Sola Scriptura is a theological doctrine held by some Christian denominations that the Christian scriptures are the sole infallible rule of faith and practice. While the scriptures' meaning is mediated through many kinds of secondary authority, such as the ordinary teaching offices of a denominated church, the ecumenical creeds, the councils of the catholic church, so on - sola scriptura, on the other hand, rejects any original infallible authority other than the Bible. In this view, all secondary authority is derived from the authority of the scriptures and is therefore subject to reform when compared to the teaching of the Bible. Church councils, Bible commentators, private revelation, or a message from an angel or an apostle are not an original authority alongside the Bible in the sola scriptura approach. Sola scriptura is a formal principle of many Protestant Christian denominations, one of the five solae, it was a foundational doctrinal principle of the Protestant Reformation held by many of the Reformers, who taught that authentication of scripture is governed by the discernible excellence of the text as well as the personal witness of the Holy Spirit to the heart of each man.
Some evangelical and Baptist denominations state the doctrine of sola scriptura more strongly: scripture is self-authenticating, clear to the rational reader, its own interpreter, sufficient of itself to be the final authority of Christian doctrine. By contrast and Methodism considered forms of Protestantism, uphold the doctrine of prima scriptura, with scripture being illumined by tradition, in Methodism, experience as well, thus completing the four sides of the Wesleyan Quadrilateral; the Eastern Orthodox Church holds that to "accept the books of the canon is to accept the ongoing Spirit-led authority of the church's tradition, which recognizes, interprets and corrects itself by the witness of Holy Scripture". The Catholic Church regards the apostolic preaching and writing as equal since they believe that many of their traditions came from the Apostles; the Catholic Church describes this as "one common source... with two distinct modes of transmission", while some Protestant authors call it "a dual source of revelation".
Sola scriptura is one of the five solae, considered by some Protestant groups to be the theological pillars of the Reformation. The key implication of the principle is that interpretations and applications of the scriptures do not have the same authority as the scriptures themselves. Martin Luther said, "a simple layman armed with Scripture is greater than the mightiest pope without it"; the intention of the Reformation was to correct what he asserted to be the errors of the Catholic Church by appeal to the uniqueness of the Bible's textual authority. Catholic doctrine is based in sacred tradition, as well as scripture. Sola scriptura meant rejecting the infallible authority given to the magisterium to interpret both scripture and tradition. Sola scriptura, does not ignore Christian history, tradition, or the church when seeking to understand the Bible. Rather, it sees the church as the Bible's interpreter, the regula fidei as the interpretive context, scripture as the only final authority in matters of faith and practice.
As Luther said, "The true rule is this: God's Word shall establish articles of faith, no one else, not an angel can do so." Lutheranism teaches that the Bible of the Old and New Testaments is the only divinely inspired book and the only source of divinely revealed knowledge. Scripture alone is the formal principle of the faith in Lutheranism, the final authority for all matters of faith and morals because of its inspiration, clarity and sufficiency. Lutheranism teaches that the Bible does not contain the Word of God, but every word of it is, because of verbal inspiration, the word of God. Most Lutheran traditions acknowledge that understanding scriptures is complex given that the Bible contains a collection of manuscripts and manuscript fragments that were written and collected over thousands of years. For example, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America teaches that "Lutheran Christians believe that the story of God’s steadfast love and mercy in Jesus is the heart and center of what the Scriptures have to say."As Lutherans confess in the Nicene Creed, the Holy Spirit "spoke through the prophets".
