisitions and hiring. Notable large banks with significant investment banks include JPMorgan Chase, Bank of America, Credit Suisse, Deutsche Bank, UBS, Barclays. After the financial crisis of 2007–08 and the subsequent passage of the Dodd-Frank Act of 2010, regulations have limited certain investment banking operations, notably with the Volcker Rule's restrictions on proprietary trading; the traditional service of underwriting security issues has declined as a percentage of revenue. As far back as 1960, 70% of Merrill Lynch's revenue was derived from transaction commissions while "traditional investment banking" services accounted for 5%. However, Merrill Lynch was a "retail-focused" firm with a large brokerage network. Investment banking is split into front office, middle office, back office activities. While large service investment banks offer all lines of business, both "sell side" and "buy side", smaller sell-side investment firms such as boutique investment banks and small broker-dealers focus on investment banking and sales/trading/research, respectively.
Inns issuing securities and investors buying securities. For corporations, investment bankers offer information on when and how to place their securities on the open market, an activity important to an investment bank's reputation. Therefore, investment bankers play a important role in issuing new security offerings. Front office is described as a revenue-generating role. There are two main areas within front office: investment banking and markets Investment banking involves advising organizations on mergers and acquisitions, as well as a wide array of capital raising strategies. Markets is divided into "sales and trading", "research". Corporate finance is the aspect of investment banks, which involves helping customers raise funds in capital markets and giving advice on mergers and acquisitions
Tuck School of Business
The Tuck School of Business is the graduate business school of Dartmouth College, an Ivy League research university in Hanover, New Hampshire. Founded in 1900 through a donation made by Dartmouth alumnus Edward Tuck, the Tuck School was the first institution in the world to offer a master's degree in business administration; the Tuck School awards only one degree, the Master of Business Administration degree, through a full-time, residential program. The school does not offer an Executive MBA or a part-time program, believing that such programs, while lucrative, would dilute the focus of its full-time MBA program. Tuck does, offer an Advanced Management Program for executives, which spans either one or two weeks depending on the course. In addition, Tuck offers a 4-week, intensive summer program to liberal arts students seeking to build a foundation in core business concepts. Compared to other elite business schools, Tuck is known for its rural setting and small class size — each MBA class consists of about 280 students.
As such, both factors, combined with Tuck's commitment to the full-time MBA program attribute to its high giving rate among the 10,300 Tuck alumni across 73 countries. 70% of all Tuck alumni give to the school, the highest rate among business schools worldwide. The MBA program has held a top-10 ranking in multiple publications, including U. S. News & World Report, The Economist, Business Insider, Vault. According to U. S. News & World Report, MBA graduates of Tuck earned an average $158,194 first year compensation, the fifth highest of all US-based MBA programs. Tuck's MBA program ties for 9th place with MIT for the highest average GMAT score of 722 for its entering class; the school is one of six Ivy League business schools, alongside Wharton, HBS, CBS, Yale SOM. At the turn of the 20th century, Dartmouth College president William Jewett Tucker decided to explore the possibility of establishing a school of business to educate the growing number of Dartmouth alumni entering the commercial world.
Additionally, Tucker was concerned about business leadership in a broad social sense, or, as he put it, "training commensurate with the larger meaning of business", so began soliciting interest among Dartmouth alumni. Through a renewed friendship, Tucker enlisted the support of his former roommate from his undergraduate years at Dartmouth, Edward Tuck, who had since become a wealthy banker and philanthropist. Enthusiastically agreeing to help, on September 8, 1899, Edward Tuck donated an initial grant of $300,000 — in the form of 1,700 shares of preferred stock in the Great Northern Railway Company of Minnesota — to found and endow the Amos Tuck School of Administration and Finance, named in memory of Tuck's father and Dartmouth alumnus, Amos Tuck. In January 1900, the Dartmouth Board of Trustees passed a vote to formally establish the school; the new school's tuition fee cost $100 for the few students. The curriculum involved both traditional liberal arts fields as well as economic and finance education.
