Laboratory drying rack
Laboratory drying rack is a pegboard for hanging and draining glassware in a laboratory. It is available in different sizes, it can be used for different materials of glassware in the laboratory room such as funnels, mixing balls, bottle stoppers, tubing and so on. In addition to that, the pegs on the drying rack are removable and replaceable in order to maintain the cleaning of the lab racks to avoid contamination with other apparatus used on the same rack. Any common laboratory needs to have at least three drying racks per lab. Laboratory drying rack can be categorized into three major types including stainless steel laboratory drying racks, epoxy laboratory drying racks, acrylic laboratory drying racks. Stainless steel laboratory drying rackStainless steel laboratory drying rack, known as a'Mod-Rack' pegboard, is the drying rack made of stainless steel that uses to drain laboratory accessories; the examples of stainless steel laboratory drying rack are flask holders, soap dispensers, paper towel dispensers, glove box holders, drain shelves.
Stainless steel pegboard installation is easy and quick to set up with basic hand equipment's, it does not damage the wall as mounting brackets and hardware are being used. Epoxy laboratory drying rackEpoxy laboratory drying racks are the most common type of drying rack that are used among university labs and science classrooms in many high schools. Epoxy drying racks are mounted directly to a wall or other solid structures which can be set up with basic hand tools and power tools, they are installed by using wall anchors and other strong fasteners due to their small weight. Typical installation is to drill holes, one at each corner, to use the mounting points in order to fix it to the wall. Acrylic laboratory drying rackAcrylic laboratory drying racks give a unique feature that other pegboards cannot do; the clear acrylic is transparent, which means that it allows the light to pass through as well as brightening the working area. Acrylic pegboards are in the place where there are no lights, or to be done in dim areas.
Like epoxy pegboards, acrylic laboratory pegboards are installed with basic tools and power tools in the same way. However, acrylic pegboards are made up of plastic, so it can be scratched as compared to the epoxy and the stainless steel drying rack. Laboratory drying rack can contain and dry up various types of laboratory glassware such as beaker, Erlenmeyer flask, volumetric flask, graduated cylinder. TubeLaboratory drying rack is used to dry up the tube in the laboratory. FlaskIn addition, laboratory drying rack can hold many types of flask including round-bottomed flask, Florence flask, kjeldahl flask, pear-shaped flask, retort flask, Schlenk flask, Straus flask, Buchner flask, Claisen flask. FunnelMoreover, laboratory drying rack can be used to drain other types of laboratory glassware as well. For instance, in terms of funnel, it is used to dry up separating funnel, dropping funnel, filter funnel, Thistle funnel. Benefits of using laboratory drying rackIt is better than using towel or compressed air, due to the fact that it can introduce fibers and impurities, that can contaminate the solution.
It is a more economic approach, than using drying oven, not that quantitatively clean. It can dry up a lot of glassware in one rack, making it compact and easy to use
Laboratory glassware refers to a variety of equipment in scientific work traditionally made of glass. Glass can be blown, cut, formed into many sizes and shapes, is therefore common in chemistry and analytical laboratories. Many laboratories have training programs to demonstrate how glassware is used and to alert first time users to the safety hazards involved with using glassware; the history of glassware dates back to the Phoenicians who fused obsidian together in campfires making the first glassware. Glassware evolved as other ancient civilizations including the Syrians and Romans refined the art of glassmaking; the art of glassmaking in 16th century Venice was refined to the point intricate shapes could be made. Some time before the turn of the 19th century laboratory glass manufacture from soda lime started in Germany. Most laboratory glassware was manufactured in Germany up until the start of World War I. Before World War I, glass producers in the United States had difficultly competing with German Laboratory Glassware manufacturers because laboratory glassware was classified as educational material and was not subject to an import tax.
