OhmyNews is a South Korean online news website with the motto "Every Citizen is a Reporter". It was founded by Oh Yeon Ho on February 22, 2000, it is the first news website in Korea to accept and publish articles from its readers, in an open source style of news reporting. About 20% of the site's content is written by the 55-person staff, while most of the articles are written by other freelance contributors who are ordinary citizens. OhmyNews was influential in determining the outcome of the South Korean presidential election, 2002. After being elected, President Roh Moo-hyun granted his first interview to OhmyNews. OhmyNews International is an English language online newspaper that features "citizen reporter" articles written by contributors from all over the globe, its content is 100% citizen reporter. On February 22, 2006, OhmyNews and Japanese firm Softbank signed an investment contract valued at US$11 million. In 2006 OhmyNews started to build a Japan-based citizen-participatory journalism site called OhmyNews Japan, launched on August 28 with a famous Japanese journalist and 22 other employees working under ten reporters.
These journalists' articles were the object of much criticism. The South Korean newspaper admitted. In July 2008, all staff of OhmyNews Japan were dismissed, by the end of August operations had ceased on the site; the 2nd Citizen Reporters' Forum was held by OhmyNews in Seoul, Korea from July 12–15, 2006. The 3rd International Citizen Reporters Forum was held by OhmyNews in Seoul from June 27–29, 2007. On November 24, 2007, OhmyNews opened a "citizen journalism school" to serve as a "collaborative knowledge center" for classes in journalism, digital cameras and photojournalism, it is located 90 minutes from Seoul in the refurbished building of an elementary school. The faculty will include OhmyNews editors and other journalists from print and television. There is in-school dining capacity for 50 guests. On July 8, 2009, Oh Yeon-ho revealed that Ohmynews was losing up to 700 m won yearly, appealed to website users to join a voluntary subscription scheme. Critics argue that Ohmynews is losing original features as alternative–independent media in financial independence.
Oh Yeon-ho said, "70 to 80 percent of our revenue sponsorships. In contrast, contributions from readers only totaled five percent of total revenue.” Oh said, “We have not received a cent from Lee Myungbak government for central government advertising.”However a government report to National Assembly in 2009 revealed that Ohmynews received 120 m won for government advertising from February 2008 to July 2009. An Ohmynews report said they had received about 870 m won for government advertising from 2003 to 2007 by introducing government official reports to National Assembly. An alternative medium Pressian reported Oh's comments, "I respect Samsung as major business partner," and introduced about 20 percent of the total advertising and cooperation revenue of Ohmynews is coming from Samsung for years, the biggest business corporate of Korea. On August 1, 2010, OhMyNews of South Korea announced a change in its format from an "edited citizen journalist news site" to a "blog dedicated to covering and discussing the world of citizen journalism itself," starting the following month.
"Curators are important to our operation. They are given a great deal of trust. In order to maintain credibility amongst our team members, new curators join through recommendations of existing curators, and amongst the curators we have different levels depending on their experience and contributions. This is to maintain a steady level of quality and credibility with our readers." On September 2010, OhmyNews International changed its format from citizen journalism to becoming a forum about citizen journalism. OmN became a victim of its own success; the old site does not accept new articles. Hankyungoh, the grouping which includes OhmyNews Culture of South Korea Media in South Korea International press react to OhmyNews TIME magazine profile of contributor Kim Hye-won Giants of Citizen Media Meet Up The Tyee, October 24, 2007 OhmyNews Citizen Journalism School Opens, OhmyNews, November 24, 2007 The End of OhmyNews Japan, Global Voices Online, September 18, 2008 Official website Media related to OhmyNews at Wikimedia Commons
Daejeon is South Korea's fifth-largest metropolis. Daejeon had a population of over 1.5 million in 2010. Located in the central region of South Korea, Daejeon serves as a hub of transportation and is at the crossroads of major transport routes; the capital Seoul is about 50 minutes away by KTX high-speed train. Daejeon is one of South Korea's administration hubs with the Daejeon Government Complex; the Korean administration in the 1980s decided to relocate some of its functions from Seoul, the national capital, to other cities. 12 national government offices, including Korea Customs Service and Medium Business Administration, Public Procurement Service, National Statistical Office, Military Manpower Administration, Korea Forest Service, Cultural Heritage Administration, Korean Intellectual Property Office, as well as Patent Court of Korea, are located in Daejeon. Korail, Korea Water Resources Corporation, Korea Minting and Security Printing Corporation are headquartered in the city. Daejeon has 18 universities, including Chungnam National University.
