Jokkmokk is a locality and the seat of Jokkmokk Municipality in Norrbotten County, province of Lapland, with 2,786 inhabitants in 2010. The Sámi name of the place means "River's Curve," due to the meandering river, it is just north of the Arctic Circle. Jokkmokk was a transit center for Sami refugees from Norway during World War II, in addition to the center in Kjesäter. Jokkmokk Market has been taking place for more than 400 years. On the first Thursday in February every year, thousands of people gather in the town for concerts and trade, in one of the most important social events for the Sámi people in Sápmi. Temperatures during the festival can drop as low as −40°. Ájtte, Svenskt fjäll- och samemuseum is the main museum for Sámi culture in Sweden. Influenced by its inland and northerly position, Jokkmokk's variety of a subarctic climate is cold by Swedish standards. Summers are relatively mild in spite of the day-round light and the dark winters are long and cold. Kåbdalis Tourist information in Jokkmokk Ájtte Museum of Sami people
Nationalencyklopedin, abbreviated NE, is a comprehensive contemporary Swedish-language encyclopedia, initiated by a favourable loan from the Government of Sweden of 17 million Swedish kronor in 1980, repaid by December 1990. The printed version consists of 20 volumes with 172,000 articles; the project was born in 1980, when a government committee suggested that negotiations be initiated with various publishers. This stage was finished in August 1985, when Bra Böcker in Höganäs became the publisher responsible for the project; the project specifications were for a modern reference work based on a scientific paradigm incorporating gender and environmental issues. Pre-orders for the work were unprecedented; the last volume came out in 1996, with three supplemental volumes in 2000. Associated with the Nationalencyklopedin project are also: NE:s Ordbok, a dictionary in three volumes NE:s Årsband, complementary volumes concerning current events and fast changing information distributed annually since 1997 NE:s Sverigeatlas, an atlas of Sweden NE:s Världsatlas, a world atlas NE-spelet, a quiz game with 8,000 questions In 1997, the first digital form of the encyclopedia was released on 6 CD-ROMs, in 2000 as an Internet subscription service.
The online version contains the dictionary as well as an updated version of the original encyclopedia. It has 356,000 entries; the service has been completed with several features not available in the printed version, such as a Swedish–English dictionary. Nordisk familjebok Swedish Wikipedia List of online encyclopedias Nationalencyklopedin - Official site Svenska uppslagsverk - Christofer Psilander's comprehensive bibliography on Swedish encyclopedias
Jokkmokk Municipality is a municipality in Norrbotten County in northern Sweden. Its seat is located in Jokkmokk; the name Jokkmokk is Sami for the words "river" and "bend", since the town is situated close to a bend in the nearby river. It's Sweden's poorest municipality; the municipality is the second largest in area of all Swedish municipalities and is, with an area of 19,477 km2 smaller than Slovenia or the US state of New Jersey. It has never been amalgamated with another entity, having been that large since municipalities were established in Sweden in 1863; the name Jokkmokk is present in a historical jurisdiction. When the municipality was given its current borders in 1971, its municipal coat of arms were made to depict the hydro plant, the symbol of Luleå, the traditional Sami hammers; the municipality is situated in the Scandinavian Mountains in Swedish Lapland and is sparsely populated. A large part of the area has been the habitat of reindeer herding Sami people for thousands of years and has for that reason been protected as a UNESCO World Heritage Site under the name Laponian area.
The Laponian area is divided into the eastern flatlands and the western mountainous region. There are several well-structured and well-maintained starting locations for those interested in experiencing the majestic wilderness. For instance, the Kvikkjokk basecamp has a high quality hostel. Due to the northern location, the aurora borealis can be experienced all through winter, the midnight sun can be experienced during June and July; the Lule River and the Lesser Lule River flows through the district. The rivers are regulated for Hydroelectricity, most of all in Sweden. 6 of the 10 largest hydroplants are located in the area. This includes the 480 MW Porjus and the 460 MW Messaure. There's a total of 11 Hydroplants in the area, 9 over 100 MW, 8 over 200 MW and 4 over 400 MW; the four national parks in Jokkmokk Municipality all have their own distinct identity. The national parks are Sarek, Muddus and Stora Sjöfallet; these national parks are popular with tourists all year around but the darkest and coldest months are not recommended for beginners.