During World War I, the supply of laboratory glassware to the United States was cut off. In 1915 Corning Glassworks developed borosilicate glass, a boon to the war effort in the United States. Though after the war, many laboratories turned back to imports, research into better glassware flourished. Glassware became more immune to thermal shock. Further important technologies impacting the development of laboratory glassware included the development of polytetrafluoroethylene, a drop in price to the point laboratory glassware is, in some cases, more economical to throw away than to re-use. Laboratory glassware is selected by a person in charge of a particular laboratory analysis to match the needs of a given task; the task may require a piece of glassware made with a specific type of glass. The task may be performed using low cost, mass-produced glassware, or it may require a specialized piece created by a glass blower; the task may require controlling the flow of fluid. The task may have distinctive quality assurance requirements.
Laboratory glassware may be made from several types of glass, each with different capabilities and used for different purposes. Borosilicate glass can withstand thermal stress. Quartz glass can withstand high temperatures and is transparent in certain parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Darkened brown or amber glass can block infrared radiation. Heavy-wall glass can withstand pressurized applications. Fritted glass is finely porous glass through which liquid may pass. Coated glassware is specially treated to reduce the occurrence of failure. Silanized glassware is specially treated to prevent organic samples from sticking to the glass. Scientific glass blowing, practiced in some larger laboratories, is a specialized field of glassblowing. Scientific glassblowing involves controlling the shape and dimension of glass, repairing expensive or difficult-to-replace glassware, fusing together various glass parts. Many parts are available fused to a length of glass tubing to create specialized piece of laboratory glassware.
When using glassware it is necessary to control the flow of fluid. It is stopped with a stopper. Fluid may be transported between connected pieces of glassware. Types of interconnecting components include glass tubing, T-connectors, Y-connectors, glass adapters. For a leak-tight connection a ground glass joints is used. Another way to connect glassware is with flexible tubing. Fluid flow can be switched selectively using a valve, of which a stopcock is a common type fused to the glassware. Valves made of glass may be used to restrict fluid flows. Fluid, or any material which flows, can be directed into a narrow opening using a funnel. Laboratory glassware can be used for high precision volumetric measurements. With high precision measurements, such as those made in a testing laboratory, the metrological grade of the glassware becomes important; the metrological grade the can be determined by both the confidence interval around the nominal value of measurement marks and the traceability of the calibration to an NIST standard.
Periodically it may be necessary to check the calibration of the laboratory glassware. Laboratory glassware is composed of silica. Silica is considered insoluble in most substances with a few exceptions such as hydrofluoric acid. Though insoluble a minute quantity of silica will dissolve which may affect high precision, low threshold measurements of silica in water. Cleaning laboratory glassware may be done using multiple methods. Glassware can be soaked in a detergent solution to loosen most contaminations; these contaminations are scrubbed with a brush or scouring pad to remove particles which cannot be rinsed. Sturdy glassware may be able to withstand sonication as an alternative to scrubbing. For certain sensitive experiments glassware may be soaked in solvents, such as aqua regia or mild acids, to dissolve a trace quantities of specific contaminations known to interfere with an experiment; when cleaning is finished it is common practice to triple rinse glassware before suspending it upside down on drying racks.
There are many different kinds of laboratory glassware items: Examples of glassware containers include: Beakers are simple cylindrical shaped containers used to hold reagents or samples. Flasks are narrow-necked glass containers conical or spherical, used in a la
Laboratory water bath
A water bath is laboratory equipment made from a container filled with heated water. It is used to incubate samples in water at a constant temperature over a long period of time. All water baths have an analogue interface to allow users to set a desired temperature. Utilisations include melting of substrates or incubation of cell cultures, it is used to enable certain chemical reactions to occur at high temperature. Water bath is a preferred heat source for heating flammable chemicals instead of an open flame to prevent ignition. Different types of water baths are used depending on application. For all water baths, it can be used up to 99.9 °C. When temperature is above 100 °C, alternative methods such as oil bath, silicone bath or sand bath may be used. Use with caution, it is not recommended to use water bath with moisture pyrophoric reactions. Do not heat a bath fluid above its flash point. Water level should be monitored, filled with distilled water only; this is required to prevent salts from depositing on the heater.
