Tango is a style of music in 24 or 44 time that originated among European immigrant populations of Argentina and Uruguay. It is traditionally played on a solo guitar, guitar duo, or an ensemble, known as the orquesta típica, which includes at least two violins, piano, double bass, at least two bandoneóns. Sometimes guitars and a clarinet join the ensemble. Tango may include a vocalist. Tango music and dance have become popular throughout the world. Though present forms developed in Argentina and Uruguay from the mid 19th century, there are records of 19th and early 20th century Tango styles in Cuba and Spain, while there is a flamenco Tangos dance that may share a common ancestor in a minuet-style European dance. All sources stress the influence of the African communities and their rhythms, while the instruments and techniques brought in by European immigrants in the 20th century played a major role in its final definition, relating it to the Salon music styles to which Tango would contribute back at a stage.
Angel Villoldo's 1903 tango El Choclo was first recorded no than 1906 in Philadelphia. Villoldo himself recorded it in Paris. Villoldo had to record in Paris. Early tango was played by immigrants in Buenos Aires later in Montevideo; the first generation of tango players was called "Guardia Vieja". It took time to move into wider circles: in the early 20th century it was the favorite music of thugs and gangsters who visited the brothels, in a city with 100,000 more men than women; the complex dances that arose from such rich music reflects how the men would practice the dance in groups, demonstrating male sexuality and causing a blending of emotion and aggressiveness. The music was played on portable instruments: flute and violin trios, with bandoneón arriving at the end of the 19th century; the organito, a portable player-organ, broadened the popularity of certain songs. Eduardo Arolas was the major instrument of the bandoneón's popularization, with Vicente Greco soon standardizing the tango sextet as consisting of piano, double bass, two violins and two bandoneóns.
Like many forms of popular music, tango was associated with the underclass, attempts were made to restrict its influence. In spite of the scorn, like writer Ricardo Güiraldes, were fans. Güiraldes played a part in the international popularization of tango, which had conquered the world by the end of World War I, wrote a poem which describes the music as the "all-absorbing love of a tyrant, jealously guarding his dominion, over women who have surrendered submissively, like obedient beasts". One song that would become the most known of all tango melodies dates from this time; the first two sections of La Cumparsita were composed as a march instrumental in 1916 by teen-aged Gerardo Matos Rodríguez of Uruguay. Besides the global influences mentioned above, early Tango was locally influenced by Payada, the Milonga from Argentine and Uruguay Pampas, Uruguayan Candombe. In Argentina there was Milonga "from the country" since the mid eighteenth century; the first "payador" remembered is Santos Vega. The origins of Milonga seem to be in the Pampa with strong African influences though the local Candombe.
It is believed that this candombe existed and was practised in Argentina since the first slaves were brought into the country. Although the word "tango" to describe a music/dance style had been printed as early as 1823 in Havana, the first Argentinian written reference is from an 1866 newspaper, that quotes the song "La Coqueta". In 1876 a tango-candombe called "El Merenguengué" became popular, after its success in the Afro-Argentines carnival held in February of that year, it is played with harp and flute in addition to the Afro-Argentine Candombe drums. This has been considered as one of the strong points of departure for the birth and development of Tango; the first "group" of tango, was composed of two Afro-Argentines, "the black" Casimiro Alcorta and "the mulatto" Sinforoso. They did small concerts in Buenos Aires since the early 1870s until the early 1890s. "The black Casimiro" is author of "Entrada Prohibida" signed by the brothers Teisseire, "la yapa". It must be said, though that this duo was the author and performer of many of the early tangos now listed as "anonymous", since at that time were not used to signing works.