The Apology of the Augsburg Confession identifies "Holy Scripture" with the Word of God and calls the Holy Spirit the author of the Bible. Because of this, Lutherans confess in the Formula of Concord, "we receive and embrace with our whole heart the prophetic and apostolic Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments as the pure, clear fountain of Israel"; the apocryphal books were not written by inspiration. The prophetic and apostolic scriptures are said by the Lutheran church to be authentic as written by the prophets and apostles, that a correct translation of their writings is God's Word because it has the same meaning as the original Biblical Hebrew and Koine Greek. A mistranslation is not God's word, no human authority can invest it with divine authority. Scripture, regarded as the word of God, carries the full authority of God in Lutheranism: every single statement of the Bible calls for instant and unrestricted acceptance; every doctrine of the Bible is the teaching of God and
Lutheranism is a major branch of western Christianity that identifies with the teaching of Martin Luther, a 16th century German reformer. Luther's efforts to reform the theology and practice of the church launched the Protestant Reformation; the reaction of the government and church authorities to the international spread of his writings, beginning with the 95 Theses, divided Western Christianity. The split between the Lutherans and the Catholics was made public and clear with the 1521 Edict of Worms: the edicts of the Diet condemned Luther and banned citizens of the Holy Roman Empire from defending or propagating his ideas, subjecting advocates of Lutheranism to forfeiture of all property, half of the seized property to be forfeit to the imperial government and the remaining half forfeit to the party who brought the accusation; the divide centered on two points: the proper source of authority in the church called the formal principle of the Reformation, the doctrine of justification called the material principle of Lutheran theology.
Lutheranism advocates a doctrine of justification "by grace alone through faith alone on the basis of Scripture alone", the doctrine that scripture is the final authority on all matters of faith. This is in contrast to the belief of the Roman Catholic Church, defined at the Council of Trent, concerning authority coming from both the Scriptures and Tradition. Unlike Calvinism, Lutherans retain many of the liturgical practices and sacramental teachings of the pre-Reformation Church, with a particular emphasis on the Eucharist, or Lord's Supper. Lutheran theology differs from Reformed theology in Christology, divine grace, the purpose of God's Law, the concept of perseverance of the saints, predestination; the name Lutheran originated as a derogatory term used against Luther by German Scholastic theologian Dr. Johann Maier von Eck during the Leipzig Debate in July 1519. Eck and other Roman Catholics followed the traditional practice of naming a heresy after its leader, thus labeling all who identified with the theology of Martin Luther as Lutherans.
Martin Luther always disliked the term Lutheran, preferring the term Evangelical, derived from εὐαγγέλιον euangelion, a Greek word meaning "good news", i.e. "Gospel". The followers of John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, other theologians linked to the Reformed tradition used that term. To distinguish the two evangelical groups, others began to refer to the two groups as Evangelical Lutheran and Evangelical Reformed; as time passed by, the word Evangelical was dropped. Lutherans themselves began to use the term Lutheran in the middle of the 16th century, in order to distinguish themselves from other groups such as the Anabaptists and Calvinists. In 1597, theologians in Wittenberg defined the title Lutheran as referring to the true church. Lutheranism has its roots in the work of Martin Luther, who sought to reform the Western Church to what he considered a more biblical foundation. Lutheranism spread through all of Scandinavia during the 16th century, as the monarch of Denmark–Norway and the monarch of Sweden adopted Lutheranism.
Through Baltic-German and Swedish rule, Lutheranism spread into Estonia and Latvia. Since 1520, regular Lutheran services have been held in Copenhagen. Under the reign of Frederick I, Denmark–Norway remained Catholic. Although Frederick pledged to persecute Lutherans, he soon adopted a policy of protecting Lutheran preachers and reformers, the most significant being Hans Tausen. During Frederick's reign, Lutheranism made significant inroads in Denmark. At an open meeting in Copenhagen attended by the king in 1536, the people shouted. Frederick's son Christian was Lutheran, which prevented his election to the throne upon his father's death. However, following his victory in the civil war that followed, in 1537 he became Christian III and advanced the Reformation in Denmark–Norway; the constitution upon which the Danish Norwegian Church, according to the Church Ordinance, should rest was "The pure word of God, the Law and the Gospel". It does not mention the Augsburg Confession; the priests had to understand the Holy Scripture well enough to preach and explain the Gospel and the Epistles for their congregations.
