Fayetteville is the third-largest city in Arkansas and county seat of Washington County. The city is centrally located within the county and has been home of the University of Arkansas since the institution's founding in 1871. Fayetteville is on the outskirts of the Boston Mountains, deep within the Ozarks. Known as Washington until 1829, the city was named after Fayetteville, from which many of the settlers had come, it was incorporated on November 3, 1836 and was rechartered in 1867. The four-county Northwest Arkansas Metropolitan Statistical Area is ranked 105th in terms of population in the United States with 463,204 in 2010 according to the United States Census Bureau; the city had a population of 73,580 at the 2010 Census. Fayetteville is home to the University of the state's largest university; when classes are in session, thousands of students on campus change the city's demographics. Thousands of Arkansas Razorbacks alumni and fans travel to Fayetteville to attend football and baseball games.
The University's men's track and field program has won 41 national championships to date. Fayetteville was named the third best place to live in the United States in the 2016 U. S. News Best Places To Live Rankings, one of the best places to retire in the South. Forbes ranked Fayetteville as the 24th-best city for business and careers in 2016. Lonely Planet named Fayetteville among its top 20 places to visit in the South in 2016; the city hosts the Walmart Shareholders Meetings each year at the Bud Walton Arena. In 1828, George McGarrah settled at Big Spring with his family on the modern day corner of Spring and Willow, founding the town of Washington, starting work on the courthouse. On October 17, Washington County was established, Washington chosen as the county seat; the Washington Courthouse was finished in 1829, contained the post office. In the year Postmaster Larkin Newton changed the name to the Fayetteville Courthouse, to avoid confusing with Washington, Hempstead County. Two councilmen selected to name the city were from Fayetteville, itself named for Fayetteville, North Carolina.
That original Fayetteville was named for General Lafayette, a French general who helped the colonies gain independence in the American Revolutionary War. The first store in Fayetteville was opened by John Nye in a small building constructed by James Holmsley. In 1832 David Walker, Chief Justice of the Arkansas supreme court, built a double log cabin on what is now Center Street. In 1822 Archibald Yell, the second Governor of Arkansas, built a house and called it "Waxhaw" after his home in North Carolina; this was on the outskirts of town but now is a street named after him that connects College and School streets. The first hotels were the Onstott House. Fayetteville was incorporated as a town on November 3, 1836. In 1859, a city charter was obtained from the Legislature. During the Civil War the municipal government was suspended and was not reinstated until 1867. P. V. Rhea was the president of the town trustees in 1836. W. Walker was the first mayor under the charter of 1859, M. L. Harrison was the first mayor when the government was reorganized in 1867.
The telegraph came to Fayetteville in 1860, strung along the Military Road from St. Louis, Missouri to Little Rock. During the American Civil War, the Union General Samuel Ryan Curtis occupied Fayetteville on February 18, 1862 and the following week, the Battle of Pea Ridge took place northeast of Fayetteville; the city housed wounded soldiers from the Battle of Prairie Grove in December 1862, housed injured troops on Dickson Street. Confederate troops besieged Union soldiers in Fayetteville on April 18, 1863 at the present-day intersection of College Avenue and Dickson Street, at their headquarters. Union soldiers held the city against cannon fire and cavalry attacks, although their headquarters sustained damage; the building was restored and is operated as the Headquarters House, a museum of the Washington County Historical Society. Fayetteville was occupied from December 1862 until May 1865 by the First Arkansas Union Cavalry, a regiment of Union men from Northwest Arkansas. Union forces repelled a Confederate attack in October 1864.
After the war, the United States government established the Fayetteville National Cemetery in 1867. A cemetery for Confederate dead was founded in 1873. Newspapers were established early; the Fayetteville Weekly Democrat began publishing in 1868. It developed as the Northwest Arkansas Times, is still in print today; the Fayetteville Schools District was founded on March 20, 1871 as the first independent school district in Arkansas. The public school system was established by the Reconstruction era legislature. Arkansas had struggled with a state banking crisis, resulting in the illegality of banking until 1868. Following the reinstatement, the Stark Bank became the first bank in the state in 1872, becoming the William McIlroy Bank four years later; this institution remains today as Arvest Bank. In 1954, a few days after Charleston, Fayetteville was the second school district in the southern United States to implement school integration in response to Brown v. Board of Education. Fayetteville is located in the Boston Mountains, a subset of The Ozarks which run through Northwest Arkansas, southern Missouri, Eastern Oklahoma.