Before the 1900s, the following tangos were being played: "El queco", "Señora casera", "Andate a la recoleta", "El Porteñito", "Tango Nº1", "Dame la lata", "Que polvo con tanto viento", "No me tires con la tapa de la olla", "El Talar". One of the first women to write tango scores was Eloísa D’Herbil, she wrote such pieces as Y a mí qué, Che no calotiés! and others, between 1872 and 1885. The first is in the Museum of the City Score Rosario. On the other hand, the first copyrighted tango score is "El entrerriano", released in 1896 and printed in 1898 – by Rosendo Mendizabal, an Afro-Argentine; as for the transiti
Almagro, Buenos Aires
Almagro is a middle-class barrio of Buenos Aires, Argentina. The neighbourhood is delimited by La Plata avenue and Río de Janeiro street to the west, Independencia avenue to the south, Sánchez de Bustamante, Sánchez de Loria and Gallo streets to the east, Córdoba/Estado de Israel avenues to the north. Almagro features strong commercial activity along its avenues, has a high population density due to the many high-rise buildings erected along the railway line; the sectional government of the 6th circuit, which includes Almagro and Boedo, is located on Díaz Vélez avenue opposite Centenario park. In the 18th century, what is now the western part of Almagro belonged to Portuguese merchant Carlos de los Santos Valente and to his estate; the eastern and northern sections were in the possession of Spaniard Juan María de Almagro y de la Torre, a barrister. The Argentine revolutionary government confiscated Almagro's lands, only to return them to him in 1820. Both Santos Valente and Almagro managed agricultural establishments, did not favor any kind of urban development.
During the 19th century, most of the neighbourhood was occupied by dairy farms and brick factories. Almagro and Caballito were located on the city of Flores. In 1880, Almagro was incorporated into the Federal district; the neighbourhood came into its own around 1900, following the erection of the San Carlos parish church in 1878, the introduction of the tramway, the massive immigration. Rapid urbanization brought about the conventillos; the assimilation of immigrants into the local culture was quick, Almagro became the birthplace of many famous tangos. Due to its proximity to the Abasto market, singer Carlos Gardel was a frequent visitor, in 1930 he recorded a tango named Almagro. Many Almagro institutions became relevant in the Buenos Aires landscape: The Colégio Pio IX, whose alumni includes famous Tango singer Carlos Gardel, Blessed Ceferino Namuncurá, Argentine President Arturo Illia and distinguished engineers like Curiosity Rover, other Mars NASA missions, Chief Engineer for the Guidance and Control system Miguel San Martín.
The Las Violetas coffee house, opened in 1884, was a renowned meeting-place. Closed down in 1998 and reopened in 2001, it preserves the glamour of its golden days; the Argentine Boxing Federation hall on Castro Barros street was the venue of many important matches. The Mariano Moreno and Mariano Acosta schools were noted for their high educational standards In the 1950s, the Buenos Aires campus of the Universidad Tecnológica Nacional was built on Lavalle and Medrano streets. To accommodate the growing number of students, the faculty of Humanities of Buenos Aires University was relocated to Puán street during the 1980s. Hospital Italiano on Gascón street is one of the main private hospitals in the city; the city's Dentistry Hospital is located on Muñiz street. There is a Library for blind people on the intersection of Lezica and Medrano. Although many music and dance venues cater to all tastes, Almagro is a stronghold of tango. During his last years and bandleader Osvaldo Pugliese relocated to Almagro and oversaw the creation of the Casa del Tango complex on Guardia Vieja street.
Among Almagro's residents of note were boxer Luis Ángel Firpo, poet Alfonsina Storni, physician and politician Juan B. Justo. Instituto Privado Argentino-Japonés or Nichia Gakuin, a private elementary and middle school, is located at Yatay 261 and Pringles 268 in Almagro. Westbound traffic is served by Independencia, Córdoba/Estado de Israel avenues. Eastbound traffic is served by Corrientes, Díaz Vélez, Belgrano avenues. There are no major north-south avenues though Medrano and Boedo streets carry heavy traffic. Almagro has access to the along Corrientes; the westbound Sarmiento train line crosses Almagro but does not stop within the limits of the neighbourhood. Important bus lines are the 19, 128, 160, 168; the neighbourhood was the birthplace of San Lorenzo de Almagro. The remaining major institution, Club Almagro has its facilities on Medrano street, its football team was relegated from the first division in 2005. It is the headquarters of the Argentine Boxing Federation. Late 1800, yellow fever epidemics moved parts of the upper class from the center to their country houses in Almagro.
