Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Toshiko Akiyoshi – Lew Tabackin Big Band
The Toshiko Akiyoshi – Lew Tabackin Big Band was a 16 piece jazz big band created by pianist Toshiko Akiyoshi and tenor saxophone/flutist Lew Tabackin in Los Angeles in 1973. In 1982 the principals moved from Los Angeles to New York City and re-formed the group with new members under the name, The Toshiko Akiyoshi Jazz Orchestra featuring Lew Tabackin. Akiyoshi arranged all of the music for the band and composed nearly all of the music recorded by the two groups over a 30-year period. Tabackin served as the bands' featured soloist on tenor flute; the groups recorded 13 albums, toured in North America and Europe and, after the move to New York, had regular performances at the jazz club Birdland before disbanding in 2003. The bands' recordings received several Grammy nominations and scored high in Down Beat magazine's critics' and readers' polls. Down Beat magazine Critics' Poll winner: Jazz Album of the Year: 1978 Big Band: 1979, 1980, 1981, 1982, 1983 Arranger: 1979, 1982, 1990, 1995, 1996 Composer: 1981, 1982 Flute: 1980, 1981, Down Beat Magazine Readers' Poll winner: Big Band: 1978, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1982 Arranger: 1978, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1982, 1989, 1995 Composer: 1980, 1981, 1982, 1986 Flute: 1981, 1982 Grammy award nominations: Best Jazz Instrumental Performance - Big Band: 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1984, 1985, 1992, 1994.
Best Arrangement on an Instrumental: 1981, 1983, 1985, 1994. Swing Journal awards: Gold Disk: 1976, Silver Disk: 1974, 1979, 1996 Stereo Review Jazz Album of the Year: 1976 Allmusic
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Gerald Stanley Wilson was an American jazz trumpeter, big band bandleader, composer/arranger, educator. Born in Mississippi, he was based in Los Angeles from the early 1940s. In addition to being a band leader, Wilson wrote arrangements for Duke Ellington, Sarah Vaughan, Ray Charles, Julie London, Dizzy Gillespie, Ella Fitzgerald, Benny Carter, Lionel Hampton, Billie Holiday, Dinah Washington, Nancy Wilson. Wilson was born in Shelby, at the age of 16 moved to Detroit, where he graduated from Cass Technical High School, he joined the Jimmie Lunceford orchestra in 1939, replacing Sy Oliver. While with Lunceford, Wilson contributed numbers to the band's book, including "Hi Spook" and "Yard-dog Mazurka", the first influenced by Ellington's recording of "Caravan" and the latter an influence on Stan Kenton's "Intermission Riff". During World War II, Wilson performed for a brief time with the U. S. Navy, with musicians including Clark Terry, Willie Smith and Jimmy Nottingham, among others. Around 2005, many of the members of the band reunited as "The Great Lakes Experience Big Band," with Wilson conducting and Ernie Andrews making a guest appearance at the invitation of Clark Terry.
Wilson played and arranged for the bands of Benny Carter, Duke Ellington, Count Basie and Dizzy Gillespie. Wilson formed his own band, with some success in the mid-1940s. In 1960, he formed a Los Angeles-based band that began a series of critically acclaimed recordings for the Pacific Jazz label, his 1968 album California Soul featured a title track written by Ashford & Simpson, as well as a version of The Doors' hit "Light My Fire". Musicians in the band at various times included lead trumpeter Snooky Young, trumpet soloist Carmell Jones and saxophonists Bud Shank, Joe Maini, Harold Land, Teddy Edwards, Don Raffell; the rhythm section included guitarist Joe Pass, Richard Holmes, vibists Roy Ayers and Bobby Hutcherson, drummers Mel Lewis and Mel Lee. Wilson's wife of more than 50 years, Josefina Villasenor Wilson, is Mexican-American, a number of his compositions showed his love of Spanish/Mexican themes "Viva Tirado", which became a hit for the rock band El Chicano. Along with his wife, Wilson had three daughters, his son Anthony, a number of grandchildren, all of whom have songs composed for them - his compositions were inspired by his family members.