Disinfectants can be added to prevent growth of organisms. Raise the temperature to 90 °C or higher to once a week for half an hour for the purpose of decontamination. Markers tend to come off in water baths. Use water resistant ones. If application involves liquids that give off fumes, it is recommended to operate water bath in fume hood or in a well ventilated area; the cover is closed to help reaching high temperatures. Set up on a steady surface away from flammable materials. Circulating the water baths are ideal for applications when temperature uniformity and consistency are critical, such as enzymatic and serologic experiments. Water is circulated throughout the bath resulting in a more uniform temperature; this type of water bath relies on convection instead of water being uniformly heated. Therefore, it is less accurate in terms of temperature control. In addition, there are add-ons that provide stirring to non-circulating water baths to create more uniform heat transfer; this type of water bath has extra control for shaking.
This shaking feature can be turned off. In microbiological practices, constant shaking allows liquid-grown cell cultures grown to mix with the air; some key benefits of shaking water bath are user-friendly operation via keypad, convenient bath drains, adjustable shaking frequencies, bright LED-display, optional lift-up bath cover, power switch integrated in keypad and warning and cut-off protection for low/high temperature. Thermal immersion circulator Heated bath Hot plate Sand bath Oil bath
Mortar and pestle
Mortar and pestle are implements used since ancient times to prepare ingredients or substances by crushing and grinding them into a fine paste or powder in the kitchen and pharmacy. The mortar is a bowl made of hard wood, ceramic, or hard stone, such as granite; the pestle is a blunt club-shaped object. The substance to be ground, which may be wet or dry, is placed in the mortar, where the pestle is pressed and rotated onto it until the desired texture is achieved. Scientists have found ancient mortars and pestles that date back to 35000 BC; the English word mortar derives from classical Latin mortarium, among several other usages, "receptacle for pounding" and "product of grinding or pounding". The classical Latin pistillum, meaning "pounder", led to English pestle; the Roman poet Juvenal applied both mortarium and pistillum to articles used in the preparation of drugs, reflecting the early use of the mortar and pestle as a symbol of a pharmacist or apothecary. The antiquity of these tools is well documented in early writing, such as the Egyptian Ebers Papyrus of ~1550 BC and the Old Testament.
Mortars and pestles were traditionally used in pharmacies to crush various ingredients prior to preparing an extemporaneous prescription. The mortar and pestle, with the Rod of Asclepius, the Green Cross, others, is one of the most pervasive symbols of pharmacology, along with the show globe. For pharmaceutical use, the mortar and the head of the pestle are made of porcelain, while the handle of the pestle is made of wood; this is known as a Wedgwood mortar and pestle and originated in 1759. Today the act of reducing the particle size is known as trituration. Mortars and pestles are used as drug paraphernalia to grind up pills to speed up absorption when they are ingested, or in preparation for insufflation. To finely ground drugs, not available in liquid dosage form is used if patients need artificial nutrition such as parenteral nutrition or by nasogastric tube. Mortars are used in cooking to prepare wet or oily ingredients such as guacamole and pesto, as well as grinding spices into powder.
The molcajete, a version used by pre-Hispanic Mesoamerican cultures including the Aztec and Maya, stretching back several thousand years, is made of basalt and is used in Mexican cooking. Other Native American nations use mortars carved into the bedrock to other nuts. Many such depressions can be found in their territories. In Japan large mortars are used with wooden mallets to prepare mochi. A regular sized Japanese mortar and pestle are called surikogi, respectively. Granite mortars and pestles are used in Southeast Asia, as well as India. In India, it is used extensively to make spice mixtures for various delicacies as well as day to day dishes. With the advent of motorized grinders, use of the mortar and pestle has decreased, it is traditional in various Hindu ceremonies to crush turmeric in these mortars. In Malay, it is known as batu lesung. Large stone mortars, with long wood pestles were used in West Asia to grind meat for a type of meatloaf, or kibbeh, as well as the hummus variety known as masabcha.