The rocks of the Boston Mountains were formed when sandstones and shales were deposited on top of the Springfield Plateau during the Pennsylvanian Period. In the Fayettevill
Washington County, Arkansas
Washington County is a county located in the northwest part of the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 203,065, making it the third-most populous county in Arkansas; the county seat is Fayetteville. It is Arkansas's 17th county, formed on October 17, 1828, named for George Washington, the first President of the United States. Washington County is part of the Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers, AR-MO Metropolitan Statistical Area. Washington County began following an 1817 treaty; the area was next known as Lovely County, one year Washington County was created after another Cherokee treaty. The court house was centrally located in the city of Washington, modern-day Fayetteville; the Lee Creek Valley in southern Washington County contained many of the county's early settlements, including Cane Hill and Evansville. Arkansas College and Cane Hill College were both founded in Washington County within a day of each other in 1834, with the University of Arkansas being founded in Fayetteville in 1871.
The county witnessed major battles during the American Civil War, including the Battle of Fayetteville, the Battle of Prairie Grove, the Battle of Cane Hill. The county was sparsely settled and the residents were divided in their allegiance, since slaves were few, plantations nonexistent, political news came by White River travelers, not from the pro-Confederate southern part of the state. A Butterfield Overland Mail route was established through the county in 1858, causing more families to settle there; the economy of Washington County was based on apples in the late 19th century. A mixture of wet weather and loamy soils provided a good environment for apple orchards. First planted in areas around Lincoln and Cane Hill in the 1830s, apple orchards began all across the county; the United States Census reported a crop of 614,924 bushels of apples produced by the county in 1900, the highest in the state. Several varieties of apple were discovered in the area including Shannon Pippin, Wilson June, most notably the Arkansas Black.
The Ben Davis became the apple of choice in the area for shipment across the region. Corn became the dominant crop, outselling apples by $500,000 in 1900. Arkansas Industrial University was founded in the growing community of Fayetteville in 1871 after William McIlroy a donated farmland for the site; the university changed its name in 1899 to the University of Arkansas. Railroads came to Washington County after the St. Louis – San Francisco Railway decided to build a line to Texas through Fort Smith. Two possible routes were proposed, one passing through Prairie Grove, the other through Fayetteville. Many Fayetteville residents and farmers sold or donated land for the right of way to influence the choice, they were successful and in 1881 the first passenger train arrived at Fayetteville. The county continued to grow with more schools after the railroad's completion. Rural parts of the county began losing population in the 1920s during the Great Depression, when high taxes forcing residents to move to Fayetteville or west to Oklahoma.
The rural areas became the Ozark National Forest and Devil's Den State Park. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 952 square miles, of which 942 square miles is land and 10 square miles is water, it is the fourth-largest county by area in Arkansas. The county is in a subdivision of the Ozark Mountains. Devil's Den State Park in southern Washington County is known for its picturesque views and mountain vistas. Washington County contains Lake Wedington, located in scenic country west of Fayetteville on Wedington Drive. Washington County sits on a basement of Precambrian granite and rhyolite, as most of the continental interior of the United States does. Much of the county's geologic history must be inferred from nearby Oklahoma and Missouri research, due to the steepness of the more formed mountains that did not form in the neighboring states; this igneous material was eroded until the Paleozoic. These oceans came and retreated for 300 million years, depositing various different sedements during that time.
This created fossiliferous limestone and ripple marked-sandstone, both present throughout the north part of the county as evidence of ancient oceans. Sediments were deposited from the Devonian and Pennsylvanian periods. During this deposition period, the county had a climate similar to that of the present-day Bahamas, as the equator was north of Washington County; the Devonian brought shales, the Mississippian brought the limestones and chert visible in the bluffs. This chert is present throughout most of the county; the county is home to the Boone Formation, white limestones, the Wedington Sandstone, the Bastesville Sandstone, the Pitkin formation, the Fayetteville Shale. Settlers were attracted to the area by its numerous streams, used to power gristmills and clays for use in construction, lime-sweetened soil, chert for road construction. Today, Washington County consists of two main formations, the Boston Mountains and the Springfield Plateau. During the late Pennsylvanian, sediments were deposited on top of the Springfield Plateau.