And from early 1900 the neighbourhood started to house the large immigrant waves from Italy and Basque. Many of the original houses like the casa chorizo are from this time and reflect Almagro's colorfull history. Nearby Plaza Almagro park on Sarmiento street features a popular playground and a book fair on Sundays. Parque Centenario, located a little beyond the western edge of Almagro, features an arts-and-crafts and antiques fair on Sundays, is used as a concert venue. September 28 is Almagro Day, marked by celebrations across the main points of the barrio. Almagro Barrio Guide and Map Almagro history and useful information Old Buenos Aires Argentine Boxing Federation
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism in opposition to social hierarchy. It involves a concern for those in society whom its adherents perceive as disadvantaged relative to others as well as a belief that there are unjustified inequalities that need to be reduced or abolished; the term left-wing can refer to "the radical, reforming, or socialist section of a political party or system". The political terms "Left" and "Right" were coined during the French Revolution, referring to the seating arrangement in the French Estates General: those who sat on the left opposed the monarchy and supported the revolution, including the creation of a republic and secularization, while those on the right were supportive of the traditional institutions of the Old Regime. Use of the term "Left" became more prominent after the restoration of the French monarchy in 1815 when it was applied to the "Independents"; the word "wing" was appended to Left and Right in the late 19th century with disparaging intent and "left-wing" was applied to those who were unorthodox in their religious or political views.
The term was applied to a number of movements republicanism during the French Revolution in the 18th century, followed by socialism, communism and social democracy in the 19th and 20th centuries. Since the term left-wing has been applied to a broad range of movements including civil rights movements, feminist movements, anti-war movements and environmental movements, as well as a wide range of parties. According to former professor of economics Barry Clark, " claim that human development flourishes when individuals engage in cooperative, mutually respectful relations that can thrive only when excessive differences in status and wealth are eliminated". In politics, the term "Left" derives from the French Revolution, as the anti-monarchist Montagnard and Jacobin deputies from the Third Estate sat to the left of the presiding member's chair in parliament, a habit which began in the French Estates General of 1789. Throughout the 19th century in France, the main line dividing Left and Right was between supporters of the French Republic and those of the monarchy.
The June Days Uprising during the Second Republic was an attempt by the Left to assert itself after the 1848 Revolution, but only a small portion of the population supported this. In the mid-19th century, socialism and anti-clericalism became features of the French Left. After Napoleon III's 1851 coup and the subsequent establishment of the Second Empire, Marxism began to rival radical republicanism and utopian socialism as a force within left-wing politics; the influential Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, published in 1848, asserted that all human history is the history of class struggle. They predicted that a proletarian revolution would overthrow bourgeois capitalism and create a classless, post-monetary communist society, it was in this period that the word "wing" was appended to both Right. In the United States, many leftists, social liberals and trade unionists were influenced by the works of Thomas Paine, who introduced the concept of asset-based egalitarianism, which theorises that social equality is possible by a redistribution of resources.
The International Workingmen's Association, sometimes called the First International, brought together delegates from many different countries, with many different views about how to reach a classless and stateless society. Following a split between supporters of Marx and Mikhail Bakunin, anarchists formed the International Workers' Association; the Second International became divided over the issue of World War I. Those who opposed the war, such as Vladimir Lenin and Rosa Luxemburg, saw themselves as further to the left. In the United States after Reconstruction, the phrase "the Left" was used to describe those who supported trade unions, the civil rights movement and the anti-war movement. More in the United States, left-wing and right-wing have been used as synonyms for Democratic and Republican, or as synonyms for liberalism and conservatism respectively. Since the Right was populist, both in the Western and the Eastern Bloc anything viewed as avant-garde art was called leftist in all Europe, thus the identification of Picasso's Guernica as "leftist" in Europe and the condemnation of the Russian composer Shostakovich's opera in Pravda as follows: "Here we have'leftist' confusion instead of natural, human music".