The youths were taught from Luther's Small Catechism, available in Danish since 1532. They were taught to expect at the end of life: "forgiving of their sins", "to be counted as just", "the eternal life". Instruction is still similar; the first complete Bible in Danish was based on Martin Luther's translation into German. It was published with 3,000 copies printed in the first edition. Unlike Catholicism, the Lutheran Church does not believe that tradition is a carrier of the "Word of God", or that only the communion of the Bishop of Rome has been entrusted to interpret the "Word of God"; the Reformation in Sweden began with Olaus and Laurentius Petri, brothers who took the Reformation to Sweden after studying in Germany. They led elected king in 1523, to Lutheranism; the pope's refusal to allow the replacement of an archbishop who had supported the invading forces opposing Gustav Vasa during the Stockholm Bloodbath led to the severing of any official connection between Sweden and the papacy in 1523.
Four years at the Diet of Västerås, the king succeeded in forcing the diet to accept his dominion over the national church. The king was given possession of all church properties, as well as the church appointments and approval of the clergy. While this granted official sanction to Lutheran ideas, Lutheranism did not become official until 1593. At that time the Uppsa
Anointing of the sick
Anointing of the sick, known by other names, is a form of religious anointing or "unction" for the benefit of a sick person. It is practiced by denominations. Anointing of the sick was a customary practice in many civilizations, including among the ancient Greeks and early Jewish communities; the use of oil for healing purposes is referred to in the writings of Hippocrates. Anointing of the sick should be distinguished from other religious anointings that occur in relation to other sacraments, in particular baptism and ordination, in the coronation of a monarch. Since 1972, the Roman Catholic Church uses the name "Anointing of the Sick" both in the English translations issued by the Holy See of its official documents in Latin and in the English official documents of Episcopal conferences, it does not, of course, forbid the use of other names, for example the more archaic term "Unction of the Sick" or the term "Extreme Unction". Cardinal Walter Kasper used the latter term in his intervention at the 2005 Assembly of the Synod of Bishops.
However, the Church declared that "'Extreme unction'... may and more fittingly be called'anointing of the sick'", has itself adopted the latter term, while not outlawing the former. This is to emphasize that the sacrament is available, recommended, to all those suffering from any serious illness, to dispel the common misconception that it is for those at or near the point of death. Extreme Unction was the usual name for the sacrament in the West from the late twelfth century until 1972, was thus used at the Council of Trent and in the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia. Peter Lombard is the first writer known to have used the term, which did not become the usual name in the West till towards the end of the twelfth century, never became current in the East; the word "extreme" indicated either that it was the last of the sacramental unctions or because at that time it was administered only when a patient was in extremis. Other names used in the West include the unction or blessing of consecrated oil, the unction of God, the office of the unction.
Among some Protestant bodies, who do not consider it a sacrament, but instead as a practice suggested rather than commanded by Scripture, it is called anointing with oil. In the Greek Church the sacrament is called Euchelaion. Other names are used, such as ἅγιον ἔλαιον, ἡγιασμένον ἔλαιον, χρῖσις or χρῖσμα; the Community of Christ uses the term administration to the sick. The term "last rites" refers to administration to a dying person not only of this sacrament but of Penance and Holy Communion, the last of which, when administered in such circumstances, is known as "Viaticum", a word whose original meaning in Latin was "provision for the journey"; the normal order of administration is: first Penance. The chief biblical text concerning the rite is James 5:14–15: "Is any among you sick? Let him call for the elders of the church, let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord. Matthew 10:8, Luke 10:8–9 and Mark 6:13 are quoted in this context; the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Coptic and Old Catholic Churches consider this anointing to be a sacrament.
