Duchy of Bohemia
The Duchy of Bohemia referred to as the Czech Duchy, was a monarchy and a principality of the Holy Roman Empire in Central Europe during the Early and High Middle Ages. It was formed around 870 by Czechs as part of the Great Moravian realm; the Bohemian lands separated from disintegrating Moravia after Duke Spytihněv swore fidelity to the East Frankish king Arnulf in 895. While the Bohemian dukes of the Přemyslid dynasty, at first ruling at Prague Castle and Levý Hradec, brought further estates under their control, the Christianization initiated by Saints Cyril and Methodius was continued by the Frankish bishops of Regensburg and Passau. In 973 the Diocese of Prague was founded through the joint efforts of Duke Boleslaus II and Emperor Otto I. Late Duke Wenceslaus I of Bohemia, killed by his younger brother Boleslaus in 935, became the land's patron saint. While the lands were occupied by the Polish king Bolesław I and internal struggles shook the Přemyslid dynasty, Duke Vladivoj received Bohemia as a fief from the hands of the East Frankish king Henry II in 1002 and the duchy became an Imperial State of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Duchy of Bohemia was raised to a hereditary Kingdom of Bohemia, when Duke Ottokar I ensured his elevation by the German king Philip of Swabia in 1198. The Přemyslids remained in power throughout the High Middle Ages, until the extinction of the male line with the death of King Wenceslaus III in 1306; the lands encompassed by the Bohemian Forest, the Ore Mountains, the Sudetes and the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands were settled by Bohemian tribes about 550. In the 7th century the local Czech people were part of the union led by the Frankish merchant Samo. Bohemia as a geographical term derived from the Celtic Boii tribes, first appeared in 9th century Frankish sources. In 805 Emperor Charlemagne prepared to conquer the lands, invading Bohemia in 805 and laying siege to the fortress of Canburg. However, the Czech forces shirked from open battle and retired into the deep forests to launch guerilla attacks. After forty days the emperor had to withdraw his forces for the lack of supplies; when the Frankish forces returned the next year burning and plundering the Bohemian lands, the local tribes had to submit and became dependent on the Carolingian Empire.
While the Frankish realm disintegrated in the mid 9th century, Bohemia fell under the influence of the Great Moravian state, established around 830. In 874 the Mojmir duke Svatopluk I reached an agreement with the East Frankish king Louis the German and confirmed his Bohemian dominion. With the fragmentation of Great Moravia under the pressure of the Magyar incursions around 900, Bohemia began to form as an independent principality. In 880, the Přemyslid prince Bořivoj from Levý Hradec a deputy of Duke Svatopluk I, baptised by the Great Moravian archbishop Methodius of Salonica in 874, moved his residence to Prague Castle and started to subjugate the Vltava Basin. Great Moravia regained control over the emerging Bohemian principality upon Bořivoj's death in 888/890 until, in 895, his son Spytihněv together with the Slavník prince Witizla swore allegiance to the East Frankish king Arnulf of Carinthia in Regensburg, he and his younger brother Vratislaus ruled over Central Bohemia around Prague.
They were able to protect their realm from the Magyar forces which crushed an East Frankish army in the 907 Battle of Pressburg during the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin. Cut off from Byzantium by the Hungarian presence, the Bohemian principality existed as independent state though still in the shadow of East Francia. Vratislaus' son Wenceslaus, who ruled from 921, was accepted as head of the Bohemian tribal union. Wenceslaus maintained his ducal authority by submitting to King Henry in 929, whereafter he was murdered by his brother Boleslaus. Assuming the Bohemian throne in 935, Duke Boleslaus conquered the adjacent lands of Moravia and Silesia, expanded farther to Kraków in the east, he offered opposition to Henry's successor King Otto I, stopped paying the tribute, attacked an ally of the Saxons in northwest Bohemia and in 936 moved into Thuringia. After a prolonged armed conflict, King Otto I besieged a castle owned by Boleslaus' son in 950 and Boleslaus signed a peace treaty whereby he recognized Otto's suzerainty and promised to resume the payment of the tribute.