The best period for sunshine and winter activities is from February all through April, when the snow lies deep and the days are long. This time of year the national parks are accessible by snowmobile and skis. Visitors should understand and respect that the wilderness is just that, snowmobiles are not allowed in the parks at any time; the summer in Jokkmokk Municipality is intense. The ground is free of snow from early November; as with most areas in the Nordic countries, the actual warm period is quite short, but as Jokkmokk Municipality has a continental climate, the temperature can top 30 degrees Celsius in the summer and reach as low as -40 degrees Celsius in the winter. During the summer months hikers and other friends of nature converge in the national parks and this is the time when most of the parks are most accessed. Visitors should be warned that the amount of mosquitoes can be difficult to those not used to them and driving has an added danger in the reindeer that seek shelter from the mosquitoes.
Collisions with reindeer are frequent in most of the northern parts of the Nordic countries and drivers should keep an eye out. Fall is short and the shifting colors of the wide forests make the surroundings burn with color; this is a good time for hiking but due to the shifting temperatures the mountainous parts of the national parks can be treacherous for those unprepared. Jokkmokk is known for its Sami market held the first weekend every February; this market has been held for more than 400 consecutive years. A gathering of traders from the entire region the market has long since grown to be more than a simple gathering of traders and is now a week-long cultural event with lectures, art exhibitions and much more. There are several hotels and hostels in Jokkmokk and Porjus. Jokkmokk is accessed by car and bus from Luleå and Gällivare, where the nearest airports are to be found. Jokkmokk can be reached by train. There are three official localities in Jokkmokk Municipality; the municipal seat is bolded: Additional small settlements within the municipality include the Sami reindeer herding camp Udtja and the village of Puottaure.
These are the results of the elections to the Riksdag since the 1972 municipal reform. Norrbotten Party contested the 1994 election but due to the party's small size at a nationwide level SCB did not publish the party's results at a municipal level; the same applies to the Sweden Democrats between 1988 and 1998. "Turnout" denotes the percentage of eligible voters casting any ballots, whereas "Votes" denotes the number of actual valid ballots cast. Blocs This lists the relative strength of the socialist and centre-right blocs since 1973, but parties not elected to the Riksdag are inserted as "other", including the Sweden Democrats results from 1988 to 2006, but the Christian Democrats pre-1991 and the Greens in 1982, 1985 and 1991; the sources are identical to the table above. The coalition or government mandate marked in bold formed the government after the election. New Democracy got elected in 1991 but are still listed as "other" due to the short lifespan of the party. Jokkmokk Municipality - Official site Porjus - Official site Vuollerim - Official site Tourist information
Lule River is a major river in Sweden, rising in northern Sweden and flowing southeast for 460 km before reaching the Gulf of Bothnia at Luleå. It is the second longest river by watershed area or length in Norrbotten County, but is the largest by average discharge, it has a watershed of 25,240.5 km ². The river is an important source of hydroelectric energy, with major hydroelectric plants at e.g. Porjus and the 977 MW Harsprånget, commissioned in 1952 and expanded in 1983 to become Sweden's largest hydro power station; the river was used extensively for the transportation of timber, with logs floated downstream for processing at Luleå, but this stopped in the early 1980s. Several major rapids exist along the river's length, notably the Stora Falls and those at Porjus and Harsprånget. During the 19th and 20th centuries, the river was designated as a defensive line against an invasion from Imperial Russia and subsequently the Soviet Union. Extensive fortifications exist along the entire length of the river, culminating in Bodens Fortress in and around the city of Boden.
