French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, more in Northern Gaul, its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French has supplanted. French was influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both French. French is an official language in 29 countries across multiple different continents, most of which are members of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, the community of 84 countries which share the official use or teaching of French, it is spoken as a first language in France, Canadian provinces of Quebec and New Brunswick as well as other Francophone regions, western Switzerland, parts of the United States in Luxembourg and in northern Italy, by various communities elsewhere.
In 2015 40% of the francophone population lived in Europe, 35% in sub-Saharan Africa, 15% in North Africa and the Middle East, 8% in the Americas, 1% in Asia and Oceania. French is the fourth most spoken mother tongue in the European Union, Of Europeans who speak other languages natively one-fifth are able to speak French as a second language. French is the second most taught foreign language in the EU. French is the 18th most natively spoken language in the world, 6th most spoken language by total number of speakers and the second most studied language worldwide; as a result of French and Belgian colonialism from the 16th century onward, French was introduced to new territories in the Americas and Asia. Most second-language speakers reside in Francophone Africa, in particular Gabon, Morocco, Mauritius and Ivory Coast. French is estimated to have about 76 million native speakers and about 235 million daily, fluent speakers and another 77 to 110 million secondary speakers who speak it as a second language to varying degrees of proficiency in Africa.
According to the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie 300 million people worldwide are "able to speak the language", without specifying the criteria for this estimation or whom it encompasses. According to a demographic projection led by the Université Laval and the Réseau Démographie de l'Agence universitaire de la francophonie, the total number of French speakers will reach 500 million in 2025 and 650 million by 2050. OIF estimates 700 million by 2050, 80 % of. French has a long history as an international language of literature and scientific standards and is a primary or second language of many international organisations including the United Nations, the European Union, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the World Trade Organization, the International Olympic Committee, the International Committee of the Red Cross. In 2011, Bloomberg Businessweek ranked French the third most useful language for business, after English and Standard Mandarin Chinese. Spoken by 12% of the European Union's population, French is the fourth most spoken mother tongue in the EU after German and Italian.
Under the Constitution of France, French has been the official language of the Republic since 1992. France mandates the use of French in official government publications, public education except in specific cases and legal contracts. In Belgium, French is the official language of Wallonia and one of the two official languages—along with Dutch—of the Brussels-Capital Region, where it is spoken by the majority of the population as their primary language. French is one of the four official languages of Switzerland and is spoken in the western part of Switzerland, called Romandy, of which Geneva is the largest city; the language divisions in Switzerland do not coincide with political subdivisions, some cantons have bilingual status: for example, cities such as Biel/Bienne and cantons such as Valais and Berne. French is the native language of about 23% of the Swiss population, is spoken by 50% of the population. French is an official language of Monaco and Luxembourg, as well as in the Aosta Valley region of Italy, while French dialects remain spoken by minorities on the Channel Islands.
It is spoken in Andorra and is main communication language after Catalan in El Pas de la Casa. The language is taught as the primary second language in the German land of Saarland, with French being taught from pre-school and over 43% of citizens being able to speak French; the m
Gulf Stream, Florida
Gulf Stream is a town in Palm Beach County, United States. The population was 716 at the 2000 census. Gulf Stream ranked as the 11th highest-income place in the United States; as of 2004, the population recorded by the U. S. Census Bureau was 746. Gulf Stream was founded in the 1920s as a planned community centered on the Gulf Stream County Club; the town takes its name from a warm Atlantic Ocean current. Gulf Stream was incorporated in 1925. Gulf Stream School, a private co-educational school located in Gulf Stream, was founded in 1938; the school is open from Montessori 3s through to 8th grade. Gulf Stream is located at 26°29′25″N 80°3′40″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.8 square miles, of which 0.8 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 716 people, 340 households, 222 families residing in the town; the population density was 953.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 625 housing units at an average density of 832.5 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the town was 95.39% White 0.98% African American, 0.14% Native American, 1.40% Asian, 1.12% from other races, 0.98% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.93% of the population. There were 340 households out of which 16.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.6% were married couples living together, 1.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.7% were non-families. 28.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.11 and the average family size was 2.55. In the town, the population was spread out with 14.9% under the age of 18, 1.7% from 18 to 24, 15.6% from 25 to 44, 29.7% from 45 to 64, 38.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 56 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.1 males. The median income for a household in the town was $146,985, the median income for a family was $186,777.
