The Boeing 717 is a twin-engine, single-aisle jet airliner, developed for the 100-seat market. The airliner was designed and marketed by McDonnell Douglas as the MD-95, a derivative of the DC-9 family. Capable of seating up to the 717 has a design range of 2,060 nautical miles, it is powered by two Rolls-Royce BR715 turbofan engines mounted at the rear of the fuselage. The first order was placed in October 1995 by ValuJet Airlines; the airliner entered service in 1999 as the Boeing 717. Production ceased in May 2006. There were 148 Boeing 717 aircraft in service as of July 2018. Douglas Aircraft launched the DC-9, a short-range companion to their larger four-engine DC-8 in 1963; the DC-9 was an all-new design, using two rear fuselage-mounted Pratt & Whitney JT8D turbofan engines. The DC-9's maiden flight was in 1965 and entered airline service that year; when production ended in 1982 a total of 976 DC-9s had been produced. The McDonnell Douglas MD-80 series, the second generation of the DC-9, began airline service in 1980.
It was a lengthened DC-9-50 with a higher maximum take-off weight and higher fuel capacity, as well as next-generation Pratt and Whitney JT8D-200 series engines and an improved wing design. 1,191 MD-80s were delivered from 1980 to 1999. The MD-90 was developed from the MD-80 series, it was launched in 1989 and first flew in 1993. The MD-90 was longer, featured a glass cockpit and more powerful, fuel efficient IAE V2525-D5 engines, with the option of upgrading that to an IAE V2528 engine. A total of 116 MD-90 airliners were delivered; the MD-95 traces its history back to 1983 when McDonnell Douglas outlined a study named the DC-9-90. During the early 1980s, as production of the DC-9 family moved away from the smaller Series 30 towards the larger Super 80 variants, McDonnell Douglas proposed a smaller version of the DC-9 to fill the gap left by the DC-9-30. Dubbed the DC-9-90, it was revealed in February 1983 and was to be some 25 ft 4 in shorter than the DC-9-81, giving it an overall length of 122 ft 6 in.
The aircraft was proposed with a 17,000 lbf thrust version of the JT8D-200 series engine, although the CFM International CFM56-3 was considered. Seating up to 117 passengers, the DC-9-90 was to be equipped with the DC-9's wing with 2 ft tip extensions, rather than the more modified increased area of the MD-80; the aircraft had a design range of 1,430 nmi, with an option to increase to 2,060 nmi, a gross weight of 112,000 lb. The DC-9-90 was designed to meet the needs of the newly deregulated American airline industry. However, its development was postponed due to the recession of the early 1980s; when McDonnell Douglas did develop a smaller version of the MD-80, it shrunk the aircraft to create the MD-87, rather than offer a lower thrust, lighter aircraft, more comparable to the DC-9-30. With its high MTOW and powerful engines, the MD-87 became a special mission aircraft and could not compete with the all new 100-seaters being developed. Although an excellent aircraft for specialized roles, the MD-87 was not sold on its own.
Relying on its commonality factor, sales were limited to existing MD-80 operators. In 1991, McDonnell Douglas revealed that it was again considering developing a specialized 100-seat version of the MD-80 named the MD-87-105, it was to be some 8 ft shorter than the MD-87, powered with engines in the 16,000–17,000 lbf thrust class. McDonnell Douglas, Pratt & Whitney, the China National Aero-Technology Import Export Agency signed a memorandum of understanding to develop a 105-seat version of the MD-80. At the 1991 Paris Airshow, McDonnell Douglas announced the development of a 105-seat aircraft, designated MD-95; the new name was selected to reflect the anticipated year. McDonnell Douglas first offered the MD-95 for sale in 1994. In early 1994, the MD-95 re-emerged as similar to the DC-9-30, its specified weight and fuel capacity being identical. Major changes included a fuselage "shrink" back to 119 ft 4 in length, the reversion to the original DC-9 wingspan of 93 ft 5 in. At this time, McDonnell Douglas said that it expected the MD-95 to become a family of aircraft with the capability of increased range and seating capacity.