Other Christians too, in particular Anglicans and some Protestant and other Christian communities use a rite of anointing the sick, without classifying it as a sacrament. In the Churches mentioned here by name, the oil used is blessed for this purpose. An extensive account of the teaching of the Catholic Church on Anointing of the Sick is given in Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1499–1532. Anointing of the Sick is one of the seven Sacraments recognized by the Catholic Church, is associated with not only bodily healing but forgiveness of sins. Only ordained priests can administer it, "any priest may carry the holy oil with him, so that in a case of necessity he can administer the sacrament of anointing of the sick." The Catholic Church sees the effects of the sacrament. As the sacrament of Marriage gives grace for the married state, the sacrament of Anointing of the Sick gives grace for the state into which people enter through sickness. Through the sacrament a gift of the Holy Spirit is given, that renews confidence and faith in God and strengthens against temptations to discouragement and anguish at the thought of death and the struggle of death.
The special grace of the sacrament of the Anointing of the Sick has as its effects: the uniting of the sick person to the passion of Christ, for his own good and that of the whole Church. The duly blessed oil used in the sacrament is, as laid down in the Apostolic Constitution Sacram unctionem infirmorum, pressed from olives or from other plants, it is blessed by the bishop of the
Theology of the Cross
The theology of the Cross or staurology is a term coined by the theologian Martin Luther to refer to theology that posits the cross as the only source of knowledge concerning who God is and how God saves. It is contrasted with the Theology of Glory, which places greater emphasis on human abilities and human reason. Paragraph 2015 of the CCC describes the way of perfection as passing by way of the Cross. There is no holiness without renunciation and spiritual battle. Spiritual progress entails the ascesis and mortification that leads to living in the peace and joy of the beatitudes; the term theologia crucis was used rarely by Luther. He first used the term, explicitly defined it in contrast to the theology of glory, in the Heidelberg Disputation of 1518. During this debate, he represented the Augustinians and presented his theses that came to define the Reformation movement; the pertinent theological theses of the debate are: The law of God, the most salutary doctrine of life, cannot advance man on his way to righteousness, but rather hinders him.
Much less can human works, which are done over and over again with the aid of natural precepts, so to speak, lead to that end. Although the works of man always appear attractive and good, they are likely to be mortal sins. Although the works of God always seem unattractive and appear evil, they are really eternal merits; the works of men are thus not mortal sins. The works of God are thus not merits; the works of the righteous would be mortal sins if they would not be feared as mortal sins by the righteous themselves out of pious fear of God. By so much more are the works of man mortal sins when they are done without fear and in unadulterated, evil self-security. To say that works without Christ are dead, but not mortal, appears to constitute a perilous surrender of the fear of God. Indeed, it is difficult to see how a work can be dead and at the same time not a harmful and mortal sin. Arrogance cannot be avoided or true hope be present unless the judgment of condemnation is feared in every work.
In the sight of God sins are truly venial when they are feared by men to be mortal. Free will, after the fall, exists in name only, as long as it does what it is able to do, it commits a mortal sin. Free will, after the fall, has power to do good only in a passive capacity, but it can do evil in an active capacity. Nor could the free will endure in a state of innocence, much less do good, in an active capacity, but only in a passive capacity; the person who believes that he can obtain grace by doing what is in him adds sin to sin so that he becomes doubly guilty. Nor does speaking in this manner give cause for despair, but for arousing the desire to humble oneself and seek the grace of Christ, it is certain that man must utterly despair of his own ability before he is prepared to receive the grace of Christ. That person does not deserve to be called a theologian who looks upon the invisible things of God as though they were perceptible in those things that have happened, he deserves to be called a theologian, who comprehends the visible and manifest things of God seen through suffering and the cross.
A theologian of glory calls evil good evil. A theologian of the cross calls the things; that wisdom that sees the invisible things of God in works as perceived by man is puffed up, hardened. The law brings the wrath of God, reviles, accuses and condemns everything, not in Christ, yet that wisdom is the law to be evaded. He is not he who, without work, believes much in Christ; the law says "Do this", it is never done. Grace says, "believe in this" and everything is done. One should call the work of Christ an acting work and our work an accomplished work, thus an accomplished work pleasing to God by the grace of the acting work; the love of God does not find, but creates. The love of man comes into being through. By reading the theses, one can see that Luther insists on the complete inability of humanity to fulfill God's law; as one would find consistent with his Evangelical breakthrough, he emphasizes the grace of God in the role of salvation. Works of the law cannot improve one's standing. According to Luther, the theologian of the cross preaches.