Daejeon has earned its name as "Asia's Silicon Valley" and "high technology city". The city hosted the Taejon Expo'93 and the International Mathematical Olympiads in 2000. Several important research institutes are based in the city. Daedeok Innopolis is composed of 28 government-funded research institutions, as well as 79 private research institutes with as many as 20,000 researchers. In addition, Daejeon established the World Technopolis Association in 1998 with the view of realizing regional development through international cooperation with world science cities; the WTA has grown to have 67 members from 32 countries, it cooperates with many international organizations including UNESCO as its official consultative body. Human beings first settled in the Daejeon region during the Stone Age, it was occupied and in use as strategic military ground in various times by people such as the Usul-gun of Baekje, Bipung-gun of Silla, the Hoideok-hyeon, Yuseong-hyeon, Deokjin-hyeon, Jinjam-hyeon. During the Joseon Kingdom period, it remained occupied by the Hoideok-hyeon and Jinjam-hyeon of Gongju Mokha.
In 1895, most of the area was made part of Hoideok-gun and Jinjam-gun, excluding some parts that belonged to Gongju-gun. The Daejeon area was known as Hanbat, a native Korean term for "large field", during the Joseon Dynasty. "Daejeon" means the same thing in Hanja. In the 19th century, Daejeon was known in English as Kung-tsiou. Daejeon was a small village without many residents. However, in 1905, the Gyeongbu Railway began operations from Seoul to Busan, opening a station at Daejeon. In 1926 under the rule of the Japanese government, the Honam Railway was built between Mokpo and Daejeon, transforming the latter into a major transportation hub; because of its location and proximity to means of transportation, Daejeon grew quickly. In 1932, the capital of Chungnam province was moved from Gongju to Daejeon. During the Korean War, the city was the site of an early major conflict: the Battle of Taejon. Since changes have been made to the city's boundaries, its official names have evolved, as well. Among the boundary modifications include one that made the nearby town of Daedeok a part of the city in 1983.
In the late 1980s, Daejeon was elevated to the status of Special City, thus became a separate administrative region from Chungcheongnam-do. In 1995, all South Korean Special Cities were again renamed as Metropolitan Cities, reflected in the current official name of Daejeon, Daejeon Metropolitan City. In 1997, the Daejeon Government Complex was constructed as part of an effort to move some government offices away from the densely populated capital, Seoul; the population of Daejeon increased as a result. Daejeon lies between latitudes N36°10'50" and N36°29'47" and longitudes E127°14'54" and E127°33'21" near the middle of South Korea, it is 294 km from Busan and 169 km from Gwangju. Sejong, planned to be the new administrative capital of South Korea, is close by; the city lies inside a great circle and is surrounded by several mountains, Gyeryongsan National Park straddles the city border to the west. The city is divided into five boroughs: Seogu, Yuseonggu and Junggu. Three streams flow through the city from south to north joining with the Geum River: Gapcheon and Daejeoncheon.
Daejeon has a monsoon-influenced, four-season climate that lies within the transition between the humid subtropical and humid continental climatic regimens. Monthly mean temperatures range from −1.0 °C in January to 25.6 °C in August. Daejeon is divided into 5 districts: Daedeok District Dong District Jung District Seo District Yuseong District As of January 2019, Daejeon has a population of 1,508,120, including 18,184 registered residents of foreign nationality. According to the census of 2005, of the people of Daejeon, 21.8% follow Buddhism and 31.2% follow Christianity. About 47% of the population is not religious or follows Muism and other indigenous religions; the middle of the city is the new central business district called Dunsan. It is. Newer apartment complexes, albeit structurally similar to those of the rest of the city, sprung up around the new governmen
Korean People's Army
The Korean People's Army is an institution of the Workers' Party of Korea, constitutes the de facto military forces of North Korea. Under the Songun policy, it is the central institution of North Korean community. Kim Jong-un is its Supreme Commander and the Chairman of the Central Military Commission; the KPA consists of five branches: Ground Force, the Navy, the Air Force, the Strategic Rocket Forces, the Special Operation Force. The KPA faces its primary adversaries, the South Korean military and United States Forces Korea, across the Korean Demilitarized Zone, as it has since the Armistice Agreement of July 1953; as of 2016, with 5,889,000 paramilitary personnel, it is the largest paramilitary organization on Earth. This number serves as 25% of the North Korean population. Kim Il-sung's anti-Japanese guerrilla army, the Korean People’s Revolutionary Army, was established on 25 April 1932; this revolutionary army was transformed into the regular army on 8 February 1948. Both these are celebrated as army days, with decennial anniversaries treated as major celebrations, except from 1978 to 2014 when only the 1932 anniversary was celebrated.