The MD-95 was developed to satisfy the market need to replace early DC-9s approaching 30 years old. The MD-95 was a complete overhaul, going back to the original DC-9-30 design and applying new engines and other more modern systems. In March 1995, longtime McDonnell Douglas customer Scandinavian Airlines System chose the Boeing 737-600 for its 100-seater over the MD-95. In October 1995, U. S. new entrant and low-cost carrier ValuJet signed an order for 50 MD-95s, plus 50 options. McDonnell Douglas president Harry Stonecipher felt that launching MD-95 production on the basis of this single order held little risk, stating that further orders would "take a while longer"; the ValuJet order was the only order received for some two years. As first proposed, the MD-95 was to be powered by a 16,500 lbf thrust derivative of the JT8D-200 series with the Rolls-Royce Tay 670 considered as an alternative; this was confirmed in January 1992, when Rolls-Royce and McDonnell Douglas signed a memorandum of understanding concerning the Tay-powered MD-95.
McDonnell Douglas said that the MD-95 project would cost only a minimal amount to develop, as it was a direct offshoot of the IAE-
The Boeing 737 is an American short- to medium-range twinjet narrow-body airliner developed and manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. Developed as a shorter, lower-cost twin-engine airliner derived from the 707 and 727, the 737 has developed into a family of thirteen passenger models with capacities from 85 to 215 passengers; the 737 is Boeing's only narrow-body airliner in production, with the 737 Next Generation and the re-engined and updated 737 MAX variants. The 737 was envisioned in 1964; the initial 737-100 made its first flight in April 1967, entered airline service in February 1968 with Lufthansa. Next, the lengthened 737-200 entered service in April 1968. In the 1980s Boeing launched the longer 737-300, -400, -500 variants featuring CFM56 turbofan engines and wing improvements; the Boeing 737 Next Generation was introduced in the 1990s, with a redesigned, increased span wing, upgraded "glass" cockpit, new interior. The 737 NG comprises the 737-600, -700, -800, -900 variants, with lengths ranging from 31.09 to 42.06 m.
Boeing Business Jet versions of the 737 NG are produced. The 737 was revised again in the 2010s for greater efficiency, with the 737 MAX series featuring CFM LEAP-1B engines and improved winglets; the 737 MAX entered service in 2017 but, after a successful start, was grounded worldwide in March 2019 following two fatal crashes. The 737 series is the highest-selling commercial jetliner in history; the 737 has been continuously manufactured since 1967. Assembly of the 737 is performed at the Boeing Renton Factory in Washington. Many 737s serve markets filled by 707, 727, 757, DC-9, MD-80/MD-90 airliners, the aircraft competes with the Airbus A320 family; as of 2006, there were an average of 1,250 Boeing 737s airborne at any given time, with two either departing or landing somewhere every five seconds. Boeing had been studying short-haul jet aircraft designs, wanted to produce another aircraft to supplement the 727 on short and thin routes. Preliminary design work began on May 11, 1964, Boeing's intense market research yielded plans for a 50- to 60-passenger airliner for routes 50 to 1,000 mi long.
Initial design featured podded engines on the aft fuselage and a T-tail like the 727, five-abreast seating, but engineer Joe Sutter instead placed the engines under the wings to lighten the structure, enabling fuselage widening for six-abreast seating. The 737 design was presented in October 1964 at the Air Transport Association maintenance and engineering conference by chief project engineer Jack Steiner, where its elaborate high-lift devices raised concerns about maintenance costs and dispatch reliability; the launch decision for the $150 million development was made by the board on February 1, 1965. Lufthansa became the launch customer on February 19, 1965, with an order for 21 aircraft, worth $67 million in 1965, after the airline received assurances from Boeing that the 737 project would not be canceled. Consultation with Lufthansa over the previous winter resulted in an increase in capacity to 100 seats. On April 5, 1965, Boeing announced an order by United Airlines for 40 737s. United wanted a larger airplane than the original 737, so Boeing stretched the fuselage 36 in ahead of, 40 in behind the wing.