Wilson continued leading bands and recording in decades for the Discovery and MAMA labels. Recent musicians included Luis Bonilla, Rick Baptist, Randall Willis, Wilson's son-in-law Shuggie Otis and son Anthony Wilson. Wilson continued to record Spanish-flavored compositions, notably the bravura trumpet solos "Carlos" and "Lomelin"; the National Endowment for the Arts named Wilson an NEA Jazz Master in 1990. In 1998 Wilson received a commission from the Monterey Jazz Festival for an original composition, resulting in "Theme for Monterey", performed at that year's festival. In years, he formed orchestras on the West and East coasts, each with local outstanding musicians, he made special appearances as guest conductor, including with the Carnegie Hall Jazz Band, the Lincoln Center Jazz Orchestra, the Chicago Jazz Ensemble and European radio jazz orchestras, conducting the BBC Big Band in 2005. He hosted an innovative show, in the 1970s, on KBCA in Los Angeles, co-hosted by Dennis Smith, where he played "... music of the past, the present, the future."
Wilson was a member of the faculty at California State University, Los Angeles and the University of California, Los Angeles, for many years winning a "teacher of the year" award. In the 1970s he served on the faculty at California State University, where he taught Jazz History to wide acclaim among the student body, has taught at Cal Arts in Los Angeles. In February 2006, Wynton Marsalis and the Lincoln Center Jazz Orchestra performed his music with Gerald Wilson conducting, he had a unique style of conducting: "Garbed in well tailored suits, his long white hair flowing, Wilson shaped the music with dynamic movements and the elegant grace of a modern dancer." Asked about his style of conducting by Terry Gross on the NPR show Fresh Air in 2006, he replied,'It's different from any style you've seen before. I move. I choreograph the music. You see, I point it out, everything you're to listen to.'"In June 2007, Wilson returned to the studio with producer Al Pryor and an all-star big band to record a special album of compositions commissioned and premiered at the Monterey Jazz Festival for the festival's 50th anniversary.
Wilson had helped lead celebrations of the festival's 20th and 40th anniversary with his specially commissioned works. The album Monterey Moods was released on Mack Avenue Records in September 2007. In September 2009, Wilson conducted his eight-movement suite "Detroit", commissioned by the Detroit Jazz Festival to mark its 30th anniversary; the work includes a movement entitled "Cass Tech" in honor of his high school alma mater. In 2011, his last recording was the Grammy nominated "Legacy" Wilson died at his home in Los Angeles, California, on September 8, 2014, after a brief illness that followed a bout of pneumonia, whic
MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
Colorado Springs, Colorado
Colorado Springs is a home rule municipality, the largest city by area in Colorado as well as the county seat and the most populous municipality of El Paso County, United States. Colorado Springs is located in the east central portion of the state, it is situated on Fountain Creek and is located 60 miles south of the Colorado State Capitol in Denver. At 6,035 feet the city stands over 1 mile above sea level, though some areas of the city are higher and lower. Colorado Springs is situated near the base of Pikes Peak, which rises 14,115 feet above sea level on the eastern edge of the Southern Rocky Mountains; the city is home to 24 national governing bodies of sport, including the United States Olympic Committee, the United States Olympic Training Center, USA Hockey. The city had an estimated population of 465,101 in 2016, a metro population of 712,000, ranking as the second most populous city in the state of Colorado, behind Denver, the 42nd most populous city in the United States; the Colorado Springs, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area had an estimated population of 712,327 in 2016.
The city is included in the Front Range Urban Corridor, an oblong region of urban population along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado and Wyoming following the path of Interstate 25 in both states. The city covers 194.9 square miles. In 2018, Colorado Springs received several accolades: U. S. News named Colorado Springs the number one most desirable place to live in the United States, number two on their list of the 125 Best Places to Live in the USA; the Metropolitan Policy Program at Brookings found that Colorado Springs was the fastest growing city for Millennials. Thumbtack's annual Small Business Friendliness Survey found Colorado Springs to be the number four most business friendly city in the country; the Ute and Cheyenne peoples were the first recorded inhabiting the area which would become Colorado Springs. Part of the territory included in the United States' 1803 Louisiana Purchase, the current city area was designated part of the 1854 Kansas Territory. In 1859, after the first local settlement was established, it became part of the Jefferson Territory on October 24 and of El Paso County on November 28.