The area was uplifted during the Ouachita orogeny and subsequent erosion formed the rugged Boston Mountains. Erosion of these sediments causes the Boston Mountains to be carved steeply in the south, while in the north of the county, the Boston Mountain sediments are entirely eroded, exposing the older rocks of the Springfield Plateau. Benton Cou
Springdale is the fourth-largest city in Arkansas, United States. It is located in both Benton counties in Northwest Arkansas. Located on the Springfield Plateau deep in the Ozark Mountains, Springdale has long been an important industrial city for the region. In addition to several trucking companies, the city is home to the world headquarters of Tyson Foods, the world's largest meat producing company. Named Shiloh, the city changed its name to Springdale when applying for a post office in 1872; the four-county Northwest Arkansas Metropolitan Statistical Area is ranked 109th in terms of population in the United States with 463,204 in 2010 according to the United States Census Bureau. The city had a population of 69,797 at the 2010 Census. Springdale has been experiencing a population boom in recent years, as indicated by a 133% growth in population between the 1990 and 2010 censuses. During this period of rapid growth, the city has seen a new Shiloh Museum of Ozark History, the establishment of a Springdale campus of Northwest Arkansas Community College and the Northwest Arkansas Naturals minor league baseball team move into Arvest Ballpark.
Tyson remains the city's top employer, is visible throughout the city. Many public features bear the Tyson name, including the Randal Tyson Recreational Complex, Don Tyson Parkway, Helen Tyson Middle School, John Tyson Elementary and Don Tyson School of Innovation. Governor Mike Beebe signed an act into law recognizing Springdale as "The Poultry Capital Of The World" in 2013. Springdale was called "Shiloh", after the local Shiloh church, under the latter name was platted in 1866. In 1878, the town was incorporated with the name of Springdale. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 108.9 square miles, of which, 108.3 square miles of it is land and 0.7 square miles of it, or 0.62%, is water. The city limits extend north into southern Benton County. Springdale is bordered by the cities of Cave Springs and Bethel Heights to the north, by Elm Springs and Tontitown to the west, by Johnson and Fayetteville to the south; the city is located in both Benton and Washington counties along Interstate 49/US Highway 62/US Highway 71.
This is the only controlled access route through the area, which replaced the winding US 71 in the 1990s. An interstate connection with Fort Smith to the south and Kansas City, Missouri to the north has helped to grow Springdale. Within Washington County, Springdale is bordered along the south by Johnson. In some locations, this transition is seamless; the city extends east along Highway 412 toward Tontitown and Beaver Lake, respectively. Springdale is located on the Springfield Plateau, a subset of The Ozarks which run through northwest Arkansas, southern Missouri, Northeastern Oklahoma. In the Springdale area and shales were deposited on top of the Springfield Plateau during the Pennsylvanian Period; these were eroded after the Ouachita orogeny and uplift, exposing Mississippian limestone formations of the Springfield Plateau visible today. The Fayetteville–Springdale–Rogers Metropolitan Area consists of three Arkansas counties: Benton and Washington, McDonald County, Missouri; the area had a population of 347,045 at the 2000 census which had increased to 463,204 by the 2010 Census.
Springdale lies in the humid subtropical climate zone with influence from the humid continental climate type. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. July is the hottest month of the year, with an average high of 89 °F and an average low of 69 °F. Temperatures above 100 °F are uncommon but not rare, occurring on average twice a year, with 57 days over 90 °F annually. January is the coldest month with an average high of 46 °F and an average low of 26 °F; the city's highest temperature was 111 °F, recorded in 1954. The lowest temperature recorded was −24 °F, in 1899. Precipitation is weakly seasonal, with a bimodal pattern: wet seasons in the spring and fall, drier summers and winters, but some rain in all months; as of the census of 2010, there were 69,797 people, 22,805 households, 16,640 families residing in the city. The racial makeup of the city was 64.7% White, 1.8% Black or black, 1.8% Native American, 2.0% Asian, 5.7% Pacific Islander, 22% from other races, 2.9% from two or more races.