Most of these fortifications and bunkers are no longer in use today. The Greater Lule River arguably begins somewhere near Sårjåsjaure in the mountains west of Gällivare; the water flows to the Virihaure lake, which collects water from Kerkevare and Alkajaure. The Tukejokk joins the Lule as well in Virihaure. Leaving Virihaure to the north, the river reaches the Vastenjaure lake after losing 32m over 2.2 km. It flows via the Vuojatätno to lake Kutjaure and Luoktanjarkajaure, collecting a lot of water from other lakes in Sarek National Park, like Salohaure, from the Swedish-Norwegian border. There are numerous rapids in the river; the best known is Stora Sjöfallet at the end of the Akkajaure lake, where the water falls 39.6 m from Kårtjejaure to Langasjaure. In this lake the Vietasajokk joins the Lule; the Stora Lule träsk is the largest of the lakes in the river. Here it reaches the forest, after the lake is joined by the Muddus River from Muddus National Park. At 75m, near the village of Vuollerim, the river joins with the Lesser Lule River.
The Lule passes the Porsiforsen and Hedens fors. It flows into the Baltic Sea through the Lulefjärden. Other rivers in the watershed of the Lule with a length of more than 100 km are: Black River, Flarkån, Lesser Lule River, Pärl River, Rissajåkkå, Vietasätno, Bodträskån. Article Lule älf from Nordisk Familjebok
A municipality is a single administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. It is to be distinguished from the county, which may encompass rural territory or numerous small communities such as towns and hamlets; the term municipality may mean the governing or ruling body of a given municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district; the term is derived from French Latin municipalis. The English word municipality derives from the Latin social contract municipium, referring to the Latin communities that supplied Rome with troops in exchange for their own incorporation into the Roman state while permitting the communities to retain their own local governments. A municipality can be any political jurisdiction from a sovereign state, such as the Principality of Monaco, to a small village, such as West Hampton Dunes, New York.
The territory over which a municipality has jurisdiction may encompass only one populated place such as a city, town, or village several of such places only parts of such places, sometimes boroughs of a city such as the 34 municipalities of Santiago, Chile. Powers of municipalities range from virtual autonomy to complete subordination to the state. Municipalities may have the right to tax individuals and corporations with income tax, property tax, corporate income tax, but may receive substantial funding from the state. In various countries, municipalities are referred to as "communes", notably in Romance languages such as French commune, Italian comune, Romanian comună, Spanish comuna, in Germanic languages such as German Kommune, Swedish kommun, Faroese kommuna, Norwegian, Danish kommune. However, in Moldova and Romania exist both municipalities and communes, a commune may be part of a municipality. Similar terms include Spanish ayuntamiento called municipalidad, Polish gmina, Dutch/Flemish Gemeente and Luxembourgish Gemeng.
In Australia, the term local government area is used in place of the generic municipality. Here, the "LGA Structure covers only incorporated areas of Australia. Incorporated areas are designated parts of states and territories over which incorporated local governing bodies have responsibility." In Canada, municipalities are local governments established through provincial and territorial legislation within general municipal statutes. Types of municipalities within Canada include cities, district municipalities, municipal districts, parishes, rural municipalities, townships and villes among others; the Province of Ontario has different tiers of municipalities, including lower and single tiers. Types of upper tier municipalities in Ontario include regional municipalities. Nova Scotia has regional municipalities, which include cities, districts, or towns as municipal units. In India, a Municipality or Nagar Palika is an urban local body that administers a city of population 100,000 or more. However, there are exceptions to that, as Municipality were constituted in urban centers with population over 20,000, so all the urban bodies which were classified as Municipality were reclassified as Municipality if their population was under 100,000.
Under the Panchayati Raj system, it interacts directly with the state government, though it is administratively part of the district it is located in. Smaller district cities and bigger towns have a Municipality. Municipality are a form of local self-government entrusted with some duties and responsibilities, as enshrined in the Constitutional Act,1992. In the United Kingdom, the term was used until the 1972 Local Government Act came into effect in 1974 in England and Wales, until 1975 in Scotland and 1976 in Northern Ireland, "both for a city or town, organized for self-government under a municipal corporation, for the governing body itself; such a corporation in Great Britain consists of a head as a mayor or provost, of superior members, as aldermen and councillors". Since local government reorganisation, the unit in England, Northern Ireland and Wales is known as a district, in Scotland as a council area. A district can retain its district title. In Jersey, a municipality refers to the honorary officials elected to run each of the 12 parishes into which it is subdivided.