In particular, the theologian of the cross preaches that humans can in no way earn righteousness, humans cannot add to or increase the righteousness of the cross, any righteousness given to humanity comes from outside of us. In contrast, in Luther's view, the theologian of glory preaches that humans have the ability to do the good that lies within them, there remains, after the fall, some ability to choose the good, humans cannot be saved without participating in or cooperating with the righteousness given by God; as Luther understood it, these two theologies had two radically different starting points: they had different epistemologies, or ways of understanding how people know about God and the world. For the theologian of glory and personal perceptions should be employed to increase knowledge about God and the world. Thus, because an action appears to be good, it must be good. For the theologian of the cross, it is only from the self-revelation of God that people can learn about God and their relatio
Confirmation (Lutheran Church)
Confirmation in the Lutheran Church is a public profession of faith prepared for by long and careful instruction. In English, it is called "affirmation of baptism", is a mature and public reaffirmation of the faith which "marks the completion of the congregation's program of confirmation ministry". Lutherans, like Roman Catholics, believe that Confirmation is based on Biblical precedents such as Acts of the Apostles 8:14-17: Now when the apostles in Jerusalem heard that Samaria had accepted the word of God, they sent them Peter and John, who went down and prayed for them, that they might receive the Holy Spirit, for it had not yet fallen upon any of them, they laid hands on them and they received the Holy Spirit. An Explanation of Luther's Small Catechism states: Confirmation is a public rite of the Church preceded by a period of instruction designed to help baptized Christians identify with the life and mission of the Christian community. Note: Prior to admission to the Eucharist, it is necessary to be instructed in the Christian faith.
The rite of confirmation provides an opportunity for the individual Christian, relying on God's promise given in Holy Baptism, to make a personal public confession of the faith and a lifelong pledge of fidelity to Christ. The Rite of Confirmation provides an opportunity for the individual Christian, relying on God's promise given in Baptism, to make a personal public profession of the faith and a lifelong pledge of faithfulness to Christ. Confirmation teaches Baptized Christians who wish to become Lutheran Martin Luther's theology on the Ten Commandments, the Apostles' Creed, the Lord's Prayer, Baptism and the Eucharist. Similar to the Roman Catholic tradition, some Lutheran congregations instruct the young in understanding the Eucharist and receive First Communion before beginning the Confirmation process several years later. At the conclusion of this catechetical instruction, young persons traditionally make a public profession of their faith in a public ceremony. Students begin taking catechism classes at about age twelve and are confirmed at age fourteen.
Some Lutheran pastors and theologians are now beginning to ask whether it is permissible to adopt the practice of the Eastern church and to confirm/chrismate at baptism, including infants. Lutherans do not accept. In countries where Lutherans claim to retain apostolic succession such as Estonia, Sweden and Norway etc. A priest is allowed to confirm. Lutheran sacraments Confirmation Christian Questions with Their Answers
The Apostles' Creed, sometimes titled the Apostolic Creed or the Symbol of the Apostles, is an early statement of Christian belief—a creed or "symbol". It is used by a number of Christian denominations for both liturgical and catechetical purposes, most visibly by liturgical Churches of Western tradition, including the Catholic Church and Anglicanism, it is used by Presbyterians, Moravians and Congregationalists. The Apostles' Creed is Trinitarian in structure with sections affirming belief in God the Father, Jesus Christ His Son and the Holy Spirit; the Apostles' Creed was based on Christian theological understanding of the Canonical gospels, the letters of the New Testament and to a lesser extent the Old Testament. Its basis appears to be the old Roman Creed known as the Old Roman Symbol; because of the early origin of its original form, it does not address some Christological issues defined in the Nicene and other Christian Creeds. It thus says nothing explicitly about the divinity of the Holy Spirit.