35.4% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 22,678 households out of which 41.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.0% were married couples living together, 13.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.0% were non-families. 21.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.02 and the average family size was 3.54. The median income for a household in the city was $26,523, the median income for a family was $46,407. Males had a median income of $31,495 versus $26,492 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,645. 21.3% of the population and 17.4% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 33.6% of those under the age of 18 and 6.3% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.56.8% of Springdale's population describes themselves as religious above the national average of 48.8%. 25.6% of people in Springdale who describe themselves as having a religion are Baptist.
12.5% of people holding a religion are Catholic. There are higher proportions of
The Ozarks called the Ozark Mountains or Ozark Plateau, is a physiographic region in the U. S. states of Missouri, Arkansas and extreme southeastern Kansas. The Ozarks cover a significant portion of northern Arkansas and most of the southern half of Missouri, extending from Interstate 40 in Arkansas to the Interstate 70 in central Missouri. There are two mountain ranges within the Ozarks: the Boston Mountains of Arkansas and the St. Francois Mountains of Missouri. Buffalo Lookout, the highest point in the Ozarks, is located in the Boston Mountains. Geologically, the area is a broad dome with the exposed core in the ancient St. Francois Mountains, some of the oldest rocks in North America; the Ozarks cover nearly 47,000 square miles, making it the most extensive highland region between the Appalachians and Rockies. Together with the Ouachita Mountains, the area is known as the U. S. Interior Highlands; the Salem Plateau, named after Salem, makes up the largest geologic area of the Ozarks. The second largest is the Springfield Plateau, named after Springfield, nicknamed the “Queen City of the Ozarks”.
On the northern Ozark border are the cities of Columbia, Missouri. Significant cities in Arkansas include Fayetteville. Near the Missouri-Arkansas border is Branson, Missouri, a tourist destination and popularizer of Ozark culture. Ozarks is a toponym believed to be derived as an English-language adaptation of the French abbreviation aux Arcs. In the decades prior to the French and Indian War, aux Arkansas referred to the trading post at Arkansas Post, located in wooded Arkansas Delta lowland area above the confluence of the Arkansas River with the Mississippi River. "Arkansas" seems to be the French version of what the Illinois tribe called the Quapaw, who lived in eastern Arkansas in the area of the trading post. The term came to refer to all Ozark Plateau drainage into the Arkansas and Missouri Rivers. An alternative origin for the name "Ozark" relates. In the 17th and early 18th centuries, French cartographers mapped the Arkansas and Mississippi Rivers; the large, top most arc or bend in this part of the Arkansas River was referred to as being aux arcs—the top or northernmost arc in the whole of the lower Arkansas.
Travelers arriving by boat would disembark at this top bend of the river to explore the Ozarks. Other possible derivations include aux arcs meaning " of the arches," in reference to the dozens of natural bridges formed by erosion and collapsed caves in the Ozark region; these include Clifty Hollow Natural Bridge in Missouri, Alum Cove in the Ozark – St. Francis National Forest, it is suggested aux arcs is an abbreviation of aux arcs-en-ciel, French for "toward the rainbows," which are a common sight in the mountainous regions. After the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, American travelers in the region referred to various features of the upland areas using the term Ozark, such as Ozark Mountains and Ozark forests. By the early 20th century, the Ozarks had become a generic and used term; the Ozarks consist of five physiographic subregions: the Boston Mountains of north Arkansas and Cookson Hills of east Oklahoma. Karst features such as springs, losing streams and caves are common in the limestones of the Springfield Plateau and abundant in the dolostone bedrock of the Salem Plateau and Boston Mountains.
Missouri is known as "The Cave State" with over 6000 recorded caves. The Ozark Plateaus aquifer system affects groundwater movement in all areas except the igneous core of the St. Francois Mountains. Geographic features include limestone and dolomite glades, which are rocky, desert-like area on hilltops. Kept open by periodic fires that limit growth of grasses and forbs in shallow soil, glades are home to collared lizards, scorpions and other species more typical of the desert southwest; the Boston Mountains contain the highest elevations of the Ozarks with peaks over 2,500 feet and form some of the greatest relief of any formation between the Appalachian and Rocky Mountains. The Ouachita Mountains to the south rise a few hundred feet higher, but are not geographically associated with the Ozarks; the Boston Mountains portion of the Ozarks extends north of the Arkansas River Valley 20 to 35 miles and is 200 miles and are bordered by the Springfield and Salem Plateau to the north of the White River.
