Russian Orthodox Church
The Russian Orthodox Church, alternatively known as the Moscow Patriarchate, is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Christian churches. The Primate of the ROC is the Patriarch of Moscow and all Rus'; the ROC, as well as the primate thereof ranks fifth in the Orthodox order of precedence below the four ancient patriarchates of the Greek Orthodox Church, those of Constantinople, Alexandria and Jerusalem. Since 15 October 2018, the ROC is not in communion with the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, having unilaterally severed ties in reaction to the establishment of the Orthodox Church of Ukraine, finalised by the Ecumenical Patriarchate on 5 January 2019; the Christianization of Kievan Rus' seen as the birth of the ROC, is believed to have occurred in 988 through the baptism of the Kievan prince Vladimir and his people by the clergy of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, whose constituent part the ROC remained for the next six centuries, while the Kievan see remained in the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate until 1686.
The ROC claims its exclusive jurisdiction over the Orthodox Christians, irrespective of their ethnic background, who reside in the former member republics of the Soviet Union, excluding Georgia and Armenia, although this claim is disputed in such countries as Estonia and Ukraine and parallel canonical Orthodox jurisdictions exist in those: the Estonian Apostolic Orthodox Church, the Metropolis of Bessarabia, the Orthodox Church of Ukraine, respectively. It exercises ecclesiastical jurisdiction over the autonomous Church of Japan and the Orthodox Christians resident in the People's Republic of China; the ROC branches in Belarus, Latvia and Ukraine since the 1990s enjoy various degrees of self-government, albeit short of the status of formal ecclesiastical autonomy. The ROC should not be confused with the Orthodox Church in America, another autocephalous Orthodox church, that traces its existence in North America to the time of the Russian missionaries in Alaska in the late 18th century; the ROC should not be confused with the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia, headquartered in the United States.
The ROCOR was instituted in the 1920s by Russian communities outside Communist Russia, which refused to recognize the authority of the Moscow Patriarchate de facto headed by Metropolitan Sergius Stragorodsky. The two churches reconciled on May 17, 2007; the Christian community that developed into what is now known as the Russian Orthodox Church is traditionally said to have been founded by the Apostle Andrew, thought to have visited Scythia and Greek colonies along the northern coast of the Black Sea. According to one of the legends, Andrew reached the future location of Kiev and foretold the foundation of a great Christian city; the spot where he erected a cross is now marked by St. Andrew's Cathedral. By the end of the first millennium AD, eastern Slavic lands started to come under the cultural influence of the Eastern Roman Empire. In 863–69, the Byzantine monks Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius, both from the region of Macedonia in the Eastern Roman Empire translated parts of the Bible into the Old Church Slavonic language for the first time, paving the way for the Christianization of the Slavs and Slavicized peoples of Eastern Europe, the Balkans and Southern Russia.
There is evidence that the first Christian bishop was sent to Novgorod from Constantinople either by Patriarch Photius or Patriarch Ignatios, c. 866–867. By the mid-10th century, there was a Christian community among Kievan nobility, under the leadership of Bulgarian and Byzantine priests, although paganism remained the dominant religion. Princess Olga of Kiev was the first ruler of Kievan Rus′, born a Christian, her grandson, Vladimir of Kiev, made Rus' a Christian state. The official Christianization of Kievan Rus' is believed to have occurred in 988 AD, when Prince Vladimir was baptised himself and ordered his people to be baptised by the priests from the Eastern Roman Empire; the Kievan church was a junior metropolitanate of the Patriarchate of Constantinople and the Ecumenical Patriarch appointed the metropolitan, a Greek, who governed the Church of Rus'. The Kiev Metropolitan's residence was located in Kiev itself, the capital of the medieval Rus' state; as Kiev was losing its political and economical significance due to the Mongol invasion, Metropolitan Maximus moved to Vladimir in 1299.
Following the tribulations of the Mongol invasion, the Russian Church was pivotal in the survival and life of the Russian state. Despite the politically motivated murders of Mikhail of Chernigov and Mikhail of Tver, the Mongols were tolerant and granted tax exemption to the church; such holy figures as Sergius of Radonezh and Metropolitan Alexis helped the country to withstand years of Mongol rule, to expand both economically and spiritually. The Trinity monastery founded by Sergius of Radonezh became the setting for the flourishing of spiritual art, exemplified by the work of Andrey Rublev, among others; the followers of Sergius founded four hundred monasteries, thus extending the geographical extent of the Grand Duchy of Moscow. In 1439, at t
Kasimov is a town in Ryazan Oblast, located on the left bank of the Oka River. Population: 33,491 ; the first population of this area was a Finnic tribe called the Meshchyora assimilated by Russians and Tatars. The town was founded in 1152 by the Vladimir-Suzdal ruler Yuri Dolgorukiy as Grodets Gorodets Meschyorsky, it was included in the Mishar Yurt division of the Golden Horde, but was sold to Muscovy. In 1376, the town was soon rebuilt as Novy Nizovoy. After the Battle of Suzdal in 1445, the Meschyora lands were given to Oluğ Möxämmäd, Khan of Kazan Khanate as a ransom for the sovereign's life. In 1452, Great Duke Vasily II of the Grand Duchy of Moscow gave this town to Kazan prince Qasim Khan, who served as tribute inspector of the Great Horde, but came to Russian service. By other accounts and his brother Yosif fled from Kazan after losing their bid for the throne against their brother Mäxmüd. After 1471, the town was known as Qasím city, it remained the capital of Qasim Khanate until 1681.
A group of Tatars are now known as Qasim Tatars. They speak the Mishar dialect, mixed with the Middle Tatar dialect of the Tatar language. In the 19th century, it became known for its waiters. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Kasimov serves as the administrative center of Kasimovsky District though it is not a part of it; as an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the town of oblast significance of Kasimov—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the town of oblast significance of Kasimov is incorporated as Kasimov Urban Okrug. In the 17th century, the town was separated into three parts: Old Town and Tatar Town regulated by khan of Qasim Khanate and Tatar noblemen. Historical buildings: Khan's Mosque Mausoleum of Shahghali Khan Mausoleum of Afghan Moxammad Khan Russian Orthodox churches: Church of the Epiphany 17th century. Рязанская областная Дума. Закон №128-ОЗ от 12 сентября 2007 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Рязанской области», в ред.
Закона №56-ОЗ от 27 июля 2012 г. «О внесении изменения в статью 7 Закона Рязанской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Рязанской области"». Вступил в силу через десять дней после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Рязанские ведомости", №273, 20 сентября 2007 г.. Рязанская областная Дума. Закон №81-ОЗ от 7 октября 2004 г. «О наделении муниципального образования — город Касимов статусом городского округа и установлении его границ», в ред. Закона №54-ОЗ от 8 мая 2008 г «Об утверждении границы муниципального образования — городской округ город Касимов». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Рязанские ведомости", №212–213, 14 октября 2004 г.. Рязанская областная Дума. Закон №82-ОЗ от 7 октября 2004 г. «О наделении муниципального образования — Касимовский район статусом муниципального района, об установлении его границ и границ муниципальных образований, входящих в его состав», в ред. Закона №25-ОЗ от 12 мая 2014 г. «Об изменении статуса муниципального образования – Лашманское городское поселение Касимовского муниципального района и внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Рязанской области».
Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Рязанские ведомости", №212–213, 14 октября 2004 г.. This article incorporates text from the Brockhaus-Efron Encyclopedia Official website of Kasimov Unofficial website of Kasimov
Gorokhovets, Vladimir Oblast
Gorokhovets is a town and the administrative center of Gorokhovetsky District in Vladimir Oblast, located on the highway from Moscow to Nizhny Novgorod. It serves as a river port on the Klyazma River. Population: 14,016 ; the name of the town originates from the Russian word "горох". Gorokhovets was first mentioned in a 1239 chronicle, it is believed. In 1539, the Tatars of Kazan were about to burn it but retreated upon seeing a ghost in a shape of a gigantic knight with a sword. After that, the mount where the apparition was seen came to be known as Puzhalovo; the golden age of Gorokhovets is associated with the 17th century, when it was a merchandise center for a large area, which comprised today's Vladimir and Ivanovo Oblasts. A number of churches and chambers were commissioned by the local merchants at that time; the 17th-century belfries of Gorokhovets are noteworthy. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Gorokhovets serves as the administrative center of Gorokhovetsky District, to which it is directly subordinated.
As a municipal division, the town of Gorokhovets is incorporated within Gorokhovetsky Municipal District as Gorokhovets Urban Settlement. Gorokhovets' coat of arms combines Vladimir's heraldic lion with peas, alluding to the plant which gave rise to the town's name. According to the Soviet TV series Seventeen Moments of Spring, Gorokhovets was a native town of Stierlitz, a fictional Soviet spy in Nazi Germany, played by Vyacheslav Tikhonov. Администрация Владимирской области. Постановление №433 от 13 июня 2007 г. «О реестре административно-территориальных образований и единиц Владимирской области», в ред. Постановления №169 от 5 марта 2015 г. «О внесении изменения в Постановление Губернатора области от 13.06.2007 №433 "О реестре административно-территориальных образований и единиц Владимирской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Владимирские ведомости", №114, 20 июня 2007 г.. Законодательное Собрание Владимирской области. Закон №56-ОЗ от 13 мая 2005 г. «О наделении Гороховецкого района и вновь образованных муниципальных образований, входящих в его состав, соответствующим статусом муниципальных образований и установлении их границ», в ред.
Закона №80-ОЗ от 5 августа 2009 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Владимирской области "О наделении Гороховецкого района и вновь образованных муниципальных образований, входящих в его состав, соответствующим статусом муниципальных образований и установлении их границ"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Владимирские ведомости", №158–165, 18 мая 2005 г.. Official website of Gorokhovets Photos of contemporary Gorokhovets History of Gorokhovets
Ivanovo is a city and the administrative center of Ivanovo Oblast, located 254 kilometers from Moscow and 100 kilometers from Yaroslavl and Kostroma. Population: 408,330 , it was known as Ivanovo-Voznesensk. The Uvod River, a tributary of the Klyazma, flows from north to south, dividing the city into two halves. There are two rivers in Ivanovo: the Talka and the Kharinka; the city is first mentioned in 1561, when it was given to the Cherkassky princely family by Ivan IV, after the latter's marriage to Maria Cherkasskaya. However, the relevant document has since been lost; the modern city was created by merging the old flax-processing village Ivanovo with the industrial Voznesensky Posad in 1871. Yakov Garelin—a patron of arts, historian and public figure—is considered to be the founder of the city and its second head. Under his government, the city began to develop and grow; until 1932, the official name of the city was Ivanovo-Voznesensk. Because of its textile manufacturing industry, Ivanovo earned the sobriquet of the "Russian Manchester" during the 19th century.
By the early 20th century, Ivanovo was competing with Łódź for the title of the primary textile production center of Europe. As the workers' living conditions were appalling, the strikes were frequent. One of these strikes led to the first Russian revolution. According to the Soviet historiography, the Ivanovo Soviet was one of the first soviets in history. However, this statement is contested. In 1937, the city opened the Interdom - a school for children of foreign Communists, including high learning. In Ivanov the legendary air squadron "Normandie-Niemen" began operations. By agreement between the Soviet government and the "Free French" government-in-exile in late 1942, a group of French pilots was sent to the Soviet Union. Construction of a new airport began on the northern outskirts of the city; the pilots were provided with decent housing, 14 Yak-1 fighter aircraft. During 1943, the French fought alongside the Soviet Air Forces. Ivanov/Ivanovo was bombed in World War 2 and fought over in the Russian Civil War.
After the war, along with the continued textile industry in Ivanovo engineering and other industries developed. In the 1960s, the city became the center of the Upper-Economic Council; the 1980s saw the accelerated pace of housing construction. Since the beginning of the 21st century there has been declining production in Ivanovo. In the first decade of the century, a large number of enterprises were closed; the weaving factories BIM, BAT melange Plant and other smaller companies in the textile industry ceased to exist. Ivanovo is the administrative center of the oblast and, within the framework of administrative divisions, it serves as the administrative center of Ivanovsky District though it is not a part of it; as an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the City of Ivanovo—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the City of Ivanovo is incorporated as Ivanovo Urban Okrug. Ivanovo has traditionally been called the textile capital of Russia.
Since most textile workers are women, it has been known as the "city of brides". The most famous of the city's female natives was the postmodern French writer Nathalie Sarraute. There is a branch plant of AviraKids, a Russian holding company that occupies 37,5% of the Russian gaming equipment production industry. Public transport is represented by trolleybuses and taxis; the trolleybus system was opened on November 5, 1962. The first line ran from the Bagayeva area to the GZIP plant; the tram was operated from November 6, 1934 until June 1, 2008. According to Ivanov, the former Mayor Alexander Fomin: "Over the past 20 years, the number of vehicles in the city has increased by more than 10 times, while traffic is 5–7 times higher than that for which they were designed; the system of urban bus services in Ivanovo-Voznesensk began on November 8, 1926. The bus park was located on the street Paris Commune. In the early 1960s, a new bus depot was built on Prospekt Tekstilchshiki. In the Soviet period, the operation of buses and coaches exercised Ivanovskoye passenger motor company #1, taxi station.
Ivanovo MTE-1 closed in December 2007. It is home to Ivanovo Severny, one of the largest military airlift bases in Russia. Civilian air services are provided at the Ivanovo Yuzhny Airport. Since 1896, there is a railway connection between Moscow. Ivanovo has several educational institutions: Ivanovo State University, Ivanovo State University of Chemistry and Technology, Ivanovo Medical Academy, Ivanovo Architectural Academy, Ivanovo State Power University. There are several objects of cultural heritage in Ivanovo; the period from 1914 to 1934 became the “golden age” of architecture in Ivanovo. The center of the city boasts buildings of the period of constructionism built there in the 1920s – early 1930s. For historical reasons, Ivanovo-Voznesensk became the site of unique construction experiments carried out by both architects from Moscow and St. Petersburg, local architects. Among them are the buildings, like the Ship-building, architect D. F. Friedman. Panov. K
The United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations based in Paris. Its declared purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through educational and cultural reforms in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law, human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter, it is the successor of the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation. UNESCO has 11 associate members. Most of its field offices are "cluster" offices covering three or more countries. UNESCO pursues its objectives through five major programs: education, natural sciences, social/human sciences and communication/information. Projects sponsored by UNESCO include literacy and teacher-training programs, international science programs, the promotion of independent media and freedom of the press and cultural history projects, the promotion of cultural diversity, translations of world literature, international cooperation agreements to secure the world's cultural and natural heritage and to preserve human rights, attempts to bridge the worldwide digital divide.
It is a member of the United Nations Development Group. UNESCO's aim is "to contribute to the building of peace, the eradication of poverty, sustainable development and intercultural dialogue through education, the sciences, culture and information". Other priorities of the organization include attaining quality Education For All and lifelong learning, addressing emerging social and ethical challenges, fostering cultural diversity, a culture of peace and building inclusive knowledge societies through information and communication; the broad goals and objectives of the international community—as set out in the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals —underpin all UNESCO strategies and activities. UNESCO and its mandate for international cooperation can be traced back to a League of Nations resolution on 21 September 1921, to elect a Commission to study feasibility; this new body, the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation was indeed created in 1922.
On 18 December 1925, the International Bureau of Education began work as a non-governmental organization in the service of international educational development. However, the onset of World War II interrupted the work of these predecessor organizations. After the signing of the Atlantic Charter and the Declaration of the United Nations, the Conference of Allied Ministers of Education began meetings in London which continued from 16 November 1942 to 5 December 1945. On 30 October 1943, the necessity for an international organization was expressed in the Moscow Declaration, agreed upon by China, the United Kingdom, the United States and the USSR; this was followed by the Dumbarton Oaks Conference proposals of 9 October 1944. Upon the proposal of CAME and in accordance with the recommendations of the United Nations Conference on International Organization, held in San Francisco in April–June 1945, a United Nations Conference for the establishment of an educational and cultural organization was convened in London 1–16 November 1945 with 44 governments represented.
The idea of UNESCO was developed by Rab Butler, the Minister of Education for the United Kingdom, who had a great deal of influence in its development. At the ECO/CONF, the Constitution of UNESCO was introduced and signed by 37 countries, a Preparatory Commission was established; the Preparatory Commission operated between 16 November 1945, 4 November 1946—the date when UNESCO's Constitution came into force with the deposit of the twentieth ratification by a member state. The first General Conference took place from 19 November to 10 December 1946, elected Dr. Julian Huxley to Director-General; the Constitution was amended in November 1954 when the General Conference resolved that members of the Executive Board would be representatives of the governments of the States of which they are nationals and would not, as before, act in their personal capacity. This change in governance distinguished UNESCO from its predecessor, the ICIC, in how member states would work together in the organization's fields of competence.
As member states worked together over time to realize UNESCO's mandate and historical factors have shaped the organization's operations in particular during the Cold War, the decolonization process, the dissolution of the USSR. Among the major achievements of the organization is its work against racism, for example through influential statements on race starting with a declaration of anthropologists and other scientists in 1950 and concluding with the 1978 Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice. In 1956, the Republic of South Africa withdrew from UNESCO saying that some of the organization's publications amounted to "interference" in the country's "racial problems." South Africa rejoined the organization in 1994 under the leadership of Nelson Mandela. UNESCO's early work in the field of education included the pilot project on fundamental education in the Marbial Valley, started in 1947; this project was followed by expert missions to other countries, for example, a mission to Afghanistan in 1949.
In 1948, UNESCO recommended that Member States should make free primary education compulsory and universal. In 1990, the World Conference on Education for All, in Jomtien, launched a global movement to provide basic education for a
Russian Census (2010)
The Russian Census of 2010 is the first census of the Russian Federation population since 2002 and the second after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Preparations for the census began in 2007 and it took place between October 14 and October 25; the census was scheduled for October 2010, before being rescheduled for late 2013, citing financial reasons, although it was speculated that political motives were influential in the decision. However, in late 2009, Prime Minister Putin announced that the Government of Russia allocated 10.5 billion rubles in order to conduct the census as scheduled. Results showed the population to stand at 142.9 million. Since the previous 2002 census, population had decreased by 2.3 million. According to the 2010 census, urban population is 105.3 million, rural population is 37.5 million. The urbanisation rate is 73.7%. The median age is 38 years; the ethnic composition is dominated by Russians. Demographics of Russia Russian Census 2010 final results Results of 2010 All-Russia population census Official website of the 2010 Census
Pereslavl-Zalessky known as Pereyaslavl-Zalessky, is a town in Yaroslavl Oblast, located on the main Moscow–Yaroslavl road and on the southeastern shore of Lake Pleshcheyevo at the mouth of the Trubezh River. Population: 41,925 . Pereslavl-Zalessky is located in south of Yaroslavl Oblast, near a border with Moscow Oblast, 140 kilometres northeast of Moscow, 139 kilometres southwest of Yaroslavl. Climate of Pereslavl-Zalessky is humid continental: long and snowy winters and short and rainy summers. Average temperatures range from −12 °C in January to +18 °C in July. Known as Pereyaslavl until the 15th century, it was founded in 1152 by Prince Yury Dolgoruky as a projected capital of Zalesye. In 1175–1302, the town was the seat of the Principality of Northern Pereyaslavl. In 1302, it became a part of the Grand Duchy of Moscow. Pereslavl-Zalessky was devastated numerous times by the Mongols between the mid-13th century and the early 15th century. In 1611–1612, it suffered from the Polish invasion.
In 1688–1693, Peter the Great built his famous "fun flotilla" on Lake Pleshcheyevo for his own amusement, including the so-called Peter's little boat, which would be considered the forefather of the Russian fleet. The Botik museum chronicles the history of the first Russian fleet and keeps one of the original model boats. In 1708, the town became a part of Moscow Governorate. Just before the Moscow Olympics in 1980, the city of Moscow rounded up a large number of people it considered'undesirable', many thousands, decreed that they must be moved at least 120km from Moscow in order to improve the city's image. Pereslavl is approx 130km from Moscow and as such the population of the town soared prior to the Olympics. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Pereslavl-Zalessky serves as the administrative center of Pereslavsky District though it is not a part of it; as an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the town of oblast significance of Pereslavl-Zalessky—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.
As a municipal division, the town of oblast significance of Pereslavl-Zalessky is incorporated as Pereslavl-Zalessky Urban Okrug. There is Institute for Program Systems of the Russian Academy of Sciences in the town; the University of Pereslavl is based in the town. The town is a part of the Golden Ring of Russia. Monuments of church architecture include nine churches. Notable historic buildings are: white stone Savior's Cathedral Church of Metropolitan Peter Troitse-Danilov Monastery Nikitsky Monastery Feodorovsky Monastery Goritsky Monastery Museum and exhibitsThe town has a bewildering array of'museums' that cater to the tourist trade in the summer, some are quite bizarre, the museum of Cunning and Wit for example. If you can think of it, they have a museum for it in Pereslavl. Museum-Preserve of Pereslavl-Zalessky Museum–Estate "The Little Boat of Peter the Great" The Pereslavl Arboretum Museum of Flat Irons The Museum of Kettles The Museum of Steam Engines The Kleshin complex, an archaeological monument, is located about 2 kilometers from the town proper.
The original earthworks from the defensive wall that circled the town are still here, it is possible to walk along these defensive structures. As are portions if the original road, at its base. Although identifying a 12th-century road from a modern one would be a task in itself. Lake Pleshcheyevo The town sits on the banks of Lake Pleschayevo, a large lake that draws tourists throughout the season. Kite surfing is popular, as is camping. Alexander Nevsky, prince Dmitry Kardovsky, artist Mikhail Koshkin, designer of the T-34 tank Leonid Kurchevsky, weapon engineer Nicetas Stylites, saint Alexander Petrov, actor Государственная Дума Ярославской области. Закон №12-з от 7 февраля 2002 г «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ярославской области и порядке его изменения», в ред. Закона №67-з от 21 декабря 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Ярославской области и признании утратившими силу отдельных законодательных актов Ярославской области». Вступил в силу через шесть месяцев со дня официального опубликования.
Опубликован: "Губернские вести", №11, 15 февраля 2002 г.. Государственная Дума Ярославской области. Закон №65-з от 21 декабря 2004 г. «О наименованиях, границах и статусе муниципальных образований Ярославской области», в ред. Закона №59-з от 28 декабря 2011 г «Об изменении статуса рабочего посёлка Песочное Рыбинского района и о внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Ярославской области». Вступил в силу через 10 дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Губернские вести", №70, 23 декабря 2004 г. (State Duma of Yaroslavl Oblast. Law #65-z of December 21, 2004 On the Names and Status of the Municipal Formations of Yaroslavl Oblast, as amended by the Law #59-z of December 28, 2011 On Changing