The ruddy duck is a duck from North America and one of the stiff-tailed ducks. The genus name is derived from Ancient Greek oxus and oura, the Andean duck was considered a subspecies. In fact, some taxonomists, including the American Ornithological Society and these are small, compact ducks with stout, scoop-shaped bills, and long, stiff tails they often hold cocked upward. They have slightly peaked heads and fairly short, thick necks, male Ruddy Ducks have blackish caps that contrast with bright white cheeks. In summer, they have rich chestnut bodies with bright blue bills, in winter, they are dull gray-brown above and paler below with dull gray bills. Females and first-year males are brownish, somewhat like winter males, in flight, Ruddy Ducks show solidly dark tops of the wings. Their breeding habitat is lakes and ponds. They nest in dense vegetation near water. The female builds the nest out of grass, locating it in tall vegetation to hide it from predators, a typical brood contains 5 to 15 ducklings.
They are migratory and winter in coastal bays and unfrozen lakes and these birds dive and swim underwater. They mainly eat seeds and roots of plants, aquatic insects. Ruddy ducks were imported into the UK in 1948 by conservationist Sir Peter Scott, as a result of escapes from wildfowl collections in the late 1950s, they became established in Great Britain, from where they spread into Europe. By the year 2000, the population had increased to around 6,000 individuals and this ducks aggressive courting behavior and willingness to interbreed with the endangered native white-headed duck, of southern Europe, caused concern amongst Spanish conservationists. Due to this, a scheme to extirpate the ruddy duck as a British breeding species started. By early 2014, the cull had reduced the British population to about 20–100, Ruddy duck photo gallery at VIREO
Nature reserves may be designated by government institutions in some countries, or by private landowners, such as charities and research institutions, regardless of nationality. Nature reserves fall into different IUCN categories depending on the level of protection afforded by local laws, early reservations often had a religious underpinning, such as the evil forest areas of West Africa which were forbidden to humans, who were threatened with spiritual attack if they went there. Sacred areas taboo from human entry to fishing and hunting are known by ancient cultures worldwide. The worlds first modern nature reserve was established in 1821 by the naturalist and explorer Charles Waterton around his estate in Walton Hall and he spent £9000 on the construction of a 3 mile long,9 ft tall wall to enclose his park from poachers. He tried to encourage birdlife by planting trees and hollowing out trunks for owls to nest in and he invented artificial nest boxes to house starlings and sand martins and unsuccessfully attempted to introduce little owls from Italy.
Drachenfels was protected as the first state-designated nature reserve in modern-day Germany, in Australia, a nature reserve is the title of a type of protected area used in the jurisdictions of the Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales and Western Australia. The term “nature reserve” is defined in the relevant statutes used in those states and territories rather than by a national statute. As of 2014,1767 out of a total of 10339 protected areas listed within the Australian National Reserve System used the term “nature reserve in their names, in Brazil, nature reserves are classified as ecological stations or biological reserves by the National System of Conservation Units. Their main objectives are preserving fauna and flora and other natural attributes, visits are allowed only with permission, and only for educational or scientific purposes. Changes to the ecosystems in both types of reserve are allowed to restore and preserve the balance, biological diversity. Ecological stations are allowed to change the environment within strictly defined limits for the purpose of scientific research.