Summits can reach elevations of just over 2,560 feet with valleys 500 to 1,550 feet deep. Turner Ward Knob is the highest named peak. Located in western Newton County, its elevation is 2,463 feet. Nearby, five unnamed peaks have elevations at or above 2,560 feet. Drainage is to the White River, with the exception of the Illinois River, although there is considerab
Fort Smith, Arkansas
Fort Smith is the second-largest city in Arkansas and one of the two county seats of Sebastian County. As of the 2010 Census, the population was 86,209. With an estimated population of 88,037 in 2017, it is the principal city of the Fort Smith, Arkansas-Oklahoma Metropolitan Statistical Area, a region of 298,592 residents that encompasses the Arkansas counties of Crawford and Sebastian, the Oklahoma counties of Le Flore and Sequoyah. Fort Smith has a sister city relationship with Cisterna, site of the World War II Battle of Cisterna, fought by United States Army Rangers commanded by Fort Smith native William O. Darby; the city has a mutual friendship-city relationship with Jining, China. Fort Smith lies on the Arkansas-Oklahoma state border, situated at the confluence of the Arkansas and Poteau rivers known as Belle Point. Fort Smith was established as a western frontier military post in 1817, when it was a center of fur trading; the city developed there. It became well known as a base for migrants' settling of the "Wild West" and for its law enforcement heritage.
In 2007, the city of Fort Smith was selected by the United States Department of the Interior as the site of the new United States Marshals Service National Museum, slated to open in 2019. This area was occupied for thousands of years by indigenous peoples, attracted to the advantageous site near the rivers, they used the waterways for transportation and trading, to supply fish and water for their villages. The French claimed this area as part of their New La Louisiane; some colonial fur traders traveled the Arkansas and other rivers to trade with the native American tribes. The United States acquired this territory and large areas west of the Mississippi River from France in the Louisiana Purchase. Soon after, the government sent the Pike Expedition to explore the areas along the Arkansas River; the US founded Fort Smith in 1817 as a military post. It was named after General Thomas Adams Smith, who commanded the United States Army Rifle Regiment in 1817, headquartered near St. Louis. General Smith had ordered Army topographical engineer Stephen H. Long to find a suitable site on the Arkansas River for a fort.
General Smith never visited the forts that bore his name. A stockade was built and occupied from 1817 until 1822 by a small troop of regulars commanded by Major William Bradford. A small settlement began forming around the fort, but the Army abandoned the first Fort Smith in 1824 and moved 80 miles further west to Fort Gibson. John Rogers, an Army sutler and land speculator, bought up former government-owned lands at this site and promoted growth of the new civilian town of Fort Smith. Due to the strategic location of this site, the federal government re-established a military presence at Fort Smith during the 1830s era of Indian Removal of tribes from the American Southeast to west of the Mississippi River in Indian Territory, now Oklahoma. In 1838 the Army moved back into the old military post near Belle Point, expanded the base, they used troops from their ancestral homelands in the Southeast. Remnants of the Five Civilized Tribes remained in the southeast, their descendants in some cases have reorganized and been federally recognized.
The Cherokee called the forced march the Trail of Tears, as many of their people and African-American slaves died along the way. The army enforced the removal of these peoples to the reserved Indian Territory, where the federal government granted them land. Many displaced Native Americans fell out of the march and settled in Fort Smith and adjoining Van Buren, Arkansas on the other side of the river; the US Army used Fort Smith as a base during the Mexican War. As a result, the US acquired large territories in the Southwest, annexed the Republic of Texas, independent for some years. Sebastian County was formed in 1851, separated from Crawford County north of the Arkansas River. In 1858, Fort Smith was designated as a Division Center of the Butterfield Overland Mail's 7th Division route across Indian Territory from Fort Smith to Texas and as a junction with the mail route from Memphis, Tennessee, an important port on the east side of the Mississippi River. During the early years of the U. S. Civil War, the fort was occupied by the Confederate Army.