Males had a median income of $78,045 versus $40,625 for females. The per capita income for the town was $133,651. About 2.5% of families and 2.5% of the population were below the poverty line, none under age 18 and just 1.7% of those age 65 or over. As of 2000, English spoken as a first language accounted for 97.54% of all residents, while the mother tongue of Spanish made up 2.45% of the population. Andrew N. "Drew" Baur, co-owner and member of the Board of Directors of the St. Louis Cardinals. Christopher O'Hare and sculptor. Kevin Anderson, tennis player. Tomas Maier, fashion designer and creative director of Bottega Veneta Robert Craft and musicologist; the page for Gulf Stream at the Palm Beach County Convention and Visitors Bureau http://www.gulf-stream.org/
Belle Glade, Florida
Belle Glade is a city in Palm Beach County, United States on the southeastern shore of Lake Okeechobee. According to the 2010 U. S. Census, the city had a population of 17,467. Belle Glade is sometimes referred to as "Muck City" due to the large quantity of muck, in which sugarcane grows, found in the area. Despite being located in the South Florida region of the state, Belle Glade is culturally more associated with the Florida Heartland. For a time during the early to mid 1980s, the city had the highest rate of AIDS infection per capita in the United States. According to the FBI, in 2003, the city had the second highest violent crime rate in the country at 298 per 10,000 residents. "In 2010, the Palm Beach County sheriff’s office estimated that half of the young men in Belle Glade between the ages of 18 and 25 had felony convictions. Some families have resorted to catching rainwater to survive because their utilities have been cut off for nonpayment." Belle Glade is located at 26°41′07″N 80°40′17″W.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.7 square miles, of which 4.7 square miles are land and 0.21% is water. The existence of Belle Glade is related to the federal project of draining the land around Lake Okeechobee, the acreage to be used for agriculture; the town was built in 1925 and destroyed three years by a hurricane which killed thousands of people. The town was subsequently rebuilt; the area around Lake Okeechobee is fertile and farming has been an important industry. Many migrant farmworkers from Belle Glade appeared in the 1960 television documentary, Harvest of Shame. Men and women still gather around 5 a.m. in the same lot you see at the beginning of Harvest of Shame, waiting for buses to take them to the fields. The "loading ramp," as it's called, is a bleak, empty lot, surrounded by some small buildings with bars on the windows and a boarded up storefront; as of May 2014 the city has plans "to demolish the loading ramp and turn it into a park."The town is known for its football tradition, together with nearby Pahokee has "sent at least 60 players to the National Football League".
The cane sugar mill of the "Sugar Cane Growers Cooperative" is located at Belle Glade. During the crop season the factory employs 550 people; as of Feb. 2013, the official unemployment rate was about 15%. The number of jobs available locally dropped as local agriculture shifted from vegetables to sugarcane, a more mechanized crop; the United States Postal Service operates the Belle Glade Post Office. The Florida Department of Corrections operated the Glades Correctional Institution in an unincorporated area in Palm Beach County near Belle Glade, it was founded in 1932, employed about 350, had a capacity of 918 inmates and was scheduled for closure in December 2011. The Lake Okeechobee Scenic Trail runs through Belle Glade; as of the census of 2010, there were 6,368 households, out of which 11.3% were vacant. In 2000, 39.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.9% were married couples living together, 22.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.3% were non-families.
23.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.04 and the average family size was 3.62. In 2000, the population was spread out with 33.5% under the age of 18, 10.0% from 18 to 24, 27.1% from 25 to 44, 20.7% from 45 to 64, 8.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 103.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.6 males. In 2000, the median income for a household in the city was $22,715, the median income for a family was $26,756. Males had a median income of $26,232 versus $21,410 for females; the per capita income for the city was $11,159. About 28.5% of families and 32.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 41.1% of those under age 18 and 21.4% of those age 65 or over. As of 2000, speakers of English as a first language accounted for 61.03% of all residents, while Spanish as a mother tongue consisted of 26.87%, Haitian Creole comprised 11.00%, French made up 1.07% of the population.
As of 2000, Belle Glade had the tenth highest percentage of Haitian residents in the United States, at 11.50% of the populace. It had the sixtieth highest percentage of Cuban residents nationally, at 5.98% of the population. School District of Palm Beach County operates public schools. Gove Elementary Belle Glade Elementary Glade View Elementary Pioneer Park Elementary Sellew Belle Glade Excel Charter School Lake Shore Middle School Glades Central High School Glades Day School Lakeside Academy Palm Beach State College - Belle Glade Campus Reidel Anthony, former NFL wide receiver, Tampa Bay Buccaneers Brad Banks, CFL quarterback, Winnipeg Blue Bombers. Travis Benjamin, NFL wide receiver and punt returner, San Diego Chargers Jessie Hester, former NFL wide receiver, Los Angeles Raiders, Atlanta Falcons, Indianapolis Colts and Los Angeles/St. Louis Rams Santonio Holmes, NFL wide receiver, Pittsburgh Steelers, New York Jets, Chicago Bears.