A wildlife reserve in Brazil is protected, and hunting is not allowed, there are 30 nature reserves in Egypt which cover 12% of Egyptian land. Those nature reserves were built according to the laws no, 102/1983 and 4/1994 for protection of the Egyptian nature reserve. Egypt announced a plan from to build 40 nature reserves from 1997 to 2017, to protect the natural resources. The largest nature reserve in Egypt is Gebel Elba in the southeast, denmark has three national parks and several nature reserves, some of them inside the national park areas. The largest single reserve is Hanstholm Nature Reserve, which covers 40 km2 and is part of Thy National Park, in Sweden there are 29 national parks. The first of them were established in 1909, in fact, Sweden was the first European country that established 9 national parks. There are almost 4,000 nature reserves in Sweden and they comprise about 85% of the surface that is protected by the Swedish Enironmental Code
Logging is the cutting, skidding, on-site processing, and loading of trees or logs onto trucks or skeleton cars. In forestry, the logging is sometimes used in a narrow sense concerning the logistics of moving wood from the stump to somewhere outside the forest. However, in usage, the term may be used to indicate a range of forestry or silviculture activities. Illegal logging refers to what in forestry might be called timber theft by the timber mafia and it can refer to the harvesting, purchase, or sale of timber in violation of laws. Clearcut logging is not necessarily considered a type of logging but a harvesting or silviculture method, in the forest products industry logging companies may be referred to as logging contractors, with the smaller, non-union crews referred to as gyppo loggers. Cutting trees with the highest value and leaving those with lower value and it is sometimes called selective logging, and confused with selection cutting, the practice of managing stands by harvesting a proportion of trees.
Logging usually refers to above-ground forestry logging, submerged forests exist on land that has been flooded by damming to create reservoirs. Such trees are logged using underwater logging or by the lowering of the reservoirs in question, ootsa Lake and Williston Lake in British Columbia, Canada are notable examples where timber recovery has been needed to remove inundated forests. Clearcutting, or clearfelling, is a method of harvesting that removes all the standing trees in a selected area. Silviculture objectives for clearcutting, and a focus on forestry distinguish it from deforestation, other methods include shelterwood cutting, group selective, single selective, seed-tree cutting, patch cut, and retention cutting. The above operations can be carried out by different methods, of which the three are considered industrial methods, Trees are felled and delimbed and topped at the stump. The log is transported to the landing, where it is bucked and loaded on a truck and this leaves the slash in the cut area, where it must be further treated if wild land fires are of concern.
This ability is due to the advancement in the style felling head that can be used, the trees are delimbed and bucked at the landing. This method requires that slash be treated at the landing, in areas with access to cogeneration facilities, the slash can be chipped and used for the production of electricity or heat. Full-tree harvesting refers to utilization of the tree including branches. Cut-to-length logging is the process of felling, bucking, harvesters fell the tree and buck it, and place the resulting logs in bunks to be brought to the landing by a skidder or forwarder. This method is available for trees up to 900 mm in diameter. Harvesters are employed effectively in level to steep terrain
An off-road vehicle is considered to be any type of vehicle which is capable of driving on and off paved or gravel surface. It is generally characterized by having large tires with deep, open treads, other vehicles that do not travel public streets or highways are generally termed off-highway vehicles, including tractors, cranes, backhoes and golf carts. Off-road vehicles have a following because of their many uses. Several types of motorsports involve racing off-road vehicles, the three largest 4-wheel vehicle off-road types of competitions are rally, desert racing, and rockcrawling. The three largest types of all-terrain vehicle / motorcycle competitions are Motocross and desert racing like Dakar Rallye, the most common use of these vehicles is for sight seeing in areas distant from pavement. The use of higher clearance and higher traction vehicles enables access on trails and forest roads that have rough, the system uses an unusual caterpillar track which has a flexible belt rather than interlocking metal segments.
It can be fitted to a car or truck to turn it into a half-track suitable for use over rough or soft ground. After the Russian Revolution of 1917, Kégresse returned to his native France where the system was used on Citroën cars between 1921 and 1937 for off-road and military vehicles, the Citroën company sponsored several overland expeditions with their vehicles crossing North Africa and Central Asia. A huge wheeled vehicle designed from 1937 to 1939 under the direction of Thomas Poulter called Antarctic Snow Cruiser was intended to transport in the Antarctica. While having several innovative features, it failed to operate as hoped under the difficult conditions. After World War II, a surplus of light off-road vehicles like the Jeep. The Jeeps in particular were popular with buyers who used them as utility vehicles and this was the start of off-roading as a hobby. These were all alike, compact, four-wheel-drive vehicles with at most a small hardtop to protect the occupants from the elements, from the 1960s and onward, more comfortable vehicles were produced.