Union troops under General Steele took control of Fort Smith on September 1, 1863. A small fight occurred there on July 31, 1864, but the Union army maintained command in the area until the war ended in 1865; as a result, many refugee slaves, Southern Unionists, others came here to escape the guerrilla warfare raging in Arkansas and the Border States. The slaves were freed under the Emancipation Proclamation of January 1863 by President Abraham Lincoln. Federal troops abandoned the post of Fort Smith for the last time in 1871; the town continued to thrive despite the absence of federal troops. Two of Fort Smith's most notable historic figures were Judge Isaac Parker and William Henry Harrison Clayton known as W. H. H. Clayton. In 1874, William Henry Harrison Clayton was appointed United States Attorney for the Western District of Arkansas by President Ulysses S. Grant. Fort Smith was a bustling community full of brothels and outlaws, just across the river from Indian Territory. William Clayton realized a strong judge would be necessary to bring order to the region.
He knew. But Judge Parker had been confirmed by the US Senate. With the help of President Grant and US Senator Powell Clayt
Topography is the study of the shape and features of land surfaces. The topography of an area could refer to the surface shapes and features themselves, or a description. Topography is a field of geoscience and planetary science and is concerned with local detail in general, including not only relief but natural and artificial features, local history and culture; this meaning is less common in the United States, where topographic maps with elevation contours have made "topography" synonymous with relief. Topography in a narrow sense involves the recording of relief or terrain, the three-dimensional quality of the surface, the identification of specific landforms; this is known as geomorphometry. In modern usage, this involves generation of elevation data in digital form, it is considered to include the graphic representation of the landform on a map by a variety of techniques, including contour lines, hypsometric tints, relief shading. The term topography originated in ancient Greece and continued in ancient Rome, as the detailed description of a place.
The word comes from the Greek τόπος and -γραφία. In classical literature this refers to writing about a place or places, what is now called'local history'. In Britain and in Europe in general, the word topography is still sometimes used in its original sense. Detailed military surveys in Britain were called Ordnance Surveys, this term was used into the 20th century as generic for topographic surveys and maps; the earliest scientific surveys in France were called the Cassini maps after the family who produced them over four generations. The term "topographic surveys" appears to be American in origin; the earliest detailed surveys in the United States were made by the “Topographical Bureau of the Army,” formed during the War of 1812, which became the Corps of Topographical Engineers in 1838. After the work of national mapping was assumed by the U. S. Geological Survey in 1878, the term topographical remained as a general term for detailed surveys and mapping programs, has been adopted by most other nations as standard.
In the 20th century, the term topography started to be used to describe surface description in other fields where mapping in a broader sense is used in medical fields such as neurology. An objective of topography is to determine the position of any feature or more any point in terms of both a horizontal coordinate system such as latitude and altitude. Identifying features, recognizing typical landform patterns are part of the field. A topographic study may be made for a variety of reasons: military planning and geological exploration have been primary motivators to start survey programs, but detailed information about terrain and surface features is essential for the planning and construction of any major civil engineering, public works, or reclamation projects. There are a variety of approaches to studying topography. Which method to use depend on the scale and size of the area under study, its accessibility, the quality of existing surveys. Surveying helps determine the terrestrial or three-dimensional space position of points and the distances and angles between them using leveling instruments such as theodolites, dumpy levels and clinometers.
Work on one of the first topographic maps was begun in France by Giovanni Domenico Cassini, the great Italian astronomer. Though remote sensing has sped up the process of gathering information, has allowed greater accuracy control over long distances, the direct survey still provides the basic control points and framework for all topographic work, whether manual or GIS-based. In areas where there has been an extensive direct survey and mapping program, the compiled data forms the basis of basic digital elevation datasets such as USGS DEM data; this data must be "cleaned" to eliminate discrepancies between surveys, but it still forms a valuable set of information for large-scale analysis. The original American topographic surveys involved not only recording of relief, but identification of landmark features and vegetative land cover. Remote sensing is a general term for geodata collection at a distance from the subject area. Besides their role in photogrammetry and satellite imagery can be used to identify and delineate terrain features and more general land-cover features.