The following positions are associated with left-wing politics. Leftist economic beliefs range from Keynesian economics and the welfare state through industrial democracy and the social market to nationalization of the economy and central planning, to the anarcho-syndicalist advocacy of a council- and assembly-based self-managed anarchist communism. During the industrial revolution, leftists supported trade unions. At the beginning of the 20th century, many leftists advocated strong government intervention in the economy. Leftists continue to criticize what they perceive as the exploitative nature of globalization, the "race to the bottom" and unjust lay-offs. In the last quarter of the 20th century, the belief that government ought to be directly involved in the day-to-day workings of an economy declined in popularity amongst the center-left social democrats who became influenced by "Third Way" ideology. Other leftists believe in Marxian economics; some distinguish Marx's economic theories from his political philos
Argentine literature, i.e. the set of literary works produced by writers who originated from Argentina, is one of the most prolific and influential in the whole Spanish speaking world, with renowned writers such as Jorge Luis Borges, Julio Cortázar, Leopoldo Lugones and Ernesto Sabato. As a matter of fact, the name of the country itself comes from a Latinism which first appeared in a literary source: Martin del Barco Centenera's epic poem La Argentina; this composition runs 10.000 verses and describes the landscape as well as the conquest of the territory. The word was reintroduced in a prose chronicle by Ruy Díaz de Guzmán. Argentine literature began around 1550 with the work of Matías Rojas de Oquendo and Pedro González de Prado, who wrote prose and poetry, they were inspired by oral aboriginal poetry—in particular, according to Carlos Abregú Virreyra, by the lules, juríes, diaguitas and tonocotés. A symbiosis emerged between the aboriginal and Spanish traditions, creating a distinct literature, geographically limited to the Argentine north and central regions, with the province of Córdoba as its center, due to the foundation of the National University of Córdoba.
Two names stand out from this period: Gaspar Juárez Baviano, Antonia de la Paz y Figueroa known as "Beata Antula". With the economic prosperity of the port, the cultural axis moved eastward; the letters of the colonial age grew under the protection of the independentist fervor: Vicente López y Planes, Pantaleón Rivarola and Esteban de Luca. During the 17th century, Argentine baroque literature was poor in comparison with that from Europe and some other parts of the New World; the only remarkable poet of this period was fray José Luis de Tejeda who wrote Coronas líricas and El peregrino de Babilonia As in the rest of the continent, strong feelings of emancipation from Spain were present in Argentina. Before independence, some neoclassical authors such as Juan Cruz Varela produced numerous works related with this revolutionary spirit but still under the paradoxical Spanish domain. Argentina's true break with Spanish tradition was manifested in literature through the adoption of French romanticism as a model, postulating the return to popular sources and to the medieval.
This aesthetic and intellectual was brought by Esteban Echeverría who wrote the first local and realistic story, El Matadero, as well as the nativist poem La Cautiva, with the Pampas as its background. His barbed wit and opposition to powerful Buenos Aires governor Juan Manuel de Rosas forced him into exile. In the middle of the 19th century José Mármol published the first Argentine novel, Amalia, a historical novel set during the dark year of 1840 which mixed fictional characters with actual historical characters like Juan Manuel de Rosas; as Rosas' power increased, more literary works from the opposition were produced, such as Juan Bautista Alberdi's play El Gigante Amapolas, a good example of local sainete. In the genre of essay, Domingo Faustino Sarmiento published his Facundo, a particular vision of Facundo Quiroga's life from a deterministic point of view. Sarmiento conveyed aspects of sociology and semiotics in this analysis. Echeverría, Mármol and Sarmiento are among the group of writers known as Generación del 37, who are considered the first generation of local intellectuals.