For several years they were popular with rural buyers due to their off-road, the U. S. Later, during the 1990s, manufacturers started to add even more luxuries to bring those off-road vehicles on par with regular cars. This eventually evolved into what we call the SUV today and it evolved into the newer crossover vehicle, where utility and off-road capability was sacrificed for better on-road handling and luxury. Wheeled vehicles accomplish this by having a balance of large or additional tires combined with tall. Tracked vehicles accomplish this by having wide tracks and a suspension on the road wheels. The choice of wheels versus tracks is one of cost and suitability, a tracked drivetrain is more expensive to produce and maintain
The bald eagle is a bird of prey found in North America. A sea eagle, it has two subspecies and forms a species pair with the white-tailed eagle. Its range includes most of Canada and Alaska, all of the contiguous United States and it is found near large bodies of open water with an abundant food supply and old-growth trees for nesting. The bald eagle is a feeder which subsists mainly on fish. It builds the largest nest of any North American bird and the largest tree nests ever recorded for any species, up to 4 m deep,2.5 m wide. Sexual maturity is attained at the age of four to five years, Bald eagles are not actually bald, the name derives from an older meaning of the word, white headed. The adult is brown with a white head and tail. The sexes are identical in plumage, but females are about 25 percent larger than males, the beak is large and hooked. The plumage of the immature is brown, the bald eagle is both the national bird and national animal of the United States of America. The bald eagle appears on its seal, in the late 20th century it was on the brink of extirpation in the contiguous United States.
Populations have since recovered and the species was removed from the U. S. governments list of endangered species on July 12,1995 and it was removed from the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife in the Lower 48 States on June 28,2007. The plumage of an bald eagle is evenly dark brown with a white head. The tail is long and slightly wedge-shaped. Males and females are identical in coloration, but sexual dimorphism is evident in the species. The beak and irises are bright yellow, the legs are feather-free, and the toes are short and powerful with large talons. The highly developed talon of the toe is used to pierce the vital areas of prey while it is held immobile by the front toes. The beak is large and hooked, with a yellow cere, the adult bald eagle is unmistakable in its native range. The closely related African fish eagle has a body, white head and tail
International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in gathering and analysis, field projects, lobbying. IUCNs mission is to influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of resources is equitable. Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to equality, poverty alleviation. Unlike other international NGOs, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation and it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, and through lobbying and partnerships. The organization is best known to the public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List. IUCN has a membership of over 1200 governmental and non-governmental organizations, some 11,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis.
It employs approximately 1000 full-time staff in more than 60 countries and its headquarters are in Gland, Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, and plays a role in the implementation of several conventions on nature conservation. It was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature, in the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its relations with the business sector have caused controversy. It was previously called the International Union for Protection of Nature, establishment In 1947, the Swiss League for the Protection of Nature organised an international conference on the protection of nature in Brunnen. It is considered to be the first government-organized non-governmental organization, the initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and especially from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. At the time of its founding IUPN was the international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years.
Its secretariat was located in Brussels and its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were closely associated and they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of endangered species was drawn up for the first time
The California quail, known as the California valley quail or valley quail, is a small ground-dwelling bird in the New World quail family. These birds have a curving crest or plume, made of six feathers, that droops forward, black in males and brown in females, males have a dark brown cap and a black face with a brown back, a grey-blue chest and a light brown belly. Females and immature birds are mainly grey-brown with a light-colored belly and their closest relative is Gambels quail which has a more southerly distribution and, a longer crest at 2.5 in, a brighter head and a scalier appearance. The two species separated about 1–2 million years ago, during the Late Pliocene or Early Pleistocene and it is the state bird of California. One of their daily activities is a dust bath. A group of quail will select an area where the ground has been turned or is soft. They wriggle about in the indentations they have created, flapping their wings and ruffling their feathers and they seem to prefer sunny places in which to create these dust baths.