The longer version was designated 737-200, with the original short-body aircraft becoming the 737-100. Detailed design work continued on both variants at the same time. Boeing was far behind its competitors. To expedite development, Boeing used 60% of the structure and systems of the existing 727, the most notable being the fuselage cross-section; this fuselage permitted six-abreast seating compared to the rival BAC-111 and DC-9's five-abreast layout. Design engineers decided to mount the nacelles directly to the underside of the wings to reduce the landing gear length and kept the engines low to the ground for easy ramp inspection and servicing. Many thickness variations for the engine attachment strut were tested in the wind tunnel and the most desirable shape for high speed was found to be one, thick, filling the narrow channels formed between the wing and the top of the nacelle on the outboard side; the span arrangement of the airfoil sections of the 737 wing was planned to be similar to that of the 707 and 727, but somewhat thicker.
A substantial improvement in drag at high Mach numbers was achieved by altering these sections near the nacelle. The engine chosen was the Pratt & Whitney JT8D-1 low-bypass ratio turbofan engine, delivering 14,500 lbf thrust. With the wing-mounted engines, Boeing decided to mount the horizontal stabilizer on the fuselage rather than the T-tail style of the Boeing 727; the initial assembly of the Boeing 737 was adjacent to Boeing Field because the factory in Renton was filled to capacity with the production of the 707 and 727. After 271 of the Boeing 737 aircraft were built, production was moved to Renton in late 1970. A significant portion of fuselage assembly—previously done by Boeing in Wichita, Kansas—is now performed by Spirit AeroSystems, which purchased some of Boeing's assets in Wichita. Key to increasing production efficiencies, the entire fuselage is shipped since the 737 Next Generation while it was sent in two pieces before; the fuselage is joined with the wings and landing gear and moves down the assembly line for the engine
The Boeing Model 247 was an early United States airliner, considered the first such aircraft to incorporate advances such as all-metal semimonocoque construction, a cantilevered wing and retractable landing gear. Other advanced features included control surface trim tabs, an autopilot and de-icing boots for the wings and tailplane."Ordered off the drawing board", the 247 first flew on February 8, 1933 and entered service that year. Subsequent development in airliner design saw engines and airframes becoming larger and four-engined designs emerged, but no significant changes to this basic formula appeared until cabin pressurization and high altitude cruise were introduced in 1940, with the Boeing 307 Stratoliner. Boeing had eclipsed other aviation manufacturers by introducing a host of aerodynamic and technical features into a commercial airliner; this advanced design, a progression from earlier Monomail and B-9 bomber designs, combined speed and safety. The Boeing 247 was faster than the U.
S. premier fighter aircraft of its day, the Boeing P-12, an open-cockpit biplane. Yet its flight envelope included a rather docile 62 mph landing speed, which precluded the need for flaps, pilots learned that at speeds as low as 10 mph, the 247 could be taxied "tail high" for ease of ground handling; the 247 was the first twin-engined passenger transport able to fly on one engine. With controllable pitch propellers, the 247 could maintain 11,500 feet at maximum gross takeoff weight, its combination of features set the standard for the Douglas DC-1 and other airliners before World War II. Planned as a 14-passenger airliner powered by Pratt & Whitney R-1690 Hornet radial engines, the preliminary review of the design concept by United Air Lines' pilots had resulted in a redesign to a smaller, less capable design configuration, powered by R-1340 wasp engines. One concern of the pilots was that no airfield in existence, in their view, could safely take an eight-ton aircraft, they objected to the use of Hornet engines, because most pilots were accustomed to the less-powerful Wasps and would find Hornets overpowering.
Pratt & Whitney's chief engineer, George Mead, knew that this thinking was misguided and that within a few years it would seem antiquated. P&W's president, Frederick Rentschler, faced with a tough decision, decided to acquiesce to the airline pilots' unanimous demand; the decision created a rift between Rentschler. Despite the bitter disagreements on design and engines, the 247 was still a remarkable achievement and was Boeing's showcase exhibit at the 1933 Chicago World's Fair; the cockpit windshield of the first 247s was angled forward, instead of the conventional aft sweep. This was the design solution to the problem of lighted control panel instruments reflecting off the windshield at night, but it turned out that the forward-sloping windshield would reflect ground lights instead during landings and it increased drag slightly. By the introduction of the 247D, the windshield was sloped aft in the usual way, the night-glare problem was resolved by installing an extension over the control panel.