In Indonesia and the Netherlands mortar is known as Cobek or Tjobek and pestle is known as Ulekan or Oelekan. It is used to make fresh sambal, a spicy chili condiment, hence the sambal ulek/oelek denote its process using pestle, it is used to grind peanut and other ingredients to make peanut sauce for gado-gado. Large mortars and pestles are used in developing countries to husk and dehull grain; these are made of wood, operated by one or more persons. Good mortar and pestle-making materials must be hard enough to crush the substance rather than be worn away by it, they can not be too brittle either. The material should be cohesive, so that small bits of the mortar or pestle do not mix in with the ingredients. Smooth and non-porous materials are trap the substances being ground. In food preparation, a rough or absorbent material may cause the strong flavour of a past ingredient to be tasted in food prepared later; the food particles left in the mortar and on the pestle may support the growth of microorganisms.
When dealing with medications, the prepared drugs may interact or mix, contaminating the used ingredients. Rough ceramic mortar and pestle sets can be used to reduce substances to fine powders, but stain and are brittle. Porcelain mortars are sometimes conditioned for use by grinding some sand to give them a rougher surface which helps to reduce the particle size. Glass mortars and pestles are fragile, but suitable for use with liquids. However, they do not grind as finely as the ceramic type. Other materials used include stone marble or agate, bamboo, steel and basalt. Mortar and pestle sets made from the wood of old grape vines have proved reliable for grinding salt and pepper at the dinner table. Uncooked rice is sometimes ground in mortars to clean them; this process must be repeated until the rice comes out white. Some stones, such as molcajete, need to be seasoned first before use. Metal mortars are kept oiled. Since the results obtained with hand grinding are neither reproducible nor reliable, most laboratories work with automatic mortar grinders.
Grinding time and pressure of the mortar can be adjusted and fixed, saving time and labor. The first automatic Mortar Grinder was invented by F. Kurt
An agar plate is a Petri dish that contains agar as a solid growth medium plus nutrients, used to culture microorganisms. Sometimes selective compounds are added to influence growth, such as antibiotics. Individual microorganisms placed on the plate will grow into individual colonies, each a clone genetically identical to the individual ancestor organism. Thus, the plate can be used either to estimate the concentration of organisms in a liquid culture or a suitable dilution of that culture using a colony counter, or to generate genetically pure cultures from a mixed culture of genetically different organisms. Several methods are available to plate out cells. One technique is known as "streaking". In this technique, a drop of the culture on the end of a thin, sterile loop of wire, sometimes known as an inoculator, is streaked across the surface of the agar leaving organisms behind, a higher number at the beginning of the streak and a lower number at the end. At some point during a successful "streak", the number of organisms deposited will be such that distinct individual colonies will grow in that area which may be removed for further culturing, using another sterile loop.
Another way of plating organisms, next to streaking, on agar plates is the spot analysis. This type of analysis is used to check the viability of cells and performed with pinners. A third used technique is the use of sterile glass beads to plate out cells. In this technique cells are grown in a liquid culture of which a small volume is pipetted on the agar plate and spread out with the beads. Replica plating is another technique; these four techniques are the most common, but others are possible. It is crucial to work in a sterile manner. Plating is thus done in a laminar flow cabinet or on the working bench next to a bunsen burner. In 1881, Fanny Hesse, working as a technician for her husband Walther Hesse in the laboratory of Robert Koch, suggested agar as an effective setting agent, since it had been commonplace in jam making for some time. Like other growth media, the formulations of agar used in plates may be classified as either "defined" or "undefined". Agar plates may be formulated as either permissive, with the intent of allowing the growth of whatever organisms are present, or restrictive or selective, with the intent of only allowing growth a particular subset of those organisms.