Geographic coordinate system
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection; the invention of a geographic coordinate system is credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene, who composed his now-lost Geography at the Library of Alexandria in the 3rd century BC. A century Hipparchus of Nicaea improved on this system by determining latitude from stellar measurements rather than solar altitude and determining longitude by timings of lunar eclipses, rather than dead reckoning. In the 1st or 2nd century, Marinus of Tyre compiled an extensive gazetteer and mathematically-plotted world map using coordinates measured east from a prime meridian at the westernmost known land, designated the Fortunate Isles, off the coast of western Africa around the Canary or Cape Verde Islands, measured north or south of the island of Rhodes off Asia Minor.
Ptolemy credited him with the full adoption of longitude and latitude, rather than measuring latitude in terms of the length of the midsummer day. Ptolemy's 2nd-century Geography used the same prime meridian but measured latitude from the Equator instead. After their work was translated into Arabic in the 9th century, Al-Khwārizmī's Book of the Description of the Earth corrected Marinus' and Ptolemy's errors regarding the length of the Mediterranean Sea, causing medieval Arabic cartography to use a prime meridian around 10° east of Ptolemy's line. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes' recovery of Ptolemy's text a little before 1300. In 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England as the zero-reference line; the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911.
In order to be unambiguous about the direction of "vertical" and the "horizontal" surface above which they are measuring, map-makers choose a reference ellipsoid with a given origin and orientation that best fits their need for the area they are mapping. They choose the most appropriate mapping of the spherical coordinate system onto that ellipsoid, called a terrestrial reference system or geodetic datum. Datums may be global, meaning that they represent the whole Earth, or they may be local, meaning that they represent an ellipsoid best-fit to only a portion of the Earth. Points on the Earth's surface move relative to each other due to continental plate motion and diurnal Earth tidal movement caused by the Moon and the Sun; this daily movement can be as much as a metre. Continental movement can be up to 10 m in a century. A weather system high-pressure area can cause a sinking of 5 mm. Scandinavia is rising by 1 cm a year as a result of the melting of the ice sheets of the last ice age, but neighbouring Scotland is rising by only 0.2 cm.
These changes are insignificant if a local datum is used, but are statistically significant if a global datum is used. Examples of global datums include World Geodetic System, the default datum used for the Global Positioning System, the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, used for estimating continental drift and crustal deformation; the distance to Earth's center can be used both for deep positions and for positions in space. Local datums chosen by a national cartographical organisation include the North American Datum, the European ED50, the British OSGB36. Given a location, the datum provides the latitude ϕ and longitude λ. In the United Kingdom there are three common latitude and height systems in use. WGS 84 differs at Greenwich from the one used on published maps OSGB36 by 112 m; the military system ED50, used by NATO, differs from about 120 m to 180 m. The latitude and longitude on a map made against a local datum may not be the same as one obtained from a GPS receiver. Coordinates from the mapping system can sometimes be changed into another datum using a simple translation.
For example, to convert from ETRF89 to the Irish Grid add 49 metres to the east, subtract 23.4 metres from the north. More one datum is changed into any other datum using a process called Helmert transformations; this involves converting the spherical coordinates into Cartesian coordinates and applying a seven parameter transformation, converting back. In popular GIS software, data projected in latitude/longitude is represented as a Geographic Coordinate System. For example, data in latitude/longitude if the datum is the North American Datum of 1983 is denoted by'GCS North American 1983'; the "latitude" of a point on Earth's surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the Equator and to each other; the North Pole is 90° N. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the Equator, the fun
Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
Haverhill is a town in Palm Beach County, United States. The population was 1,454 at the 2000 census; as of 2004, the population recorded by the U. S. Census Bureau is 1,620. Haverhill was incorporated in 1950. A share of the first settlers being natives of Haverhill, Massachusetts caused the name to be selected. Haverhill is located at 26°41′25″N 80°7′15″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.6 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,454 people, 537 households, 392 families residing in the town; the population density was 2,534.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 548 housing units at an average density of 955.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 78.95% White 12.38% African American, 0.21% Native American, 1.24% Asian, 0.21% Pacific Islander, 4.68% from other races, 2.34% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 20.70% of the population. There were 537 households out of which 38.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.1% were married couples living together, 11.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.0% were non-families.
19.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.12. In the town, the population was spread out with 26.3% under the age of 18, 6.7% from 18 to 24, 32.1% from 25 to 44, 24.8% from 45 to 64, 10.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.3 males. The median income for a household in the town was $50,652, the median income for a family was $53,167. Males had a median income of $31,100 versus $28,375 for females; the per capita income for the town was $24,503. About 6.3% of families and 8.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.9% of those under age 18 and 7.0% of those age 65 or over. As of 2000, speakers of English as a first language accounted for 77.93% of all residents, while Spanish as a mother tongue made up 22.06% of the population.
As of 2000, Haverhill had the fifty-eighth highest percentage of Cuban residents in the US, with 6.63% of the populace. It had the forty-second highest percentage of Jamaican residents in the US, at 3.10% of the town's population. Town of Haverhill