Boeing considered safety features building in structural strength as well as incorporating design elements that enhanced customer comfort and well-being, such as the thermostatically-controlled, air conditioned and soundproof cabin. The crew included a pilot and copilot as well as a flight attendant known as a stewardess, who could tend to passenger needs; the main landing gear did not retract. The tailwheel was not retractable. While the Model 247 and 247A had speed-ring engine cowlings and fixed-pitch propellers, the Model 247D incorporated NACA cowlings and variable-pitch propellers; as the 247 emerged from its test and development phase, the company further showcased its capabilities by entering a long-distance air race in 1934, the MacRobertson Air Race from England to Australia. During the 1930s, aircraft designs were proven in air races and other aerial contests. A modified 247D was flown by Colonel Roscoe Turner and Clyde Pangborn; the 247, race number "57," was a production model but all airliner furnishings were removed to accommodate eight additional fuselage fuel tanks.
The MacRobertson Air Race attracted aircraft entries from all over the globe, including prototypes as well as established production types, with the gruelling course considered an excellent proving ground as well as an opportunity to gain worldwide attention. Turner and Pangborn came in second place in the transport section, behind the Boeing 247's eventual rival, the new Douglas DC-2. Being the winner of the 1934 U. S. Collier Trophy for excellence in aviation design, the first 247 production orders were earmarked for William Boeing's airline Boeing Air Transport; the 247 was capable of crossing the United States from east to west eight hours faster than its predecessors, such as the Ford Trimotor and Curtiss Condor. Entering service on May 22, 1933, a Boeing Air Transport 247 set a cross-country record pace of 19 1⁄2 hours on its San Francisco to New York inaugural flight. For the first time airline passengers could fly across the country without changing planes or stopping overnight. Due to the initial demand from U.
S. air carriers, Boeing sold the first 60 247s, an unprecedented $3.5 million order, to its affiliated airline, Boeing Air Transport (part of the United Aircraft and Transport Corporation, UA
The Boeing 747 is an American wide-body commercial jet airliner and cargo aircraft referred to by its original nickname, "Jumbo Jet". Its distinctive hump upper deck along the forward part of the aircraft has made it one of the most recognizable aircraft, it was the first wide-body airplane produced. Manufactured by Boeing's Commercial Airplane unit in the United States, the 747 was envisioned to have 150 percent greater capacity than the Boeing 707, a common large commercial aircraft of the 1960s. First flown commercially in 1970, the 747 held the passenger capacity record for 37 years; the quadjet 747 uses a double-deck configuration for part of its length and is available in passenger and other versions. Boeing designed the 747's hump-like upper deck to serve as a first–class lounge or extra seating, to allow the aircraft to be converted to a cargo carrier by removing seats and installing a front cargo door. Boeing expected supersonic airliners—the development of, announced in the early 1960s—to render the 747 and other subsonic airliners obsolete, while the demand for subsonic cargo aircraft would remain robust well into the future.
Though the 747 was expected to become obsolete after 400 were sold, it exceeded critics' expectations with production surpassing 1,000 in 1993. By July 2018, 1,546 aircraft had been built, with 22 of the 747-8 variants remaining on order; as of January 2017, the 747 has been involved in 60 hull losses. The 747-400, the most common variant in service, has a high-subsonic cruise speed of Mach 0.85–0.855 with an intercontinental range of 7,260 nautical miles. The 747-400 can accommodate 416 passengers in a typical three-class layout, 524 passengers in a typical two-class layout, or 660 passengers in a high–density one-class configuration; the newest version of the aircraft, the 747-8, is in production and received certification in 2011. Deliveries of the 747-8F freighter version began in October 2011. In 1963, the United States Air Force started a series of study projects on a large strategic transport aircraft. Although the C-141 Starlifter was being introduced, they believed that a much larger and more capable aircraft was needed the capability to carry outsized cargo that would not fit in any existing aircraft.