As the king's ally his Bohemian troops together with the Kingdom of Germany forces fought in the 955 Battle of Lechfeld and after the defeat of the Magyars received the lands of Moravia in recognition of his services. Overwhelming marauding Hungarians had the same benefits for Czechs. Less obvious is what Boleslav I the Cruel wanted to gain with his participation in the war against the Obotrite tribes in far north, when he crushed an uprising of two Slavic dukes in the Saxon Billung March. Boleslav wanted to ensure that German neighbors did not interfere with his expansion of Bohemia to the east; the Bishopric of Prague, founded in 973 during the reign of Duke Boleslaus II, was subordinated to the Archbishopric of Mainz. Thus, at the same time that Přemyslid rulers used the German alliance to consolidate their rule against a perpetually rebellious regional nobility, they struggled to retain their autonomy in relation to the empire; the Bohemian principality was definitively consolidated in 995, when the Přemyslids defeated their Slavník rivals, unified the Czech tribes, established a form of centralized rule, however shaken
Silverhill, East Sussex
Silverhill is a suburb and Local Government Ward of Hastings, East Sussex. It has a central location within the town; the origin of the name Silverhill is unknown: the first documentary record of the name is on Yeakell and Gardner's map of 1783, where it appears as "Salver Hill". In the early 18th century this was the location of High Ridge Farm, but by 1815 its name was known as Silver Hill Farm to avoid confusion with farms of a similar name on the ridge near Ore; the tenant farmer was John Standen, the farm remained with his family until 1842, when it was bought by Francis Smith. The Silverhill pottery opened in 1838 and provided an important source of employment for local people, it consisted of a large open shed with a tiled roof and a round kiln where roof tiles and chimney pots were made. From the early 1840s the Pottery was owned by Fred Tree, among his workers was an artistic potter named John Pelling, promoted to foreman in 1846. John bought the pottery works five years and married Fred's daughter, Polly.
He became well known for creating a unique style of rustic pottery with a wood-bark design, according to a local story this was inspired by Polly's maiden name. The Tivoli Hotel stood at the junction of Battle Road and Sedlescombe Road North between 1836 and 1860 and, this high-class establishment was so well known that, its local area was known as "Tivoli"; the Tivoli Hotel was near where Barclays Silverhill branch now is. After founding his new town of St Leonards-on-Sea, James Burton gained permission by an Act of Parliament of 1837 to build a turnpike road northwards from Maze Hill to avoid the congestion in Hastings. However, when this was authorized, the Hastings Council obtained the necessary Turnpike Act to build a new road towards London; this road started at Hastings town centre and continued through Bohemia into Battle Road, crossing Burton's road at the Tivoli Hotel. Battle Road is now the B2159, the road that goes through Battle is the A2100. There have been controversies over plans to build an ASDA Superstore on the former Marshall Tufflex site, which, in a poll set up by ASDA, gained 72.8% support.
However, the plans are still controversial and some say that it would cause extra congestion and pollution'. The plans were revised in 2009 and the store was opened on Monday 15 November 2010, complete with café, pharmacy and large car park with a petrol station to open in 2014; this development has made the four-way junction in Silverhill different, with new and improved street lighting and extra traffic lights to accommodate for heavier traffic. The main church is St Matthew's Church on London Road; the original church was built in 1860 but was rebuilt in 1884 by John Loughborough Pearson, who designed Truro and Brisbane Cathedrals as well as other churches in East Sussex. St Matthew's is a Grade II* listed building. St Luke's United Reformed Church was built in 1857 as Silverhill Independent Presbyterian Chapel, was one of the oldest Presbyterian places of worship in southern England. Brooks, Ken. Around Hastings Then and Now. St Leonards-on-Sea: Ken Brooks. ISBN 0-9540513-2-7. Manwaring Baines, J..