Poetry lessened in combative spirit and turned towards the anecdotal and sentimental: Carlos Guido y Spano and Ricardo Gutiérrez, the chronicle writers of folk literature. Lucio V. Mansilla published in 1870 Una excursión a los indios ranqueles, a sort of chronicle of a voluntary expedition to sign a peace treaty with the Indians, his work anticipated Generación del'80, which would be influenced by modernism. Juana Manuela Gorriti was one of the first popular female writers due to her melodramatic narrative works like the novel La hija del mazorquero and the foundation of La alborada, a cultural magazine. European-oriented, indeed Euro-centric and styles would remain the norm in Argentine letters from Buenos Aires, during this century; the poetry as La cautiva or the latter Santos Vega by Rafael Obligado gave a lot of importance to the nature of the pampa, sharing some elements with a picturesque, imitation-gaucho literature, purporting to use the language of the gauchos and to reflect their mentality.
The first current became a literary tradition. The second developed in parallel as a part of that generation's understanding of national identity. Although it is a product of literary authors, this writing takes the voice of the gaucho as protagonist from the beginning. Gauchesca is related to payador's singing, a payador being a modern equivalent of the illiterate medieval singers. A payador's work, in opposition to gauchesca, is sung spontaneously; the first gauchesco author was Bartolomé Hidalgo who wrote during the war of independence and therefore his works had a strong political ideology. His compositions were cielitos and diálogos patrióticos. In a second period, gauchesca was influenced by political-faction fights. Estanislao del Campo, Hilario Ascasubi are the most representative writers of this period. Del Campo wrote'Fausto', a poem, read both as a parody of gauchesca and an intelligent joke towards city people. In the poem, Anastasio El Pollo meets a f
Parque Chacabuco is a neighbourhood in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Its name is due to Chacabuco Park, in its centre, taking the name from the Battle of Chacabuco, it is located in the centre-south of Buenos Aires. It limits to the north with Caballito through Directorio Avenue, to the west with Flores through Carabobo Av, Curapaligüe Av and Camilo Torres St, to the south with Nueva Pompeya through Riestra Av. and Cobo Av, to the east with Boedo through La Plata Avenue. Day of the neighbourhood: May 15 Parque Chacabuco Website Barriada Parque Chacabuco Digital Neighbourhood Newspaper
Argentina the Argentine Republic, is a country located in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, the largest Spanish-speaking nation; the sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; the earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times; the country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century.
Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city; the country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, though it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency, she was overthrown in 1976 by a U.
S.-backed coup which installed a right-wing military dictatorship. The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism that lasted until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as President in 1983. Several of the junta's leaders were convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment. Argentina is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America, retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America, membership in the G-15 and G-20 major economies, it is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Union of South American Nations, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States. Despite its history of economic instability, it ranks second highest in the Human Development Index in Latin America; the description of the country by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in 1536.
In English the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina means in Italian " of silver, silver coloured" borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine " of silver" > "silver coloured" mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in; the Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina; the name Argentina was first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are plata and prata and " of silver" is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.
The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region. Although "Argentina" was in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence; the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. The name "Argentine Confederation" was commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic", that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as valid. In the English language the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina and resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name'Argentine Republic'.'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, now the country is referred to as "Argentina".
In the Spanish language "Argentina" is feminine, taking the feminine article "La" as the i
Argentine Declaration of Independence
What today is referred as the Independence of Argentina was declared on July 9, 1816 by the Congress of Tucumán. In reality, the congressmen who were assembled in Tucumán declared the independence of the United Provinces of South America, still today one of the legal names of the Argentine Republic; the Federal League Provinces, at war with the United Provinces, were not allowed into the Congress. At the same time, several provinces from the Upper Peru that would become part of present-day Bolivia, were represented at the Congress; the 1810 May Revolution followed the deposition of the Spanish king Ferdinand VII by the Napoleonic French. The revolution replaced it with the Primera Junta; when the Spanish monarchy resumed its functions in 1814, Spain was determined to recover control over its colonies in the Americas. Moreover, the royalists from Peru had been victorious at the battles of Sipe-Sipe, Huaqui and Ayohuma, in Upper Peru, threatened the United Provinces from the north. On April 15, 1815 a revolution ended the mandate of Carlos María de Alvear as Supreme Director and demanded that a General Congress be summoned.