These studies led to initial requirements for the CX-Heavy Logistics System in March 1964 for an aircraft with a load capacity of 180,000 pounds and a speed of Mach 0.75, an unrefueled range of 5,000 nautical miles with a payload of 115,000 pounds. The payload bay had to be 17 feet wide by 13.5 feet high and 100 feet long with access through doors at the front and rear. Featuring only four engines, the design required new engine designs with increased power and better fuel economy. In May 1964, airframe proposals arrived from Boeing, General Dynamics and Martin Marietta. After a downselect, Boeing and Lockheed were given additional study contracts for the airframe, along with General Electric and Pratt & Whitney for the engines. All three of the airframe proposals shared a number of features; as the CX-HLS needed to be able to be loaded from the front, a door had to be included where the cockpit was. All of the companies solved this problem by moving the cockpit above the cargo area. In 1965 Lockheed's aircraft design and General Electric's engine design were selected for the new C-5 Galaxy transport, the largest military aircraft in the world at the time.
The nose door and raised cockpit concepts would be carried over to the design of the 747. The 747 was conceived; the era of commercial jet transportation, led by the enormous popularity of the Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8, had revolutionized long-distance travel. Before it lost the CX-HLS contract, Boeing was asked by Juan Trippe, president of Pan American World Airways, one of their most important airline customers, to build a passenger aircraft more than twice the size of the 707. During this time, airport congestion, worsened by increasing numbers of passengers carried on small aircraft, became a problem that Trippe thought could be addressed by a larger new aircraft. In 1965, Joe Sutter was transferred from Boeing's 737 development team to manage the design studies for the new airliner assigned the model number 747. Sutter initiated a design study with Pan Am and other airlines, to better understand their requirements. At the time, it was thought that the 747 would be superseded by supersonic transport aircraft.
Boeing responded by designing the 747 so that it could be adapted to carry freight and remain in production if sales of the passenger version declined. In the freighter role, the clear need was to support the containerized shipping methodologies that were being introduced at about the same time. Standard shipping containers are 8 ft square at the front and available in 40 ft lengths; this meant that it would be possible to support a 2-wide 2-high stack of containers two or three ranks deep with a fuselage size similar to the earlier CX-HLS project. In April 1966, Pan Am orde
A composite material is a material made from two or more constituent materials with different physical or chemical properties that, when combined, produce a material with characteristics different from the individual components. The individual components remain separate and distinct within the finished structure, differentiating composites from mixtures and solid solutions; the new material may be preferred for many reasons: common examples include materials which are stronger, lighter, or less expensive when compared to traditional materials. More researchers have begun to include sensing, actuation and communication into composites, which are known as Robotic Materials. Typical engineered composite materials include: Reinforced concrete and masonry Composite wood such as plywood Reinforced plastics, such as fibre-reinforced polymer or fiberglass Ceramic matrix composites Metal matrix composites and other Advanced composite materialsComposite materials are used for buildings and structures such as boat hulls, swimming pool panels, racing car bodies, shower stalls, storage tanks, imitation granite and cultured marble sinks and countertops.
The most advanced examples perform on spacecraft and aircraft in demanding environments. The earliest man-made composite materials were straw and mud combined to form bricks for building construction. Ancient brick-making was documented by Egyptian tomb paintings. Wattle and daub is one of the oldest man-made composite materials, at over 6000 years old. Concrete is a composite material, is used more than any other man-made material in the world; as of 2006, about 7.5 billion cubic metres of concrete are made each year—more than one cubic metre for every person on Earth. Woody plants, both true wood from trees and such plants as palms and bamboo, yield natural composites that were used prehistorically by mankind and are still used in construction and scaffolding. Plywood 3400 BC by the Ancient Mesopotamians. Cartonnage layers of linen or papyrus soaked in plaster dates to the First Intermediate Period of Egypt c. 2181–2055 BC and was used for death masks. Cob Mud Bricks, or Mud Walls, have been used for thousands of years.