Historic Hastings: a Tapestry of Life. St Leonards-on-Sea: Cinque Ports Press Ltd. ISBN 0-948869-00-3
Bohemia Mountain is a mountain in the Cascade Range of the U. S. state of Oregon, within the Umpqua National Forest. Its elevation is 5,994 feet. A trail leads to the summit. There is a location east of the trail's end where on a clear day one can see Mount Shasta, Mount Hood, other peaks of the Cascades. Camping is available in the area. An abundance of wildflowers and plants bloom on the mountain from late June to mid-August, which attracts butterflies to the area. Bohemia City is a ghost town. A few buildings and some mining equipment remain from the original settlement, which consisted of saloons and some residences; the area surrounding the mountain was once known as the Bohemia mining district, named after the Czech immigrant James "Bohemia" Johnson, who discovered gold in the area in 1863. A gold mine and the settlement were established in 1866. Bohemia Mountain's climate is influenced by its location in the Pacific Northwest and the Cascade Range, as well as its elevation; the mountain has cool winter temperatures, summers with warm afternoon highs and cool lows.
Because of these summer temperatures, as well as the seasonal lag typical of the Pacific Northwest coastal regions, spring occurs as late as the latter part of June, temperatures warm enough for plant growth to continue into September. With summer daily average temperatures above 10 °C for only three months out of the year, winters that are colder than 0 °C, the pronounced summer dry season, Bohemia Mountains's climate is the rare dry-summer variant of the subalpine climate. Mount Bohemia - Oregon Gold More information on the Bohemian Mining District On the Trail - Bohemia Mountain Photographs of the trail and mountain Set of photos of the Bohemia Mining District from Flickr
Bohemia Suburbana is a Guatemalan alternative rock band formed in the year 1992. Current members are Giovanni Pinzón, Álvaro Rodríguez, Juancarlos Barrios, José Pedro Mollinedo and Josué García, they have played in a variety of places across the United States, including New York, New Jersey, Maryland, Washington, Dallas, Los Angeles and Puerto Rico. They have performed in Costa Rica, El Salvador and Guatemala. Bohemia Suburbana has shared stages with musicians like Red Hot Chili Peppers, Molotov, Calle 13, Joaquín Sabina, Héroes del Silencio, Rata Blanca, King Changó, Café Tacuba, Desorden Público, Fito Páez, Charly Garcia and Aterciopelados. After the Latin Grammy Awards nomination for Best Rock Album in 2010, Bohemia Suburbana recorded their fifth studio album: Imaginaria Sonora, a record with the maturity and freshness needed to please the loyal audience that accompanies the band since its inception, to entice new generations who want to be part of the suburban myth. Bohemia Suburbana was formed in Guatemala City in March, 1992.
The band was founded by Guatemalans Juancarlos Barrios, José Pedro Mollinedo, Giovanni Pinzón and the Colombian Juan Luis Lopera. In 1993, the band released their first album, entitled Sombras en el Jardín, as an audio cassette, under the record label Primera Generación Records. In 1994, Peruvian keyboardist and rhythm guitarist Álvaro Rodriguez joined the band. In the same year, Primera Generación Records responded to the band's growing popularity by releasing a compact disc of Sombras en el Jardín. In 1994, Mollinedo left the Guatemalan Alex Lobos joined the band. In 1995, Bohemia Suburbana traveled to Florida, to record and produce their next album; the album, Mil Palabras Con Sus Dientes, was released under the RadioVox label. The album included the tracks "Yo Te Vi" and "Peces e Iguanas." The album's popularity exposed Bohemia Suburbana to audiences outside of Guatemala and Central America. The song "Peces e Iguanas" became. On the heels of the album's release, Bohemia Suburbana embarked on a tour that included shows in Guatemala, Central America, Puerto Rico, cities in the United States.