Delegate deputies, each representing 14,000 inhabitants, were sent from all the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata to the sessions, which started on March 24, 1816. However, the Federal League Provinces did not send delegates: the Argentine littoral Provinces, the Eastern Province; the Congress was inaugurated with 33 deputies. The presidency of the Congress would be rotated monthly; because the Congress had the freedom to choose topics to debate, endless discussions ensued. The voting ended on July 9 with a declaration of independence; the Declaration pointed to the circumstances in Europe of the past six years—the removal of the King of Spain by the Napoleon and the subsequent refusal of Ferdinand VII to accept constitutional rule both in the Peninsula and overseas. The Document claimed that Spanish America recovered its sovereignty from the Crown of Castile in 1808, when Ferdinand VII had been deposed, therefore, any union between the overseas dominions of Spain and the Peninsula had been dissolved.
This was a legal concept, invoked by the other Spanish American declarations of independence, such as Venezuela's and Mexico's, which were responding to the same events. The president of the Congress at the time was Francisco Narciso de Laprida, delegate from San Juan Province. Subsequent discussions centered on what form of government; the congress continued its work in Buenos Aires in 1817, but it got stopped in 1820 after the Battle of Cepeda, which deepened the differences between the Unitarian Party, who favored a strong central government, the Federales, who favored a weak central government. The house where the declaration was adopted has been rebuilt and is now a museum and monument: the House of Tucumán. Francisco Narciso de Laprida, Deputy for San Juan, President Mariano Boedo, Deputy for Salta, Vice-president José Mariano Serrano, Deputy for Charcas, Secretary Juan José Paso, Deputy for Buenos Aires, Secretary Dr. Antonio Sáenz, Deputy for Buenos Aires Dr. José Darragueira, Deputy for Buenos Aires Friar Cayetano José Rodríguez, Deputy for Buenos Aires Dr. Pedro Medrano, Deputy for Buenos Aires Dr. Manuel Antonio Acevedo, Deputy for Catamarca Dr. José Ignacio de Gorriti, Deputy for Salta Dr. José Andrés Pacheco de Melo, Deputy for Chibchas Dr. Teodoro Sánchez de Bustamante, Deputy for Jujuy Eduardo Pérez Bulnes, Deputy for Córdoba Tomás Godoy Cruz, Deputy for Mendoza Dr. Pedro Miguel Aráoz, Deputy for Tucumán Dr. Esteban Agustín Gazcón, Deputy for Buenos Aires Pedro Francisco de Uriarte, Deputy for Santiago del Estero Pedro León Gallo, Deputy for Santiago del Estero Pedro Ignacio Rivera, Deputy for Mizque Dr. Mariano Sánchez de Loria, Deputy for Charcas Dr. José Severo Malabia, Deputy for Charcas Dr. Pedro Ignacio de Castro Barros, Deputy for La Rioja Lic.
Gerónimo Salguero, Deputy for Córdoba Dr. José Colombres, Deputy for Catamarca Dr. José Ignacio Thames, Deputy for Tucumán Friar Justo de Santa María de Oro, Deputy for San Juan José Antonio Cabrera, Deputy for Córdoba Dr. Juan Agustín Maza, Deputy for Mendoza Tomás Manuel de Anchorena, Deputy for Buenos Aires Kingdom of Hawaii: 1818 Portugal: 1821 Brazil, United States of America: 1822 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland: December 15, 1823 France: 1830 Denmark: 1841 United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway: 1847 Spain: April 29, 1857 The Declaration of Independence of the United Provinces of South America was written in Spanish and translated into Quechua and Aymara; the version in Aymara is attributed to Vicente Pazos Kanki. Argentine War of Independence Congress of Tucumán United Provinces of South America 9 de Julio de 1816: Declaración de la Independencia Act of Independence – Spanish Wikisource