Concrete was described by Vitruvius, writing around 25 BC in his Ten Books on Architecture, distinguished types of aggregate appropriate for the preparation of lime mortars. For structural mortars, he recommended pozzolana, which were volcanic sands from the sandlike beds of Pozzuoli brownish-yellow-gray in colour near Naples and reddish-brown at Rome. Vitruvius specifies a ratio of 1 part lime to 3 parts pozzolana for cements used in buildings and a 1:2 ratio of lime to pulvis Puteolanus for underwater work the same ratio mixed today for concrete used at sea. Natural cement-stones, after burning, produced cements used in concretes from post-Roman times into the 20th century, with some properties superior to manufactured Portland cement. Papier-mâché, a composite of paper and glue, has been used for hundreds of years; the first artificial fibre reinforced plastic was bakelite which dates to 1907, although natural polymers such as shellac predate it. One of the most common and familiar composite is fibreglass, in which small glass fibre are embedded within a polymeric material.
The glass fibre is strong and stiff, whereas the polymer is ductile. Thus the resulting fibreglass is stiff, strong and ductile. Concrete is the most common artificial composite material of all and consists of loose stones held with a matrix of cement. Concrete is an inexpensive material, will not compress or shatter under quite a large compressive force. However, concrete cannot survive tensile loading. Therefore, to give concrete the ability to resist being stretched, steel bars, which can resist high stretching forces, are added to concrete to form reinforced concrete. Fibre-reinforced polymers s include glass-reinforced plastic. If classified by matrix there are thermoplastic composites, short fibre thermoplastics, long fibre thermoplastics or long fibre-reinforced thermoplastics. There are numerous thermoset composites, including paper composite panels. Many advanced thermoset polymer matrix systems incorporate aramid fibre and carbon fibre in an epoxy resin matrix. Shape memory polymer composites are high-performance composites, formulated using fibre or fabric reinforcement and shape memory polymer resin as the matrix.
Since a shape memory polymer resin is used as the matrix, these composites have the ability to be manipulated into various configurations when they are heated above their activation temperatures and will exhibit high strength and stiffness at lower temperatures. They can be reheated and reshaped without losing their material properties; these composites are ideal for applications such as lightweight, deployable structures. High strain composites are another type of high-performance composites that are designed to perform in a high deformation setting and are used in deployable systems where structural flexing is advantageous. Although high strain composites exhibit many similarities to shape memory polymers, their performance is dependent on the fibre layout as opposed to the resin content of the matrix. Comp
The Wall Street Journal
The Wall Street Journal is a U. S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City. The Journal, along with its Asian and European editions, is published six days a week by Dow Jones & Company, a division of News Corp; the newspaper is published in online. The Journal has been printed continuously since its inception on July 8, 1889, by Charles Dow, Edward Jones, Charles Bergstresser; the Wall Street Journal is one of the largest newspapers in the United States by circulation, with a circulation of about 2.475 million copies as of June 2018, compared with USA Today's 1.7 million. The Journal publishes the luxury news and lifestyle magazine WSJ, launched as a quarterly but expanded to 12 issues as of 2014. An online version was launched in 1996, accessible only to subscribers since it began; the newspaper is notable for its award-winning news coverage, has won 37 Pulitzer Prizes. The editorial pages of the Journal are conservative in their position. The"Journal" editorial board has promoted fringe views on the science of climate change, acid rain, ozone depletion, as well as on the health harms of second-hand smoke and asbestos.
The first products of Dow Jones & Company, the publisher of the Journal, were brief news bulletins, nicknamed "flimsies", hand-delivered throughout the day to traders at the stock exchange in the early 1880s. They were aggregated in a printed daily summary called the Customers' Afternoon Letter. Reporters Charles Dow, Edward Jones, Charles Bergstresser converted this into The Wall Street Journal, published for the first time on July 8, 1889, began delivery of the Dow Jones News Service via telegraph. In 1896, The "Dow Jones Industrial Average" was launched, it was the first of several indices of bond prices on the New York Stock Exchange. In 1899, the Journal's Review & Outlook column, which still runs today, appeared for the first time written by Charles Dow. Journalist Clarence Barron purchased control of the company for US$130,000 in 1902. Barron and his predecessors were credited with creating an atmosphere of fearless, independent financial reporting—a novelty in the early days of business journalism.