An ornithologist is able to detect the presence of quail in an area by spotting the circular indentations left behind in the soft dirt, although this bird coexists well at the edges of urban areas, it is declining in some areas as human populations increase. These birds forage on the ground, often scratching at the soil and they can sometimes be seen feeding at the sides of roads. Their diet consists mainly of seeds and leaves, but they eat some berries and insects, for example. If startled, these birds explode into short rapid flight, called flushing, given a choice, they will normally escape on foot. Their breeding habitat is shrubby areas and open woodlands in western North America, the nest is a shallow scrape lined with vegetation on the ground beneath a shrub or other cover. The female usually lays approximately 12 eggs, once hatched, the young associate with both adults. Often, families group together, into multifamily communal broods which include at least two females, multiple males and many offspring, males associated with families are not always the genetic fathers.
In good years, females lay more than one clutch, leaving the hatched young with the associated male and laying a new clutch. They have a variety of including the social chicago call, contact pips. During the breeding season, males utter the agonistic squill and will often interrupt their social mates chicago call with a squill, the California quail is the state bird of California. It was established as the bird in 1931
Protected areas of the United States
The protected areas of the United States are managed by an array of different federal, state and local level authorities and receive widely varying levels of protection. Some areas are managed as wilderness, while others are operated with acceptable commercial exploitation, as of 2015, the 25,800 protected areas covered 1,294,476 km2, or 14 percent of the land area of the United States. This is one-tenth of the land area of the world. The U. S. had a total of 787 National Marine Protected Areas, covering an additional 1,271,408 km2, some areas are managed in concert between levels of government. The Father Marquette National Memorial is an example of a park operated by a state park system. As of 2007, according to the United Nations Environment Programme, federal level protected areas are managed by a variety of agencies, most of which are a part of the National Park Service, a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. They are often considered the jewels of the protected areas.
Other areas are managed by the United States Forest Service, the Bureau of Land Management, the United States Army Corps of Engineers is claimed to provide 30 percent of the recreational opportunities on federal lands, mainly through lakes and waterways that they manage. The highest levels of protection, as described by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, are Level I, the United States maintains 12 percent of the Level I and II lands in the world. These lands had an area of 210,000 sq mi. A confusing system for naming protected areas results in some types being used by more than one agency, for instance, both the National Park Service and the U. S. Forest Service operate areas designated National Preserves and National Recreation Areas. The National Park Service, the U. S. Forest Service, National Wilderness Areas are designated within other protected areas, managed by various agencies and sometimes wilderness areas span areas managed by multiple agencies. States and local zoning bodies may or may not choose to protect these, the state of Colorado, for example, is very clear that it does not set any limits on owners of NRHP properties.
State parks vary widely from urban parks to large parks that are on a par with national parks. Some state parks, like Adirondack Park, are similar to the National parks of England and Wales, about half the area of the park, some 3,000,000 acres, is state-owned and preserved as forever wild by the Forest Preserve of New York. Wood-Tikchik State Park in Alaska claims to be the largest state park by the amount of protected land, it is larger than many U. S. National Parks. Many states operate game and recreation areas. S, State and tribal wilderness areas Various counties, metropolitan authorities, regional parks, soil conservation districts and other units manage a variety of local level parks. Some of these are more than picnic areas or playgrounds, however
Geothermal gradient is the rate of increasing temperature with respect to increasing depth in the Earths interior. Away from tectonic plate boundaries, it is about 25 °C per km of depth near the surface in most of the world, strictly speaking, geo-thermal necessarily refers to the Earth but the concept may be applied to other planets. A line tracing the gradient through the body is called a geotherm on Earth. On the Moon it is called a selenotherm, the Earths internal heat comes from a combination of residual heat from planetary accretion, heat produced through radioactive decay, and possibly heat from other sources. The major heat-producing isotopes in the Earth are potassium-40, uranium-238, uranium-235, at the center of the planet, the temperature may be up to 7,000 K and the pressure could reach 360 GPa. Temperature within the Earth increases with depth, the heat content of the Earth is 1031 joules. Much of the heat is created by decay of radioactive elements. An estimated 45 to 90 percent of the heat escaping from the Earth originates from decay of elements mainly located in the mantle.