Colorado City at the Front Range confluence of Fountain and Camp creeks was "formally organized on August 13, 1859" during the Pike's Peak Gold Rush. It served as the capital of the Colorado Territory from November 5, 1861, until August 14, 1862, when the capital was moved to Denver. In 1871 the Colorado Springs Company laid out the towns of La Font and Fountain Colony and downstream of Colorado City. Within a year, Fountain Colony would be renamed "Colorado Springs", was incorporated; the El Paso County seat shifted from Colorado City in 1873 to the Town of Colorado Springs. On December 1, 1880, Colorado Springs expanded northward with two annexations; the second period of annexations was during 1889–90, included Seavey's Addition, West Colorado Springs, East End, another North End addition. In 1891 the Broadmoor Land Company built the Broadmoor suburb, which included the Broadmoor Casino, by December 12, 1895, the city had "four Mining Exchanges and 275 mining brokers." By 1898, the city was designated into quadrants by the north-south Cascade Avenue and the east-west Washington/Pike's Peak avenues.
From 1899 to 1901 Tesla Experimental Station operated on Knob Hill, aircraft flights to the Broadmoor's neighboring fields began in 1919. Alexander Airport north of the city opened in 1925, in 1927 the original Colorado Springs Municipal Airport land was purchased east of the city. In World War II the United States Army Air Forces leased land adjacent to the municipal airfield, naming it "Peterson Field" in December 1942; this was only one of several military presences around Colorado Springs during the war. In November 1950, Ent Air Force Base was selected as the Cold War headquarters for Air Defense Command; the former WWII Army Air Base, Peterson Field, inactivated at the end of the war, was re-opened in 1951 as a U. S. Air Force base; the 1950s through 1970s saw a continued expansion of the military presence in the area, with the establishment of NORAD's headquarters in the city, as well as the ADCOM headquarters. Between 1965 and 1968, the University of Colorado Colorado Springs, Pikes Peak Community College and Colorado Technical University were established in or near the city.
In 1977 most of the former Ent AFB became a US Olympic training center. The Libertarian Party was founded within the city in the 1970s. On October 1, 1981, the Broadmoor Addition, Cheyenne Canon, Ivywild and Stratton Meadows were annexed after the Colorado Supreme Court "overturned a district court decision that voided the annexation". Further annexations expanding the city include the Nielson Addition and Vineyard Commerce Park Annexation in September 2008; the city lies in a high desert with the Southern Rocky Mountains to the west, the Palmer Divide to the north, high plains further east, high desert lands to the south when leaving Fountain and approaching Pueblo. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 194.6 square miles, of which 194.6 square miles is land and 0.35 square miles, or 0.19%, is water. Colorado Springs has many features of a modern urban area, such as parks, bike trails, urban open-area spaces. However, it is not exempt from problems that plague cities that experience tremendous growth, such as overcrowded roads and highways, crime and government budget issues.
Many of the problems are indirec
Thomas Francis Dorsey Jr. was an American jazz trombonist, composer and bandleader of the big band era. He was known as the "Sentimental Gentleman of Swing" because of his smooth-toned trombone playing, his technical skill on the trombone gave him renown among other musicians. He was the younger brother of bandleader Jimmy Dorsey. After Dorsey broke with his brother in the mid-1930s, he led an popular and successful band from the late 1930s into the 1950s, he is best remembered for standards such as "Opus One", "Song of India", "Marie", "On Treasure Island", his biggest hit single, "I'll Never Smile Again". Born in Mahanoy Plane, Thomas Francis Dorsey Jr. was the second of four children born to Thomas Francis Dorsey Sr. a bandleader, Theresa Dorsey. He and Jimmy, his older brother by less than two years, would become famous as the Dorsey Brothers; the two younger siblings were Edward, who died young. Tommy Dorsey studied the trumpet with his father but switched to trombone. At age 15, Jimmy recommended Tommy to replace Russ Morgan in The Scranton Sirens, a territory band in the 1920s.