In 1939, the Korean Volunteer Army, was formed in Yan'an, China. The two individuals responsible for the army were Mu Chong. At the same time, a school was established near Yan'an for training military and political leaders for a future independent Korea. By 1945, the KVA had grown to 1,000 men Korean deserters from the Imperial Japanese Army. During this period, the KVA fought alongside the Chinese communist forces from which it drew its arms and ammunition. After the defeat of the Japanese, the KVA accompanied the Chinese communist forces into eastern Jilin, intending to gain recruits from ethnic Koreans in China from Yanbian, enter Korea. By September 1945, the KVA had a 2,500 strong force at its disposal. Just after World War II and during the Soviet Union's occupation of the part of Korea north of the 38th Parallel, the Soviet 25th Army headquarters in Pyongyang issued a statement ordering all armed resistance groups in the northern part of the peninsula to disband on 12 October 1945. Two thousand Koreans with previous experience in the Soviet army were sent to various locations around the country to organize constabulary forces with permission from Soviet military headquarters, the force was created on 21 October 1945.
The headquarters felt a need for a separate unit for security around railways, the formation of the unit was announced on 11 January 1946. That unit was activated on 15 August of the same year to supervise existing security forces and creation of the national armed forces. Military institutes such as the Pyongyang Academy and the Central Constabulary Academy soon followed for the education of political and military officers for the new armed forces. After the military was organized and facilities to educate its new recruits were constructed, the Constabulary Discipline Corps was reorganized into the Korean People's Army General Headquarters; the semi-official units became military regulars with the distribution of Soviet uniforms and weapons that followed the inception of the headquarters. The State Security Department, a forerunner to the Ministry of People's Defense, was created as part of the Interim People's Committee on 4 February 1948; the formal creation of the Korean People's Army was announced on four days on 8 February, the day after the Fourth Plenary Session of the People’s Assembly approved the plan to separate the roles of the military and those of the police, seven months before the government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was proclaimed on 9 September 1948.
In addition, the Ministry of State for the People's Armed Forces was established, which controlled a central guard battalion, two divisions, an independent mixed and combined arms brigade. Before the outbreak of the Korean War, Joseph Stalin equipped the KPA with modern tanks, trucks and small arms. During the opening phases of the Korean War in 1950, the KPA drove South Korean forces south and captured Seoul, only to lose 70,000 of their 100,000-strong army in the autumn after U. S. amphibious landings at a subsequent drive to the Yalu River. On 4 November, China staged a military intervention. On 7 December, Kim Il-sung was deprived of the right of command of KPA by China; the KPA subsequently played a secondary minor role to Chinese forces in the remainder of the conflict. By the time of the Armistice in 1953, the KPA had sustained 290,000 casualties and lost 90,000 men as POWs. In 1953, the Military Armistice Commission was able to oversee and enforce the terms of the armistice; the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission, made up of delegations from Czechoslovakia, Poland and Switzerland, carried out inspections to ensure implementation of the terms of the Armistice that prevented reinforcements or new weapons being brought into Korea.