Heat of impact and compression released during the formation of the Earth by accretion of in-falling meteorites. Heat released as abundant heavy metals descended to the Earths core, latent heat released as the liquid outer core crystallizes at the inner core boundary. Heat may be generated by tidal force on the Earth as it rotates, since rock cannot flow as readily as water it compresses and distorts, in Earths continental crust, the decay of natural radioactive isotopes has had significant involvement in the origin of geothermal heat. The continental crust is abundant in lower density minerals but contains significant concentrations of heavier lithophilic minerals such as uranium, because of this, it holds the largest global reservoir of radioactive elements found in the Earth. Especially in layers closer to Earths surface, naturally occurring isotopes are enriched in the granite and these high levels of radioactive elements are largely excluded from the Earths mantle due to their inability to substitute in mantle minerals and consequent enrichment in partial melts.
The mantle is made up of high density minerals with high contents of atoms that have relatively small atomic radii such as magnesium, titanium. Heat flows constantly from its sources within the Earth to the surface, total heat loss from the Earth is estimated at 44.2 TW. Mean heat flow is 65 mW/m2 over continental crust and 101 mW/m2 over oceanic crust and this is 0.087 watt/square meter on average, but is much more concentrated in areas where thermal energy is transported toward the crust by convection such as along mid-ocean ridges and mantle plumes. The Earths crust effectively acts as an insulating blanket which must be pierced by fluid conduits in order to release the heat underneath. More of the heat in the Earth is lost through plate tectonics, the final major mode of heat loss is by conduction through the lithosphere, the majority of which occurs in the oceans due to the crust there being much thinner and younger than under the continents
Lake County, California
Lake County is a county located in the north central portion of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 64,665, the county takes its name from Clear Lake, the dominant geographic feature in the county and the largest natural lake wholly within California. Lake County forms the Clearlake, CA Micropolitan Statistical Area and it is directly north of the San Francisco Bay Area. Lake County is part of Californias Wine Country, which includes Napa, Sonoma and it includes five American Viticultural Areas and over 35 wineries. Lake County was formed in 1861 from parts of Napa and Mendocino counties, Lake County has long been known as a farming community. The 1911 California Blue Book lists the major crops as Bartlett pears, other crops include grain, hay, peaches, apples and walnuts. Stockraising included goats, hogs and dairying, some vineyards were planted in the 1870s by European Americans but the first in the state were established in the 18th century by Spanish missionaries.
By the early 20th century, the area was earning a reputation for producing some of the worlds greatest wines, however, in 1920, national Prohibition essentially ended Lake Countys wine production. With authorized cultivation limited to sacramental purposes, most of the vineyards were ripped out and replanted with walnut, a re-emergence of Lake Countys wine industry began in the 1960s when a few growers rediscovered the areas grape-growing potential and began planting vineyards. Several Lake County American Viticultural Areas, such as High Valley AVA, the area has increased vineyards from fewer than 100 acres in 1965 to more than 9,455 acres of vineyard in 2015. Lake Countys grape prices, at $1,634 per ton overall, in 2014, Lake County surpassed Mendocino County in price paid per ton of grapes in the North Coast premium market. The number of wineries continues growing, with over 35 wineries now located in Lake County, Lake County has been ranked by the American Lung Association as having the cleanest air in the nation, including in 2013,2014 and 2015.