This may take the form of a nutritional requirement, for instance providing a particular compound such as lactose as the only source of carbon and thereby selecting only organisms which can metabolize that compound, or by including a particular antibiotic or other substance to select only organisms which are resistant to that substance. This correlates to some degree with undefined media. Agar plates may be indicator plates, in which the organisms are not selected on the basis of growth, but are instead distinguished by a color change in some colonies caused by the action of an enzyme on some compound added to the medium; the plates are incubated for 12 hours up to several days depending on the test, performed. Some used agar plate types are: Blood agar plates contain mammalian blood at a concentration of 5–10%. BAPs are enriched, differential media used to isolate fastidious organisms and detect hemolytic activity. Β-Hemolytic activity will show lysis and complete digestion of red blood cell contents surrounding a colony.
Examples include Streptococcus haemolyticus. Α-Hemolysis will only cause partial lysis of the red blood cells and will appear green or brown, due to the conversion of hemoglobin to methemoglobin. An example of this would be Streptococcus viridans. Γ-Hemolysis is the term referring to a lack of hemolytic activity. BAPs contain meat extract, sodium chloride, agar. Chocolate agar is a type of blood agar plate in which the blood cells have been lysed by heating the cells to 56 °C, it is used for growing fastidious respiratory bacteria, such as Haemophilus influenzae. No chocolate is contained in the plate. Horse blood agar is a type of blood-enriched microbiological culture media; as it is enriched, it allows the growth of certain fastidious bacteria, allows indication of haemolytic activity in these bacterial cultures. Thayer-Martin agar is a chocolate agar designed to isolate Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose agar enhances growth of Vibrio spp. including Vibrio cholerae.
Bile esculin agar is used for the isolation of Enterococcus and group D Streptococcus species CLED agar – cysteine, electrolyte-deficient agar is used to isolate and differentiate urinary tract bacteria, since it inhibits Proteus species swarming and can differentiate between lactose fermenters and nonfermenters. Granada medium is used to isolate and differentiate group B Streptococcus, Streptococcus agalactiae from clinical samples, it grows in Granada medium as most of accompanying bacteria are inhibited. Hektoen enteric agar is designed to is
A spatula is a broad, flexible blade used to mix and lift material including foods, drugs and paints. In medical applications, spatula may be used synonymously with tongue depressor, it derives from the Latin word for a flat piece of wood or splint, hence can refer to a tongue depressor. The words spade and spathe are derived; the word spatula is known to have been used in English since 1525. Spatulas are used to scrape within the contours of a mixing bowl or to level off the top of a dry mixing cup, it is a tool with two flat edges on a flexible blade. A spatula is short and about 8 inches long. A spatula refers to a turner, used to flip over pancakes and meat patties, it is used. In kitchen utensils, a spatula is any utensil fitting the above description. One variety is used to flip food items during cooking, such as pancakes and fillets; the blades on these are made of metal or plastic, with a wooden or plastic handle to insulate them from heat. A cookie shovel is a specialty spatula with a larger blade, made for scooping cookies off their pan or cooking sheet.
A frosting spatula is known as palette knife and is made of metal or plastic. Bowl and plate scrapers are sometimes called spatulas. In British English a spatula is similar in shape to a palette knife, without holes, in a flexible or detachable blade, it is used for holding down the tongue or taking cell samples. In laboratories and microspatulas are small stainless steel utensils, used for scraping, transferring, or applying powders and paste like chemicals or treatments. Many spatula brands are resistant to acids, bases and solvents, which make them ideal for use with a wide range of compound. A common type would be stainless steel spatulas, which are used because they are sturdy and affordable, they are resistant to deterioration from contact with boiling water, acids and most solvents. Some of them come with Polyvinyl chloride plastic riveted hardwood for better handling. Polystyrene spatulas are made for researchers because they are disposable, preventing any potential contaminations which occurs with reusable spatulas.
They are ideal for handling lyophilized products or performing lyophilization. Peel Putty knife Scoopula