In 1921, Barron's, the United States's premier financial weekly, was founded. Barron died in 1928, a year before Black Tuesday, the stock market crash that affected the Great Depression in the United States. Barron's descendants, the Bancroft family, would continue to control the company until 2007; the Journal took its modern shape and prominence in the 1940s, a time of industrial expansion for the United States and its financial institutions in New York. Bernard Kilgore was named managing editor of the paper in 1941, company CEO in 1945 compiling a 25-year career as the head of the Journal. Kilgore was the architect of the paper's iconic front-page design, with its "What's News" digest, its national distribution strategy, which brought the paper's circulation from 33,000 in 1941 to 1.1 million at the time of Kilgore's death in 1967. Under Kilgore, in 1947, the paper won its first Pulitzer Prize for William Henry Grimes's editorials. In 1967, Dow Jones Newswires began a major expansion outside of the United States that put journalists in every major financial center in Europe, Latin America and Africa.
In 1970, Dow Jones bought the Ottaway newspaper chain, which at the time comprised nine dailies and three Sunday newspapers. The name was changed to "Dow Jones Local Media Group".1971 to 1997 brought about a series of launches and joint ventures, including "Factiva", The Wall Street Journal Asia, The Wall Street Journal Europe, the WSJ.com website, Dow Jones Indexes, MarketWatch, "WSJ Weekend Edition". In 2007, News Corp. acquired Dow Jones. WSJ. A luxury lifestyle magazine, was launched in 2008. A complement to the print newspaper, The Wall Street Journal Online, was launched in 1996 and has allowed access only by subscription from the beginning. In 2003, Dow Jones began to integrate reporting of the Journal's print and online subscribers together in Audit Bureau of Circulations statements. In 2007, it was believed to be the largest paid-subscription news site on the Web, with 980,000 paid subscribers. Since online subscribership has fallen, due in part to rising subscription costs, was reported at 400,000 in March 2010.
In May 2008, an annual subscription to the online edition of The Wall Street Journal cost $119 for those who do not have subscriptions to the print edition. By June 2013, the monthly cost for a subscription to the online edition was $22.99, or $275.88 annually, excluding introductory offers. On November 30, 2004, Oasys Mobile and The Wall Street Journal released an app that would allow users to access content from the Wall Street Journal Online via their mobile phones. Many of The Wall Street Journal news stories are available through free online newspapers that subscribe to the Dow Jones syndicate. Pulitzer Prize–winning stories from 1995 are available free on the Pulitzer web site. In September 2005, the Journal launched a weekend edition, delivered to all subscribers, which marked a return to Saturday publication after a lapse of some 50 years; the move was designed in part to attract more consumer advertising. In 2005, the Journal reported a readership profile of about 60 percent top management, an average income of $191,000, an average household net worth of $2.1 million, an average age of 55.
In 2007, the Journal launched a worldwide expansion of its website to include major foreign-language editions. The p
The Boeing 747-400 is an American wide-body jet airliner developed by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. Derived from the earlier versions of the Boeing 747, the 747-400 retains the four-engine wide-body layout of its predecessors, whilst incorporating numerous technological and structural changes to produce a more efficient airframe, its most distinguishing features versus preceding 747 models are 6-foot winglets mounted on 6-foot wing tip extensions, which are found on all 747-400s except for Japanese domestic market versions. It is the best-selling model of the Boeing 747 family of jet airliners; the 747-400 is equipped with a two-crew glass cockpit, which dispenses with the need for a flight engineer, along with more fuel-efficient engines, an optional fuel tank in the horizontal stabilizer, revised fuselage/wing fairings. The aircraft features an all-new interior with upgraded in-flight entertainment architecture; as on the 747-300, passenger variants include a stretched upper deck as standard.