Lake County has been ranked twenty-four times as having the cleanest air in California, the American Lung Associations website gives Lake County air a C grade for high ozone days and an A grade for particle pollution. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 1,329 square miles. Two main watercourses drain the county, Cache Creek, which is the outlet of Clear Lake, both of these flow to the Sacramento River. The main streams which flow into Clear Lake are Forbes Creek, Scotts Creek, Middle Creek, at the extreme north of the county Lake Pillsbury and the Van Arsdale Reservoir dam the Eel River, providing water and power to Ukiah in Mendocino County. Clear Lake is believed to be the oldest lake in North America, the lake sits on a huge block of stone which slowly tilts in the northern direction at the same rate as the lake fills in with sediment, thus keeping the water at roughly the same depth. The geology of the county is chaotic, being based on Franciscan Assemblage hills, numerous small faults are present in the south end of the lake as well as many old volcanoes, the largest being Cobb Mountain
Death Valley National Park
Death Valley National Park is a national park in the United States. Straddling the border of California and Nevada, located east of the Sierra Nevada, the park protects the northwest corner of the Mojave Desert and contains a diverse desert environment of salt-flats, sand dunes, valleys and mountains. It is the largest national park in the lower 48 states and has declared an International Biosphere Reserve. Approximately 91% of the park is a wilderness area. It is the hottest and lowest of the parks in the United States. The second-lowest point in the Western Hemisphere is in Badwater Basin, the park is home to many species of plants and animals that have adapted to this harsh desert environment. Some examples include creosote bush, bighorn sheep and the Death Valley pupfish, several short-lived boom towns sprang up during the late 19th and early 20th centuries to mine gold and silver. The only long-term profitable ore to be mined was borax, which was transported out of the valley with twenty-mule teams, the valley became the subject of books, radio programs, television series, and movies.
Tourism blossomed in the 1920s, when resorts were built around Stovepipe Wells, Death Valley National Monument was declared in 1933 and the park was substantially expanded and became a national park in 1994. The natural environment of the area has been shaped largely by its geology, the valley itself is actually a graben. The oldest rocks are metamorphosed and at least 1.7 billion years old. Ancient, shallow seas deposited marine sediments until rifting opened the Pacific Ocean, additional sedimentation occurred until a subduction zone formed off the coast. This uplifted the region out of the sea and created a line of volcanoes, the crust started to pull apart, creating the current Basin and Range landform. Valleys filled with sediment and, during the wet times of glacial periods, with lakes, in 2013, Death Valley National Park was designated as a dark sky park by the International Dark-Sky Association. There are two valleys in the park, Death Valley and Panamint Valley. Both of these valleys were formed within the last few million years, the result of this shearing action is additional extension in the central part of Death Valley which causes a slight widening and more subsidence there.
Uplift of surrounding mountain ranges and subsidence of the floor are both occurring. The uplift on the Black Mountains is so fast that the fans there are small
The purple martin is the largest North American swallow. These aerial acrobats have speed and agility in flight, and when approaching their housing, Purple martins are a kind of swallow, of the genus Progne. Like other members of genus, they are larger than most of the other swallows. The average length from bill to tail is 20 cm, adults have a slightly forked tail. Adult males are black with glossy steel blue sheen, the only swallow in North America with such coloration. Adult females are dark on top with some steel blue sheen, subadult females look similar to adult females minus the steel blue sheen and browner on the back. Subadult males look much like females, but solid black feathers emerge on their chest in a blotchy. This species was first described by Linnaeus in his Systema naturae in 1758 as Hirundo subis, the current genus name refers to Procne, a mythological girl who was turned into a swallow to save her from her husband. She had killed their son to avenge the rape of her sister, the specific subis is Latin and refers to a type of bird that breaks eagles’ eggs, it may have been applied to this species because of its aggression towards birds of prey when it is nesting.
The species of this genus are closely related, and some view the purple martin, gray-breasted martin, snowy-bellied martin. P. s. subis, is the form, with the typical features of the species. P. s. hesperia of the Mexico and the southwestern United States, is distinguished primarily by its nesting habits, P. s. arboricola of western mountains is large with females paler on underparts. Purple martins breeding range is throughout temperate North America and their breeding habitat is open areas across eastern North America, and some locations on the west coast from British Columbia to Mexico. Martins make their nests in cavities, either natural or artificial, in many places, humans put up real or artificial hollow gourds, or houses for martins, especially in the east, where purple martins are almost entirely dependent on such structures. As a result, this subspecies typically breeds in colonies located in proximity to people, even within cities and this makes their distribution patchy, as they are usually absent from areas where no nest sites are provided.
Western birds often use of natural cavities such as old woodpecker holes in trees or saguaro cacti. The purple martin migrates to the Amazon basin in winter and its winter range extends into Ecuador but does not seem to ascend far up the Andean foothills. The first record of species in Europe was a single bird on Lewis, Scotland, on 5–6 September 2004