They have become more and more a part of geovisualization, whether maps or GIS systems. False-color and non-visible spectra imaging can help determine the lie of the land by delineating vegetation and other land-use information more clearly. Images can be in other spectrum. Photogrammetry is a measurement technique for which the co-ordinates of the points in 3D of an object are determined by the measurements made in two photographic images taken starting from different positions from different passes of an aerial photography flight. In this technique, the common points are identified on each image. A line of sight can be built from the camera location to the point on the object, it is the intersection of its rays which determines the relative three-dimensional position of the point. Known control points can be used to give these relative positions absolute values. More sophisticated algorithms can exploit other information on the scene known a priori. Satellite RADAR mapping is one of the major techniques of generating Digital E
Maryland Heights, Missouri
Maryland Heights is a middle-class, second-ring west-central suburb of St. Louis, located in St. Louis County, United States; the population was 27,472 at the 2010 census. The city was incorporated in 1985. Edwin L. Dirck was appointed the city's first mayor by County Executive Gene McNary. Mark M. Levin served as City Administrator from August 1985 to 2015. Maryland Heights is located at 38°43′10″N 90°26′51″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 23.35 square miles, of which 21.83 square miles is land and 1.52 square miles is water. The City of Maryland Heights is a third-class statutory city, it is governed by a mayor who serves a city council made up of eight members. The city is divided into four wards. Two council-people are elected from each ward to serve on a city council for two-year terms; the city has offered internships in public administration since 1986. As of the census of 2010, there were 27,472 people, 12,180 households, 6,766 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,258.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 13,092 housing units at an average density of 599.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 63.2% White, 21.9% African American, 0.2% Native American, 9.8% Asian, 2.3% from other races, 2.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.5% of the population. There were 12,180 households of which 27.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.9% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.2% had a male householder with no wife present, 44.4% were non-families. 35.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.21 and the average family size was 2.90. The median age in the city was 35 years. 20.3% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.7% male and 51.3% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 25,756 people, 11,302 households, 6,419 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,204.4 people per square mile. There were 11,846 housing units at an average density of 553.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 85.35% White, 5.58% African American, 0.20% Native American, 7.11% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.71% from other races, 1.02% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.33% of the population. There were 11,302 households out of which 25.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.2% were married couples living together, 9.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 43.2% were non-families. 33.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.94. In the city, the population was spread out with 21.5% under the age of 18, 9.8% from 18 to 24, 37.2% from 25 to 44, 22.0% from 45 to 64, 9.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.7 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $48,689, the median income for a family was $58,487. Males had a median income of $40,700 versus $30,613 for females; the per capita income for the city was $24,918. About 3.8% of families and 5.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.6% of those under age 18 and 8.2% of those age 65 or over. Maryland Heights is served by Pattonville public school districts. Edward Jones Investments operates its North Campus office in Maryland Heights. At one time, Express Scripts had its headquarters in Maryland Heights. Express Scripts built a new headquarters on the grounds of the University of Missouri-St. Louis in 2007. Central Midland Railway, a division of Progressive Rail Inc. of Minnesota, provides regular freight rail service to several businesses located in Maryland Heights. CMR operates the far eastern segment of the former Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railway's St. Louis to Kansas City main line, constructed in 1870.
The active portion of the former CRI&P line runs from the north side of St. Louis, where it connects with the Terminal Railroad Association of St. Louis and Union Pacific Railroad, now terminates in Union. According to the city's 2012 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are: The city of Maryland Heights operates four parks as well as Aquaport, a waterpark. Creve Coeur Lake Memorial Park is operated by St. Louis County and was a summer resort in the early 1900s, it features a 320-acre lake as well as the picturesque "Dripping Springs" waterfall. It was St. Louis County's first park. Historic Aircraft Restoration Museum is located at the Creve Coeur Airport and has a large collection of 1920s and 1930s aircraft. Vago Park is a 20-acre park located at the intersection of Fee Fee Midland Avenue, it features three playgrounds, a splash pad play area, a paved walking trail, a sand volleyball court, three pavilions, a gazebo and picnic areas outfitted with barbecue grills.
Visitors will want to be sure to note the "Veterans Memorial Walk," a sidewalk made of bricks imprinted with the names of Maryland Heights residents who have served in the Armed Forces of the United States. Eise Park is located at the intersection of Glenview Drive and Bourbon Street, near Rose Acres Elementary