The first-years were required to take Modern History, Political Science, Foreign Language, English Composition and Speaking. Undergraduate Dartmouth professors taught most of the first-year courses at Tuck, while outside guest instructors and business-people, such as an export merchant, an attorney, an insurance company president, an accountant, educated the second-year students. Edward Tuck, pleased with the breadth of experience found in the school's instructors, wrote to Dartmouth president Tucker in February 1902, "I am glad that it will be the aim of the school to bring students in touch with practical businessmen."While other business programs tended to offer specialized technical courses linked neither to the liberal arts tradition nor to the broader purposes of business, Tuck maintained itself as a school of general management in the broadest liberal sense, to which a study by the Carnegie Corporation observed, "The Tuck School went further than any other institution in the pre-war period in putting its work on a demanding intellectual level."
Thus, the Tuck School's emphasis on a broad education in general management was adopted by many other emerging business schools, was dubbed the "Tuck Pattern." Students of the first class held their studies in the Hubbard House, located on North Main Street across the College Green. A year in 1901, Tuck donated an additional $100,000 to build the original Tuck Hall; the school grew and prospered under the leadership of Frank H. Dixon, who served as the school's first secretary and left to join the Dartmouth economics department full-time in 1904, followed by Harlow Person, Tuck's first dean, from 1904 through 1919. Person, in 1911, invited 300 leaders of industry, including Frederick Winslow Taylor — who became a professor at Tuck — and Lillian Gilbreth, to a major conference on scientific management, which business historians consider the kick-off for what became the worldwide scientific management movement. Afterward, the school was led by a Tuck alumnus, William R. Gray, from 1919 through 1937.
During this period of growth, Dartmouth president Ernest Martin Hopkins wrote to Edward Tuck reflecting on the school's flourishing alumni and faculty. In the late 1920s, Hopkins sought to unify the Tuck School by establishing a central campus, uniting th
Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc. was a global financial services firm. Before filing for bankruptcy in 2008, Lehman was the fourth-largest investment bank in the United States, doing business in investment banking and fixed-income sales and trading, investment management, private equity, private banking. Lehman was operational for 158 years from its founding in 1850 until 2008. On September 15, 2008, the firm filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection following the massive exodus of most of its clients, drastic losses in its stock, devaluation of assets by credit rating agencies sparked by Lehman's involvement in the subprime mortgage crisis, its exposure to less liquid assets. Lehman's bankruptcy filing is the largest in US history, is thought to have played a major role in the unfolding of the financial crisis of 2007-08; the market collapse gave support to the "Too Big To Fail" doctrine. After Lehman Brothers filed for bankruptcy, global markets plummeted; the following day, Barclays announced its agreement to purchase, subject to regulatory approval, Lehman's North American investment-banking and trading divisions along with its New York headquarters building.
On September 20, 2008, a revised version of that agreement was approved by U. S. Bankruptcy Judge James M. Peck; the next week, Nomura Holdings announced that it would acquire Lehman Brothers' franchise in the Asia-Pacific region, including Japan, Hong Kong and Australia, as well as Lehman Brothers' investment banking and equities businesses in Europe and the Middle East. The deal became effective on October 13, 2008. In 1844, 23-year-old Henry Lehman, the son of a Jewish cattle merchant, immigrated to the United States from Rimpar, Bavaria, he settled in Montgomery, where he opened a dry-goods store, "H. Lehman". In 1847, following the arrival of his brother Emanuel Lehman, the firm became "H. Lehman and Bro." With the arrival of their youngest brother, Mayer Lehman, in 1850, the firm changed its name again and "Lehman Brothers" was founded. During the 1850s, cotton was one of the most important crops in the United States. Capitalizing on cotton's high market value, the three brothers began to accept raw cotton from customers as payment for merchandise beginning a second business trading in cotton.