Soviet thinking on the strategic scale was replaced since December 1962 with a people's war concept. The Soviet idea of direct warfare was replaced with a Maoist war of attrition strategy. Along with the mechanization of some infantry units, more emphasis was put on light weapons, high-angle indirect fire, night fighting, sea denial; the primary path for command and control of the KPA extends through the State Affairs Commission, led by its chairman Kim Jong-il until 2011, to the Ministry of People's Armed Forces and its General Staff Department
A massacre is a killing of multiple victims, considered morally unacceptable when perpetrated by a group of political actors against defenseless victims. The word is a loan of a French term for "butchery" or "carnage". There is no objective definition of what constitutes a "massacre". Various international organisations have proposed a formal definition of the term crimes against humanity, which would however include incidents of persecution or abuse that do not result in deaths. Conversely, a "massacre" is not a "crime against humanity". Other terms with overlapping scope include war crime, mass killing, mass murder, extrajudicial killing; the modern definition of massacre as "indiscriminate slaughter, carnage", the subsequent verb of this form, derive from late 16th century Middle French, evolved from Middle French "macacre, macecle" meaning "slaughterhouse, butchery". Further origins are dubious, though may be related to Latin macellum "provisions store, butcher shop"; the Middle French word macecre "butchery, carnage" is first recorded in the late 11th century.
Its primary use remained the context of animal slaughter well into the 18th century. The use of macecre "butchery" of the mass killing of people dates to the 12th century, implying people being "slaughtered like animals"; the term did not imply a large number of victims, e.g. Fénelon in Dialogue des Morts uses l'horride massacre de Blois of the assassination of Henry I, Duke of Guise, while Boileau, Satires XI has L'Europe fut un champ de massacre et d'horreur "Europe was a field of massacre and horror" of the European wars of religion; the French word is loaned into English in the 1580s in the sense "indiscriminate slaughter of a large number of people". It is used in reference to St. Bartholomew's Day massacre in The Massacre at Paris by Christopher Marlow; the term is again used in 1695 for the Sicilian Vespers of 1281, called "that famous Massacre of the French in Sicily" in the English translation of De quattuor monarchiis by Johannes Sleidanus, translating illa memorabilis Gallorum clades per Siciliam, i.e. massacre is here used as the translation of Latin clades "hammering, breaking.
The term's use in historiography was popularized by Gibbon's History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, who used e.g. "massacre of the Latins" of the killing of Roman Catholics in Constantinople in 1182. An early use in the propagandistic portrayal of current events was the "Boston Massacre" of 1770, employed to build support for the American Revolution. A pamphlet with the title A short narrative of the horrid massacre in Boston, perpetrated in the evening of the fifth day of March, 1770, by soldiers of the 29th regiment was printed in Boston still in 1770; the term massacre began to see inflationary use in journalism first half of the 20th century. By the 1970s, it could be used purely metaphorically, of events that do not involve deaths, such as the Saturday Night Massacre—the dismissals and resignations of political appointees during Richard Nixon's Watergate scandal; the term massacre, being a synonym of "butchery, carnage", is by nature hyperbolic or subjective used in partisan descriptions of events.
There is no neutral definition of what constitutes a "massacre" although some authors using the term may lay down general "working definitions" of what they mean by the term. Thus, Robert Melson in the context of the "Hamidian massacres" used a "basic working definition" of "by massacre we shall mean the intentional killing by political actors of a significant number of defenseless people... the motives for massacre need not be rational in order for the killings to be intentional... Mass killings can be carried out for various reasons, including a response to false rumors... political massacre... should be distinguished from criminal or pathological mass killings... as political bodies we of course include the state and its agencies, but nonstate actors..."Similarly, Levene attempts an objective classification of "massacres" throughout history, taking the term to refer to killings carried out by groups using overwhelming force against defenseless victims. He is excepting certain cases of mass executions, requiring that massacres must have the quality of being morally unacceptable.
Democide Disaster Ethnic cleansing Genocide Killing spree List of events named massacres Mass murder Pogrom Tragedy Tragedy War crime
Shin Sung-mo was an acting prime minister in 1950 following the first prime minister of South Korea, Lee Beom-seok. He served as a Defence Minister during the Korean War
Syngman Rhee was a South Korean politician, the first and the last Head of State of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, the first President of South Korea from 1948 to 1960. His three-term presidency of South Korea was affected by Cold War tensions on the Korean Peninsula, he led South Korea through the Korean War. His presidency ended in resignation following popular protests against a disputed election. Rhee was regarded as an anti-Communist authoritarian dictator and is thought to have ordered tens of thousands of extrajudicial killings of suspected communists during the early stages of the Korean War, he died in exile in Hawaii. Syngman Rhee was born on April 18, 1875. Rhee was born in Hwanghae Province into a rural family of modest means as the third son out of three brothers and two sisters, his two older brothers both died in infancy. Rhee's family traced its lineage back to King Taejong of Joseon, he is a 16th-generation descendant of Grand Prince Yangnyeong. In 1877, at the age of two and his family moved to Seoul.