Tommy and Jimmy worked in bands led by Tal Henry, Rudy Vallee, Vincent Lopez, Nathaniel Shilkret. In 1923, Dorsey followed Jimmy to Detroit to play in Jean Goldkette's band and returned to New York in 1925 to play with the California Ramblers. In 1927 he joined Paul Whiteman. In 1929, the Dorsey Brothers had their first hit with "Coquette" for OKeh Records. In 1934, the Dorsey Brothers band signed with Decca, having a hit with "I Believe in Miracles". Glenn Miller was a member of the Dorsey Brothers Orchestra in 1934 and 1935, composing "Annie's Cousin Fanny", "Tomorrow's Another Day", "Harlem Chapel Chimes", "Dese Dem Dose", all recorded for Decca, for the band. Acrimony between the brothers led to Tommy Dorsey's walking out to form his own band in 1935 as the orchestra was having a hit with "Every Little Moment". Dorsey's orchestra was known for its renderings of ballads at dance tempos with singers such as Jack Leonard and Frank Sinatra. Tommy Dorsey's first band was formed out of the remains of the Joe Haymes band, so began Dorsey's long-running practice of raiding other bands for talent.
If he admired a vocalist, musician or arranger, he would think nothing of taking over their contracts and careers. Dorsey had a reputation for being a perfectionist, he was known to hire and fire and sometimes rehire musicians based on his mood. The new band was popular from the moment it signed with RCA Victor with "On Treasure Island", the first of four hits in 1935. After his 1935 recording, Dorsey's manager dropped the "hot jazz" that Dorsey had mixed with his own lyrical style and instead had Dorsey play pop and vocal tunes. Dorsey would keep his Clambake Seven as a Dixieland group; the Dorsey band had a national radio presence in 1936, first from Dallas and from Los Angeles. Tommy Dorsey and his Orchestra took over comedian Jack Pearl's radio show in 1937. By 1939, Dorsey was aware of criticism, he hired arranger Sy Oliver away from the Jimmie Lunceford band. Sy Oliver's arrangements include "On The Sunny Side of the Street" and "T. D.'s Boogie Woogie". In 1940, Dorsey hired singer Frank Sinatra from bandleader Harry James.
Frank Sinatra made eighty recordings from 1940 to 1942 with the Dorsey band. Two of those eighty songs are "In the Blue of Evening" and "This Love of Mine". Frank Sinatra achieved his first great success as a vocalist in the Dorsey band and claimed he learned breath control from watching Dorsey play trombone. In turn, Dorsey said his trombone style was influenced by that of Jack Teagarden. Among Dorsey's staff of arrangers was Axel Stordahl who arranged for Frank Sinatra in his Columbia and Capitol years. Another member of the Dorsey band was trombonist Nelson Riddle, who had a partnership as one of Sinatra's arrangers and conductors in the 1950s and afterwards. Another noted Dorsey arranger, who, in the 1950s, married and was professionally associated with Dorsey veteran Jo Stafford, was Paul Weston. Bill Finegan, an arranger who left Glenn Miller's civilian band, arranged for the Tommy Dorsey band from 1942 to 1950; the band featured a number of instrumentalists and arrangers in the 1930s and'40s, including trumpeters Zeke Zarchy, Bunny Berigan, Ziggy Elman, Doc Severinsen, Charlie Shavers, pianists Milt Raskin, Jess Stacy, clarinetists Buddy DeFranco, Johnny Mince, Peanuts Hucko.
Others who played with Dorsey were drummers Buddy Rich, Louie Bellson, Dave Tough saxophonist Tommy Reed, singers Frank Sinatra, Jack Leonard, Edythe Wright, Jo Stafford with The Pied Pipers, Dick Haymes, Connie Haines. In 1944, Dorsey hired the Sentimentalists. Dorsey performed with singer Connee Boswell He hired ex-bandleader and drummer Gene Krupa after Krupa's arrest for marijuana possession in 1943. In 1942 Artie Shaw broke up his band, Dorsey hired the Shaw string section; as George Simon in Metronome magazine noted at the time, "They're used in the foreground and background for vocal effects and for Tommy's trombone."As Dorsey became successful, he made further business decisions in the music industry. He loaned Glenn Miller money to launch Miller's successful band of 1938, but Dorsey saw the loan as an investment, entitling him to a percentage of Miller's income; when Miller balked at this, the angry Dorsey got by sponsoring a new band led by Bob Chester, hiring arrangers who deliberately copied Miller's style and sound.