In 1996, Alex Lobos left the group. In 1997, under the stress and economic pressure of poor management, the group stopped playing, each member pursued his own projects; the band reunited in 1999 to play a reunion concert. At the same time, under the title Remixes y La Emergencia de las Circunstancias, RadioVox released a disc that included electronic versions of Bohemia's songs, composed by Juancarlos Barrios during the band's recess; the reunion concert, which broke attendance records in Guatemala, took place in la vieja plaza de toros in Guatemala City. With the success of the concert, the group decided to record new material. With the earnings from the concert, the band traveled to Madrid, Spain, to spend time together and study Spanish musical styles. During this time, Juancarlos Barrios left Bohemia Suburbana, the band returned to Guatemala to regroup. In 2001, Bohemia Suburbana released a new album entitled Sub; the album was released under the label Strip Records. Álvaro Rodriguez became lead guitarist and the band brought in Guatemalan Rudy Bethancourt to play keyboards and rhythm guitar.
Moreover, Colombian Alejandro Duque became the drummer. The band toured in Central America and the United States; the band record a music video for the song "El Grito."In March 2002, Bohemia Suburbana celebrated its tenth anniversary by playing a series of concerts throughout Guatemala. These concerts were recorded, some of the material was released as an album in 2003, entitled Aqui Diez Años... En Vivo!, under the Strip Records label. The album included new versions of the songs "En el Jardín" and "Bolsas de Té."With the advent of digital downloads, the band found it difficult to maintain its economic viability, in 2004 the band went on hiatus to pursue personal projects and devote time to their personal lives. In May 2007, with the support of a Guatemalan producer and old friends of the band, Bohemia Suburbana reunited in Miami, Florida. Over the following month, the band recorded material for a new album. At the beginning of 2008, the band played a series of concerts in Puerto Rico. Afterwards, the band decided to focus on the recording of new material.
The band's fourth studio album, the self-titled Bohemia Suburbana, released in January 2010 by Warner Music Latina, was nominated for Best Rock Album at the 2010 Latin Grammys, but lost to Gustavo Cerati's Fuerza Natural. In 2015, Bohemia Suburbana got together to record their fifth album, they got the attention of the renowned producer Phil Vinall, who traveled to Guatemala to record some songs and the band went for a few weeks to Sonic Ranch studios in Texas for the final arrangements of Imaginaria Sonora. Imaginaria Sonora is their fifth studio album of Bohemia Suburbana: a journey to the roots of the band and a leap into the future; the twelve songs were the result of a process of collective creation among Giovanni Pinzón, Álvaro Rodríguez, Pepe Mollinedo, Juancarlos Barrios and Josué García, who in addition to being good friends, are professional musicians and music lovers. The result is according to Pinzón: "A rock-and- roll eclectic proposal. Phil Vinall, renowned producer of bands like Placebo, Zoé, Enjambre and Pulp, received a demo of the band, traveled to Guatemala to work with them.
"Phil made us turn around the songs, try different things and not use the rock clichés, or the resources we used," recalls Juan Carlos Barrios. Dan Zlotnik and Cuartet
Mount Bohemia is a ski resort located at the northern most portion of the Keweenaw Peninsula in Mohawk, Michigan. Mount Bohemia operates two chairlifts, offers the highest vertical drop in the Midwest ahead of Lutsen Mountains, located in the Sawtooth Mountains of northern Minnesota; the resort has 95 runs and first opened for business in 2000. Mount Bohemia does not operate any snow making equipment and relies on its 250 to 300 inch year average of lake effect snow, the most seen at any resort in the Midwest; because runs are not groomed, Mount Bohemia is not an appropriate resort for beginners. It offers black diamonds, as well as double and triple black diamond runs. Official Website of resort https://web.archive.org/web/20120130021316/http://www.michiganskier.com/Ski-Resort-Guide.html http://www.startribune.com/lifestyle/travel/106761868.html
Bohemia is a hamlet in Wiltshire, England, in the parish of Redlynch. It lies about 1 mile southeast of Redlynch and 7.5 miles southeast of Salisbury