Within a few years this business grew to become the most significant part of their operation. Following Henry's death from yellow fever in 1855, the remaining brothers continued to focus on their commodities-trading/brokerage operations. In 2002, the City of Chicago passed an ordinance requiring all vendors contracting with the city to disclose any ties to slavery they had had in their history. In response, the city received over 2,000 disclosures, including one from Lehman which admitted that in 1854, it had purchased a slave named Martha and had owned other slaves. By 1858, the center of cotton trading had shifted from the South to New York City, where factors and commission houses were based. Lehman opened its first branch office at 119 Liberty Street, 32-year-old Emanuel relocated there to run the office. In 1862, facing difficulties as a result of the Civil War, the firm teamed up with a cotton merchant named John Durr to form Lehman, Durr & Co. Following the war the company helped finance Alabama's reconstruction.
The firm's headquarters were moved to New York City, where it helped found the New York Cotton Exchange in 1870. The firm dealt in the emerging market for railroad bonds and entered the financial-advisory business. Lehman became a member of the Coffee Exchange as early as 1883 and the New York Stock Exchange in 1887. In 1899, it underwrote its first public offering, the preferred and common stock of the International Steam Pump Company. Despite the offering of International Steam, the firm's real shift from being a commodities house to a house of issue did not begin until 1906. In that year, under Emanuel's son Philip Lehman, the firm partnered with Goldman, Sachs & Co. to bring the General Cigar Co. to market, followed by Sears and Company. During the following two decades one hundred new issues were underwritten by Lehman, many times in conjunction with Goldman, Sachs. Among these were F. W. Woolworth Company, May Department Stores Company, Gimbel Brothers, Inc. R. H. Macy & Company, The Studebaker Corporation, the B.
F. Goodrich Co. and Endicott Johnson Corporation. Following Philip Lehman's retirement in 1925, his son Robert "Bobbie" Lehman took over as head of the firm. During Bobbie's tenure, the company weathered the capital crisis of the Great Depression by focusing on venture capital while the equities market recovered. Traditionally a family-only partnership, in 1924, John M. Hancock became the first non-family member to join the firm, followed by Monroe C. Gutman and Paul Mazur in 1927. By 1928, the firm moved to its now famous One William Street location. In the 1930s, Lehman underwrote the initial public offering of the first television manufacturer, DuMont Laboratories, helped fund the Radio Corporation of America, it helped finance the growing oil industry, including the companies Halliburton and Kerr-McGee. In the 1950s, Lehman underwrote the IPO of Digital Equipment Corporation, it arranged the acquisition of Digital by Compaq. Robert Lehman died in 1969 after 44 years as the patriarch of the firm, leaving no member of the Lehman family involved with the partnership.
Robert's death, coupled with a lack of a clear successor from within the Lehman family, left a void in the company. At the same time, Lehman was facing strong headwinds amidst the difficult economi
Institute of Directors
The Institute of Directors is a business organisation for company directors, senior business leaders and entrepreneurs. It is the UK’s longest running organisation for professional leaders, having been founded in 1903 and incorporated by Royal Charter in 1906; the IoD, per its mission statement, stands for "free enterprise, entrepreneurialism, wealth creation and good corporate governance," and represents "the views of businesses and IoD members in the media and with government."The IoD is located in a Grade I-listed building at 116 Pall Mall the United Service Club. Members of the IoD gain access to co-working spaces around the UK, bespoke market intelligence, tailored tax and legal support, exclusive member-only events along with discounts on IoD professional development courses and events. From a high of 55,000 members in 2005, the IoD has just over 30,000 full members. Members of the IoD come from all industries. Around 70% work for small and medium-sized enterprises and are in senior management and boardroom-level positions, while 78% of FTSE 100 companies have an IoD member on their board or in a senior management position.