The 747-400 can accommodate 416 passengers in a typical three-class layout, 524 passengers in a typical two-class layout, or a maximum capacity of 660 passengers in a high–density one-class configuration with the 747-400D variant, can fly non-stop for up to 7,670 nautical miles with maximum payload, depending on model. Northwest Airlines first placed the 747-400 in commercial service on February 9, 1989; the 747-400 was produced in passenger, combi, extended range passenger and extended range freighter versions. The last 747-400, a -400ERF, was delivered in 2009; the 747-400 is the second-most recent version of the 747 family, having been superseded by the improved Boeing 747-8. Following its introduction in 1969, the Boeing 747 became a major success with airlines and the flying public; as the world's first wide-body jetliner, the 747 had revolutionized air travel, cemented its manufacturer's dominance in the passenger aircraft market. In 1980, Boeing announced its latest 747 variant featuring greater passenger capacity.
This was made possible by making a stretched upper deck an option on the 747-200, a standard feature. The SUD was twice as long as the original 747 upper deck. Besides increased capacity, the 747-300 did not offer any increase in range, nor did it include improvements in flight deck technology or construction materials. At the same time, 747s were becoming more costly to operate due to a number of factors, notably conventional flight control systems, three-person flight crews, fuel costs. In 1982, Boeing introduced a two-crew glass cockpit, new engines, advanced materials on its 757 and 767 twinjets. Similar technologies were included in the design plans for newly announced rival wide-body aircraft, namely the Airbus A340 and McDonnell Douglas MD-11. At the same time, combined sales of the 747-100, −200, −300 models neared 700, but new orders slowed precipitously; the introduction of the 747-300 did little to stem the decline, itself faced potential competition from more modern designs. As a result, Boeing began considering a more significant upgrade for its largest passenger jet.
By early 1984, company officials had identified five development objectives for the latest 747 upgrade: new technologies, an enhanced interior, a 1,000 nautical miles range increase, more efficient engines, a 10 percent reduction in operating cost. In September 1984, Boeing announced development of the newest 747 derivative, the "Advanced Series 300", at the Farnborough Airshow. On October 22, 1985, the type was launched when Northwest Airlines became the first 747-400 customer, with an order for 10 aircraft. Cathay Pacific, KLM, Singapore Airlines, British Airways announced orders several months followed by United Airlines, Air France, Japan Airlines. Seven early customers, namely British Airways, Cathay Pacific, KLM, Northwest and Singapore Airlines, formed a consultative group to advise Boeing on the 747-400's design process. While the aircraft was planned as a new-technology upgrade, Boeing proposed minimal design changes in order to reduce development cost and retain commonality with existing models.
The airline consultative group sought more advanced changes, including a two-crew glass cockpit. As a result of airline input, the 747-400's new digital cockpit design featured a hybrid of the cathode-ray tube display technologies first employed on the 757 and 767, along with carry-over 747 systems such as its autopilot; the 747-400's wingspan was stretched by 17 feet over the Classic 747 through wingtip extensions. For reduced aerodynamic drag, the wings were fitted with 6 feet -tall winglets. Despite the added length, the wings were 6,000 pounds lighter as a result of new aluminum alloys; the horizontal tail was redesigned to fit a 3,300 US gallons fuel tank, resulting in a 350 nautical miles range increase, the rudder travel was increased to 30 degrees. The landing gear was redesigned with carbon brakes. Internal changes further included a restyled cabin with updated fittings. New engines offered on the 747-400 included the Pratt & Whitney PW4056, the General Electric CF6-80C2B1F, the Rolls-Royce RB211-524G/H.
The engines offered lower fuel consumption and greater thrust, along with a full-authority digital engine control which adjusted engine performance for improved efficiency compared with the Classic 747s. A new auxiliary power unit manufactured by Pratt & Whitney Canada was selected to provide on-ground power for the 747-400, with a 40 percent reduction in fuel c