This is the highest level of regional government in this jurisdiction. In Trinidad and Tobago, "municipality" is understood as a city, town, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. A town may be awarded borough status and on may be upgraded to city status. Chaguanas, San Fernando, Port of Spain and Point Fortin are the 5 current municipalities in Trinidad and Tobago. In the United States, "municipality" is understood as a city, village, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. In a state law contex
A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet but smaller than a town, with a population ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand. Though villages are located in rural areas, the term urban village is applied to certain urban neighborhoods. Villages are permanent, with fixed dwellings. Further, the dwellings of a village are close to one another, not scattered broadly over the landscape, as a dispersed settlement. In the past, villages were a usual form of community for societies that practice subsistence agriculture, for some non-agricultural societies. In Great Britain, a hamlet earned the right to be called a village. In many cultures and cities were few, with only a small proportion of the population living in them; the Industrial Revolution attracted people in larger numbers to work in factories. This enabled specialization of labor and crafts, development of many trades; the trend of urbanization continues, though not always in connection with industrialization.
Although many patterns of village life have existed, the typical village is small, consisting of 5 to 30 families. Homes were situated together for sociability and defence, land surrounding the living quarters was farmed. Traditional fishing villages were located adjacent to fishing grounds. "The soul of India lives in its villages," declared M. K. Gandhi at the beginning of 20th century. According to the 2011 census of India, 68.84% of Indians live in 640,867 different villages. The size of these villages varies considerably. 236,004 Indian villages have a population of fewer than 500, while 3,976 villages have a population of 10,000+. Most of the villages have their own temple, mosque, or church, depending on the local religious following. In Afghanistan, the village, or deh is the mid-size settlement type in Afghan society, trumping the hamlet or qala, though smaller than the town, or shār. In contrast to the qala, the deh is a bigger settlement which includes a commercial area, while the yet larger shār includes governmental buildings and services such as schools of higher education, basic health care, police stations etc.
Auyl is a Kazakh word meaning "village" in Kazakhstan. According to the 2009 census of Kazakhstan, 42.7% of Kazakhs live in 8172 different villages. To refer to this concept along with the word "auyl" used the Slavic word "selo" in Northern Kazakhstan. People's Republic of China In mainland China, villages 村 are divisions under township Zh:乡 or town Zh:镇. Republic of China In the Republic of China, villages are divisions under townships or county-controlled cities; the village is called a tsuen or cūn under a rural township and a li under an urban township or a county-controlled city. See Li. Japan South Korea In Brunei, villages are the third- and lowest-level subdivisions of Brunei below districts and mukims. A village is locally known by the Malay word kampung, they may be villages in the traditional or anthropological sense but may comprise delineated residential settlements, both rural and urban. The community of a village is headed by a village head. Communal infrastructure for the villagers may include a primary school, a religious school providing ugama or Islamic religious primary education, compulsory for the Muslim pupils in the country, a mosque, a community centre.
In Indonesia, depending on the principles they are administered, villages are called Kampung or Desa. A "Desa" is administered according to traditions and customary law, while a kelurahan is administered along more "modern" principles. Desa are located in rural areas while kelurahan are urban subdivisions. A village head is called kepala desa or lurah. Both are elected by the local community. A desa or kelurahan is the subdivision of a kecamatan, in turn the subdivision of a kabupaten or kota; the same general concept applies all over Indonesia. However, there is some variation among the vast numbers of Austronesian ethnic groups. For instance, in Bali villages have been created by grouping traditional hamlets or banjar, which constitute the basis of Balinese social life. In the Minangkabau area in West Sumatra province, traditional villages are called nagari. In some areas such as Tanah Toraja, elders take; as a general rule and kelurahan are groupings of hamlets. A kampung is defined today as a village in Indonesia.
Kampung is a term used in Malaysia, for "a Malay hamlet or village in a Malay-speaking country". In Malaysia, a kampung is determined as a locality with 10,000 or fewer people. Since historical times, every Malay village came under the leadership of a penghulu, who has the power to hear civil matters in his village. A Malay village contains a "masjid" or "surau", paddy fields and Malay houses on st
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th