Nor does it address many other theological questions which became objects of dispute centuries later. The earliest known mention of the expression "Apostles' Creed" occurs in a letter of AD 390 from a synod in Milan and may have been associated with the belief accepted in the 4th century, under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, each of the Twelve Apostles contributed an article to the twelve articles of the creed; the word Symbolum, standing alone, appears around the middle of the third century in the correspondence of St. Cyprian and St. Firmilian, the latter in particular speaking of the Creed as the "Symbol of the Trinity", recognizing it as an integral part of the rite of baptism; the title Symbolum Apostolicum appears for the first time in a letter written by Ambrose, from a Council in Milan to Pope Siricius in about AD 390 "Let them give credit to the Creed of the Apostles, which the Roman Church has always kept and preserved undefiled". But what existed at that time was not what is now known as the Apostles' Creed but a shorter statement of belief that, for instance, did not include the phrase "maker of heaven and earth", a phrase that may have been inserted only in the 7th century.
The account of the origin of this creed, the forerunner and principal source of the Apostles' Creed, as having been jointly created by the Apostles under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, with each of the twelve contributing one of the articles, was current at that time. The earlier text evolved from simpler texts based on Matthew 28:19, part of the Great Commission, it has been argued that this earlier text was in written form by the late 2nd century. While the individual statements of belief that are included in the Apostles' Creed – those not found in the Old Roman Symbol – are found in various writings by Irenaeus, Novatian, Rufinus, Augustine and Eusebius Gallus, the earliest appearance of what we know as the Apostles' Creed was in the De singulis libris canonicis scarapsus of St. Pirminius, written between 710 and 714. Bettenson and Maunder state that it is first from Dicta Abbatis Pirminii de singulis libris canonicis scarapsus, c. 750. This longer Creed seems to have arisen in what is now Spain.
Charlemagne imposed it throughout his dominions, it was accepted in Rome, where the Old Roman Symbol or similar formulas had survived for centuries. It has been argued nonetheless that it dates from the second half of the 5th century, though no earlier; as can be seen from various creeds all quoted in full below, although the original Greek and Latin creeds both refer to “the resurrection of the flesh”, the versions used by several churches, like the Roman Catholic Church, the Church of England, Lutheran churches and Methodist churches, talk more of “the resurrection of the body”. Some have suggested that the Apostles' Creed was spliced together with phrases from the New Testament. For instance, the phrase "descendit ad inferos" echoes Ephesians 4:9, "κατέβη εἰς τὰ κατώτερα μέρη τῆς γῆς", it is of interest that this phrase first appeared in one of the two versions of Rufinus in AD 390 and did not appear again in any version of the creed until AD 650. This phrase and that on the communion of saints are articles found in the Apostles' Creed, but not in the Old Roman Symbol nor in the Nicene Creed.
Musical settings of the Symbolum Apostolorum as a motet are rare. The French composer Le Brung published one Latin setting in 1540, the Spanish composer Fernando de las Infantas published two in 1578. More in 1979 John Michael Talbot, a Third Order Franciscan and recorded "Creed" on his album, The Lord's Supper. In 1986 Graham Kendrick published the popular "We believe in God the Father" based on the Apostles' Creed. Rich Mullins and Beaker composed a musical setting titled "Creed", released on Mullins' 1993 album A Liturgy, a Legacy, & a Ragamuffin Band; the song "Creed" on Petra's 1990 album Beyond Belief is loosely based on the Apostles' Creed. GIA Publications published a hymn text in 1991 directly based on the Apostles' Creed, called "I Believe in God Almighty." It has been sung to hymn tunes from Wales, the Netherlands, Ireland. In 2014 Hillsong released a version of the Apostles' Creed under the title "This I Believe" on their album No Other Name. Keith Getty and Kristyn Getty released an expression of the Apostles' Creed under th