The IoD was founded in 1903 and incorporated by royal charter in 1906. The royal charter compels the IoD to: Promote for the public benefit high levels of skill, professional competence and integrity on the part of directors Represent the interests of members and the business community to government and in the public arena Encourage and foster a climate favourable to entrepreneurial activity and wealth creation Promote the study and development of corporate governance The IoD represents individual members; every member’s voice carries equal weight within the organisation, members retain their membership of the IoD throughout their career. This allows the IoD free rein to speak out on behalf of the business community and discuss individual companies in public. There are 30,000 IoD members in the UK and overseas, with an additional 2,500 student members. Anybody who has an interest in business, is running a business, sits on a board or runs their own company can join the IoD. In order to help address declining membership the IoD 99 was established in 2015.
This initiative is aimed at members who are under the age of 42, gives a substantial discount on membership fees. Additionally IoD Advance was launched in March 2016, which gives additional benefits in return for a higher annual subscription; the IoD represents its members and makes the case for enterprise, entrepreneurialism and business in the public and to government. Working with various stakeholders, the IoD campaigns on issues of importance to its members and the wider business community to build an environment in the UK which supports businesses and makes is easy to start and run a company; the IoD has experts on tax, law, corporate governance, financial services, education and regulation, campaigns on all of these issues. The IoD’s Information and Advisory Services offer members tailored and bespoke business advice on all aspects of running a business, including unbiased and confidential legal, financial, HR, tax support. Members of the IoD can access the support through online, telephone or face-to-face consultations, are allowed up to 25 different consultations each year.
The IoD is one of the country’s most prestigious training providers, has a range of courses to suit business leaders at every stage of their career. There are role-specific training courses to equip directors with new skills to take on different roles along with the flagship Chartered Director course. Training courses are open to both members and non-members alike, around 5,000 people take part in an IoD course every year; the IoD networks provide executive coaching, mentoring services and online learning zones. The IoD hosts hundreds of networking and social events throughout the year and across the country; the Annual Convention is the flagship IoD event and a fixture of the business calendar and has taken place at the Royal Albert Hall each year. It draws some of politicians and leaders from across the world; the convention has taken place every year since 1950. Nine different prime ministers have addressed the convention on more than eighteen occasions along with pioneers such as Jimmy Wales, co-founder of Wikipedia, Richard Branson, serial entrepreneur, members of the British royal family, including the Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh and the Charles, Prince of Wales.
The last Annual Convention took place in September 2016 and included former Greece finance minister Yanis Varoufakis, Lord Norman Lamont of Lerwick, global economist Dambisa Moyo, Nicola Sturgeon. Because of declining ticket and sponsorship revenues the Annual Convention took a year's break in 2017; the event in March 2018 was billed as "IoD Open House", a three-day business festival held at 116 Pall Mall. In 2015, the IoD launched the annual Rhondda Lecture, in honour of Margaret Mackworth, 2nd Viscountess Rhondda, the first female President of the IoD; the lecture celebrates radical thought, bold ideas and activism. Julia Gillard, former Australian prime minister, delivered the inaugural lecture in June 2015 at 116 Pall Mall to an audience of politicians and business leaders. Ruth Davidson, leader of the Scottish Conservative party, gave the 2016 lecture and was interviewed by BBC journalist Laura Kuenssberg at 116 Pall Mall in December. Director is a lifestyle magazine for business leaders.
It is circulated is free to IoD members and available to purchase through subscription. It contains interviews with business leaders and politicians, updates from the
Dartmouth College is a private Ivy League research university in Hanover, New Hampshire, United States. Established in 1769 by Eleazar Wheelock, it is the ninth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution. Although founded as a school to educate Native Americans in Christian theology and the English way of life, Dartmouth trained Congregationalist ministers throughout its early history; the university secularized, by the turn of the 20th century it had risen from relative obscurity into national prominence as one of the top centers of higher education. Following a liberal arts curriculum, the university provides undergraduate instruction in 40 academic departments and interdisciplinary programs including 57 majors in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, engineering, enables students to design specialized concentrations or engage in dual degree programs. Dartmouth comprises five constituent schools: the original undergraduate college, the Geisel School of Medicine, the Thayer School of Engineering, the Tuck School of Business, the Guarini School of Graduate and Advanced Studies.