In Seoul, he had traditional Confucian education in various seodang in Dodong. He was portrayed as a potential candidate for the Korean civil service examination; when Rhee was nine years old, he was rendered blind through smallpox and was cured by Horace Newton Allen, an American medical missionary. In 1894, when reforms abolished the gwageo system, Rhee enrolled in the Pai Chai School, an American Methodist school, in April, he studied sinhakmun. Near the end of 1895, he joined a Hyeopseong Club created by Seo Jae-pil, who returned from the United States, he worked as the head and the main writer of the newspapers Hyeopseong-hoe Hoebo and Maeil Shinmun, the latter being the first daily newspaper in Korea. During this period, he earned money by teaching Americans Korean, he converted to Christianity in school. In 1895, he graduated from Pai Chai School. Rhee was implicated in a plot to take revenge for the assassination of Empress Myeongseong. At this point, he converted to Christianity. Rhee acted as one of the forerunners of Korea's grassroots movement through organizations such as the Hyeopseong Club and the Independence Club.
He organized several protests against corruption and the influences of the Empire of Japan and the Russian Empire. As a result, in November 1898, he attained the rank of Uigwan in the Imperial Legislature, the Jungchuwon. After entering civil service, he was implicated in a plot to remove King Gojong from power through the recruitment of Park Yeong-hyo; as a result, he was imprisoned in the Gyeongmucheong Prison in January 1899. Other sources place the year arrested as 1897 and 1898. Rhee attempted to escape on the 20th day of imprisonment but was caught and was sentenced to life imprisonment through the Pyeongniwon, he was imprisoned in the Hanseong Prison. In prison, Rhee translated and compiled The Sino–Japanese War Record, wrote The Spirit of Independence, compiled the New English–Korean Dictionary and wrote in the Imperial Newspaper, he was tortured. In 1904, Rhee was released from prison at the outbreak of the Russo-Japanese War with the help of Min Young-hwan. In November 1904, with the help of Min Yeong-hwan and Han Gyu-seol, Rhee moved to the United States.
In August 1905, Rhee and Yun Byeong-gu met with the Secretary of State John Hay and U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt at peace talks in Portsmouth, New Hampshire and attempted unsuccessfully to convince the US to help preserve independence for Korea. Rhee continued to stay in the United States, he obtained a Bachelor of Arts from George Washington University in 1907, a Master of Arts from Harvard University in 1908. In 1910, he obtained a Ph. D. from Princeton University with the thesis "Neutrality as influenced by the United States". In August 1910, he returned to Japanese occupied Korea, he served as a YMCA coordinator and missionary. In 1912, he was implicated in the 105-Man Incident, was shortly arrested. However, he fled to the United States in 1912 with M. C. Harris's rationale that Rhee was going to participate in the general meeting of Methodists in Minneapolis as the Korean representative. In the United States, Rhee attempted to convince Woodrow Wilson to help the people involved in the 105-Man Incident, but failed to bring any change.
Soon afterwards, he met Park Yong-man, in Nebraska at the time. In February 1913, as a consequence of the meeting, he moved to Honolulu and took over the Han-in Jung-ang Academy. In Hawaii, he began to publish the Pacific Ocean Magazine. In 1918, he established the Han-in Christian Church. During this period, he opposed Park Yong-man's stance on foreign relations of Korea and brought about a split in the community. In December 1918, he was chosen as one of the Korean representatives to the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 by the Korean National Association, but failed to obtain permission to travel to Paris. After giving up traveling to Paris, Rhee held the First Korean Congress in Philadelphia with Seo Jae-pil to make plans for the declaration and action of independence of Korea. Following the March 1st Movement in 1919, Rhee discovered that he was appointed to
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and referred to as Washington or D. C. is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father; as the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually; the signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U. S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress, the District is therefore not a part of any state; the states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria.
The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia. Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents. All three branches of the U. S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress and the U. S. Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments, museums situated on or around the National Mall; the city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.
Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District as may, by cession of particular states, the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States". However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16.
Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, the city of Alexandria, founded in 1749. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Many of the stones are still standing. A new federal city was constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington; the federal district was named Columbia, a poetic name for the United States in use at that time. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 that organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal