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In computer science, bogosort is a inefficient sorting algorithm based on the generate and test paradigm. The function successively generates permutations of its input until it finds one, sorted, it is not useful for sorting, but may be used for educational purposes, to contrast it with more efficient algorithms. Two versions of this algorithm exist: a deterministic version that enumerates all permutations until it hits a sorted one, a randomized version that randomly permutes its input. An analogy for the working of the latter version is to sort a deck of cards by throwing the deck into the air, picking the cards up at random, repeating the process until the deck is sorted, its name is a portmanteau of sort. The following is a description of the randomized algorithm in pseudocode: while not isInOrder: shuffle Here is the above pseudocode re-written in Python 3: This code assumes that data is a simple, mutable datatype—like Python's built-in list—whose elements can be compared without issue.

Here is an example with shuffle in Standard ML: If all elements to be sorted are distinct, the expected number of comparisons performed in the average case by randomized bogosort is asymptotically equivalent to n!, the expected number of swaps in the average case equals n!. The expected number of swaps grows faster than the expected number of comparisons, because if the elements are not in order, this will be discovered after only a few comparisons, no matter how many elements there are. In the worst case, the number of comparisons and swaps are both unbounded, for the same reason that a tossed coin might turn up heads any number of times in a row; the best case occurs if the list as given is sorted. For any collection of fixed size, the expected running time of the algorithm is finite for much the same reason that the infinite monkey theorem holds: there is some probability of getting the right permutation, so given an unbounded number of tries it will surely be chosen. Gorosort is a sorting algorithm introduced in the 2011 Google Code Jam.

As long as the list is not in order, a subset of all elements is randomly permuted. If this subset is optimally chosen each time this is performed, the expected value of the total number of times this operation needs to be done is equal to the number of misplaced elements. Bogobogosort is an algorithm, designed not to succeed before the heat death of the universe on any sizable list, it works by recursively calling itself with smaller and smaller copies of the beginning of the list to see if they are sorted. The best case is a single element, always sorted. For other cases, it compares the last element to the maximum element from the previous elements in the list. If the last element is greater or equal, it checks if the order of the copy matches the previous version, copies back if not, returns. Otherwise, it goes back to its recursive check. Bozosort is another sorting algorithm based on random numbers. If the list is not in order, it picks two items at random and swaps them checks to see if the list is sorted.

The running time analysis of a bozosort is more difficult, but some estimates are found in H. Gruber's analysis of "perversely awful" randomized sorting algorithms. O is found to be the expected average case. Worstsort is a pessimal sorting algorithm, guaranteed to complete in finite time; the worstsort algorithm is based on badsort. The badsort algorithm accepts two parameters: L, the list to be sorted, k, a recursion depth. At recursion level k = 0, badsort uses a common sorting algorithm, such as bubblesort, to sort its inputs and return the sorted list; that is to say. Therefore, badsort's time complexity is O if k = 0. However, for any k > 0, badsort first generates P, the list of all permutations of L. Then, badsort calculates badsort, returns the first element of the sorted P. To make worstsort pessimal, k may be assigne


Westrobothnian is a number of related non-standardized Scandinavian dialects spoken natively along the coast of the historical province of Westrobothnia in co-existence with Finnish, Sami and, in recent centuries, the national standard language Swedish. Westrobothnian is the northernmost dialect group of the North Germanic languages in Sweden and borders the traditional Sami-speaking Lapland to the west and Finnish-speaking Torne Valley to the north. Like all Scandinavian, the different varieties of Westrobothnian originate in Proto-Norse and dialects of Old Norse, spoken by immigrating Germanic settlers during the Viking Age. Westrobothnian has three grammatical genders in most dialects, two plural forms of indefinite nouns, broad usage of definite nouns. Nouns are inflected differently in the dative and accusative case; some adjectives can be serially joined with nouns and some have two plural forms. A pleonastic article is always used before names. In the vocative, a name may instead be declined to how words for near kin decline in the vocative.

A small population of Nordic tribes inhabited the area as early as the Bronze Age, as is supported by evidence from recent archeological findings in Backen and Jävre. While Sami cultures have been present around the inner parts of Westrobothnia for several thousand years, all forms of Westrobothnian are developments from Germanic-speaking settlers, arriving along the coast of the Scandinavian peninsula. Sami languages can be considered native to historical Sápmi and Westrobothnian native to old Westrobothnia except for Torne Valley, where Meänkieli Finnish traditionally has been the native tongue of the region. Westrobothnian dialects, in their different forms, were the native tongues in Umeå and Skellefteå. In Kalix and Luleå, they coexisted with Kven language before becoming the majority language of the region; these two cities are now part of Norrbotten County but before 1810, they belonged to Westrobothnia and so their dialects are included in the Westrobothnian dialect continuum. The different dialects of Westrobothnian are present in southern and central Lapland, where it was introduced in the late 17th century as the colonization of traditional Sami lands begun.

Each person was promised 15 tax-free years and other state privileges for settling what was referred to as Lappmarkerna, many people from the coasts started moving up the river valleys to settle villages such as Arvidsjaur, Lycksele and as far north as Eastern Jokkmokk, which brought different dialects of Westrobothnian to the Lapland region that had until spoken Sami. The dialects' main characteristics developed independently of Standard Swedish for a millennium until 1850, when Standard Swedish was introduced to all citizens through the public school system. At first, they co-existed peacefully but during the 1930s the repression of genuine dialects and non-North Germanic languages was at its peak. Children were prohibited from using their native tongue, labelled as ugly and inappropriate, in school. Standard Swedish is based on the dialects spoken in Svealand and Götaland and so differed from the Westrobothnian tongues more than the differences between Standard Swedish and the neighbouring Norwegian and Danish languages.

The cities soon became Swedish-speaking while the native tongues still maintained a strong stance in rural areas and minor towns for many decades to come. The native tongues were weakened as an urbanization process went on and TV and radio broadcasts were in standard Swedish, making the native tongues appear backward; the misleading nickname bondska has played a big part in making the native tongues less attractive since it is derived from bonde, the Swedish word for peasant. The name was most not invented by the native speakers and should be considered pejorative since the word bonde or bonnigt is either used pejoratively for denoting something uncultivated or to refer to the occupation of farming, but the name was implemented and turned into a self-fulfilling prophecy as the city population switched to Swedish and people from the villages were discouraged about using their native tongues when moving to the city. The correct term in Swedish is Västerbottniska although it is used. During a large part of the 20th century, many citizens did not speak their native tongues in the cities because it was looked down upon but once back in their villages they switched to their native tongue.

The Vikings are known for their ships and most visited the Bothnian Bay thousands of years ago as some archeological findings indicate, but there is no clear evidence of Norsemen or Germanic settlement along the river valleys in the area. The first Germanic settlers were a combination of farmers and fishermen, arriving in southern Westrobothnia around 900 AD and northern parts around 1100 AD, in the late stages of the Viking Age. Different theories exist as of how Westrobothnia came to be settled by Germanic speakers, as in e.g. Umeå, Luleå and Piteå, but they were using small boats to move along the coast and up along river valleys, generation after generation settling river by river. Most of the coast seems to have been uninhabited during the Viking age but some settlements of unknown origin existed during the iron age. There are no Sami loan words in the Westrobothnian coas

São Sebastião do Paraíso

São Sebastião do Paraíso is a Brazilian municipality located in the southwest of the state of Minas Gerais. Its population as of 2010 was 64,980 people living in a total area of 822 km²; the city belongs to the meso-region of Sul e Sudoeste de Minas and to the micro-region of São Sebastião do Paraíso. It became a municipality in 1870; the city and surrounding area are famous for the growing of high-quality coffee. It ranks high in the country for its quality of life; the city center of São Sebastião do Paraíso is located at an elevation of 991 meters in a fertile region between the state boundary of São Paulo and the great reservoir of Furnas. Neighboring municipalities are: São Tomás de Aquino, Pratápolis, Fortaleza de Minas Jacuí, Monte Santo de Minas, Santo Antônio da Alegria and Altinópolis, Patrocínio Paulista; the municipality contains the 248 hectares São Sebastião do Paraíso Biological Reserve, a protected conservation unit created in 1974. São Sebastião do Paraíso is a statistical micro-region consisting of 14 municipalities: Arceburgo, Cabo Verde, Guaranésia, Guaxupé, Jacuí, Monte Belo, Monte Santo de Minas, Nova Resende, São Pedro da União, São Sebastião do Paraíso, São Tomás de Aquino.

In 2000 the population was 245,490 inhabitants living in a total area of 5,159.70 km². Altitude Maximum: 1183m. In 2005 384 transformation industries employing 6,165 workers. Other sectors were the retail sector employing 4,693 workers, public administration employing 1,307, health services employing 878 workers; the GDP in 2005 was R$577 million, with 63 from taxes, 343 million reais from services, 104 million reais from industry, 68 million reais from agriculture. The region is a major producer of milk products. There were 968 rural producers on 55,000 hectares of land, meaning that the size of the landholdings was small. 8,400 persons were occupied in agriculture. The main crops are coffee, figs, citrus fruits, rice and corn. There were 44,000 head of cattle. There are 9 banks: Banco ABN AMRO Real, Banco do Brasil, Bradesco, HSBC Bank Brasil S/A, Caixa Econômica Federal, Banco Itaú, Banco Mercantil do Brasil, ParaísoCred, Credipar. In the vehicle fleet there were 14,848 automobiles, 1,237 trucks, 1,264 pickup trucks, 135 buses, 3,650 motorcycles.

In the health sector there were 24 public health establishments and 24 private establishments which included 29 health clinics and 4 hospitals with 325 beds. Educational needs of 14,100 students were met by 32 primary schools, 7 middle schools, 30 pre-primary schools. In higher education there were 2 schools: Faculdade de Ciências Económics, Administração, e Contabilidade de São Sebastião do Paraíso - FACEAC, Universidade de Alfenas - UNIFENAS - São Sebastião do Paraíso. Municipal Human Development Index: 0.812 State ranking: 22 out of 853 municipalities as of 2000 National ranking: 37 out of 5,138 municipalities as of 2000 Literacy rate: 91% Life expectancy: 74 In 2000 the per capita monthly income of R$324.00 was above the state average of R$276.00 and above the national average of R$297.00. Poços de Caldas had the highest per capita monthly income in 2000 with R$435.00. The lowest was Setubinha with R$73.00. The highest ranking municipality in Minas Gerais in 2000 was Poços de Caldas with 0.841, while the lowest was Setubinha with 0.568.

Nationally the highest was São Caetano do Sul in São Paulo with 0.919, while the lowest was Setubinha. In more recent statistics Manari in the state of Pernambuco has the lowest rating in the country—0,467—putting it in last place. Brazilian writer Anajá Caetano was born in São Sebastião do Paraíso. List of municipalities in Minas Gerais São Sebastião do Paraíso Prefeitura Municipal

Green Island Hills (Columbus, Georgia)

Green Island Hills is a residential neighborhood within the city of Columbus, United States. Homes in Green Island Hills range from Georgian and Spanish Revival to Craftsman, with new modern homes popping up every month. With its central location, developers are building homes in the $400,000 plus range; the neighborhood consists of a mix of 1960s up to present day homes. The main north-south street is River Road, which extends south into the heart of the city as Veterans Parkway. River Road is a street that defines a border between Green Island Hills and other neighborhoods within the city. Major east-west streets include Mountainbrook Drive. Besides River Road, other arterial roads include Winding Ridge Road. METRA Transit System has two stops in Green Island Hills

Adrian Leppard

Adrian Allen Leppard, is a retired senior British police officer and a former Commissioner of the City of London Police. He was Deputy Chief Constable of Kent Police and served as a detective with Surrey Police. Leppard was born on 11 February 1962 in England. In 2000, he graduated from City University London with a Master of Business Administration. Starting in 2003, Leppard earned a degree in Criminology at Fitzwilliam College, Cambridge. Lepppard began his police in 1984, he served as a traffic officer in the early years of his career. In 1989, he was trained as a detective; as a senior investigating officer, he investigated a number of murders including the contract killing of Mario Commatteo. By 2003, he has risen to become the area commander of North West Surrey in the rank of chief superintendent. In 2005, he transferred to Kent Police as an assistant chief constable with responsibly for specialist operations. In September 2005, he became assistant chief constable with responsibly for area operations.

He led the investigation into the Securitas depot robbery that had occurred in February 2006. In December 2007, he was promoted to deputy chief constable. From March until July 2010, he was serving as temporary chief constable of the force. In January 2011, he left Kent Police to join the City of London Police as Commissioner. In addition to leading the City's police, he was head of the National Fraud Intelligence Bureau. In the 2012 New Year Honours, he was awarded the Queen's Police Medal, he retired on 31 December 2015 and was succeeded by the force's Assistant Commissioner, Ian Dyson, QPM. Leppard was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 2016 Birthday Honours for services to policing and the prevention of economic crime. Leppard has raised at least $1 million for charity. In January 2013, he took part in the Wings of Kilimanjaro, a charity event that involved climbing Mount Kilimanjaro and paragliding off the top. Biography – City of London Police

Carolyn Colvin

Carolyn W. Colvin was the Acting Commissioner of Social Security Administration in the United States, appointed on February 14, 2013, having succeeded Michael J. Astrue. On June 20, 2014, President Barack Obama nominated her to serve as the commissioner. On September 18, 2014, the United States Senate Committee on Finance approved her nomination by a 22–2 vote. However, her nomination was never brought up for a vote before the full Senate, she was the Deputy Commissioner, having been nominated by Obama and confirmed by the United States Senate in 2010. She had worked at the Social Security Administration during the 1990s. Colvin is a graduate of Morgan State University with a BS in Business Administration and an MBA, she has six grandchildren. Colvin has had a wide range of public sector experience. Secretary of the Maryland Department of Human Resources Deputy Commissioner for Policy and External Affairs, Social Security Administration Deputy Commissioner for Programs and Policy, Social Security Administration Deputy Commissioner for Operations, Social Security Administration Director of the District of Columbia Department of Human Services Director of the Montgomery County Department of Health and Human Services chief executive officer of AMERIGROUP Community Care of the District of Columbia Special Assistant to the Secretary of Maryland Department of Transportation The Acting Commissioner of Social Security Carolyn W. Colvin-Former Secretaries-Department of Human Resources-Maryland Manual On-Line