The university has affiliations with the Dartmouth–Hitchcock Medical Center, the Rockefeller Institute for Public Policy, the Hopkins Center for the Arts. With a student enrollment of about 6,400, Dartmouth is the smallest university in the Ivy League. Undergraduate admissions is competitive, with an acceptance rate of 7.9% for the Class of 2023. Situated on a terrace above the Connecticut River, Dartmouth's 269-acre main campus is in the rural Upper Valley region of New England; the university functions on a quarter system, operating year-round on four ten-week academic terms. Dartmouth is known for its undergraduate focus, strong Greek culture, wide array of enduring campus traditions, its 34 varsity sports teams compete intercollegiately in the Ivy League conference of the NCAA Division I. Dartmouth is included among the highest-ranked universities in the United States by several institutional rankings, has been cited as a leading university for undergraduate teaching and research by U. S. News & World Report.
In 2018, the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education listed Dartmouth as the only "majority-undergraduate," "arts-and-sciences focused," "doctoral university" in the country that has "some graduate coexistence" and "very high research activity." In a New York Times corporate study, Dartmouth graduates ranked 41st in terms of the most sought-after and valued in the world. The university has produced many prominent alumni, including 170 members of the U. S. Senate and the U. S. House of Representatives, 24 U. S. governors, 10 billionaire alumni, 10 U. S. Cabinet secretaries, 3 Nobel Prize laureates, 2 U. S. Supreme Court justices, a U. S. vice president. Other notable alumni include 79 Rhodes Scholars, 26 Marshall Scholarship recipients, 13 Pulitzer Prize winners, numerous MacArthur Genius fellows, Fulbright Scholars, CEOs and founders of Fortune 500 corporations, high-ranking U. S. diplomats, scholars in academia and media figures, professional athletes, Olympic medalists. Dartmouth was founded by Eleazar Wheelock, a Congregational minister from Columbia, who had sought to establish a school to train Native Americans as Christian missionaries.
Wheelock's ostensible inspiration for such an establishment resulted from his relationship with Mohegan Indian Samson Occom. Occom became an ordained minister after studying under Wheelock from 1743 to 1747, moved to Long Island to preach to the Montauks. Wheelock founded Moor's Indian Charity School in 1755; the Charity School proved somewhat successful, but additional funding was necessary to continue school's operations, Wheelock sought the help of friends to raise money. The first major donation to the school was given by Dr. John Phillips in 1762, who would go on to found Phillips Exeter Academy. Occom, accompanied by the Reverend Nathaniel Whitaker, traveled to England in 1766 to raise money from churches. With these funds, they established a trust to help Wheelock; the head of the trust was a Methodist named William Legge, 2nd Earl of Dartmouth. Although the fund provided Wheelock ample financial support for the Charity School, Wheelock had trouble recruiting Indians to the institution because its location was far from tribal territories.
In seeking to expand the school into a college, Wheelock relocated it to Hanover, in the Province of New Hampshire. The move from Connecticut followed a lengthy and sometimes frustrating effort to find resources and secure a charter; the Royal Governor of New Hampshire, John Wentworth, provided the land upon which Dartmouth would be built and on December 13, 1769, issued a royal charter in the name of King George III establishing the College. That charter created a college "for the education and instruction of Youth of the Indian Tribes in this Land in reading, writing & all parts of Learning which shall appear necessary and expedient for civilizing & christianizing Children of Pagans as well as in all liberal Arts and Sciences and of English Youth and any others." The reference to educating Native American youth was included to connect Dartmouth to the Charity School and enable use of the Charity School's unspent trust funds. Named for William Legge, 2nd Earl of Dartmouth—an important supporter of Eleazar Wheelock's earlier efforts but who, in fact, opposed creation of the College and never donated to it—Dartmouth is the nation's ninth oldest college and the last institution of higher learning established under Colonial rule.
The College granted its first degrees in 1771. Given the limited success of the Charity School, Wheelock intended his ne