Battle of Vercellae
The Battle of Vercellae, or Battle of the Raudine Plain, in 101 BC was the Roman victory of Consul Gaius Marius over the invading Celto-Germanic tribe of the Cimbri near the settlement of Vercellae in Cisalpine Gaul. The Cimbri had invaded northern Italy and defeated the 20,000 men strong army of consul Quintus Lutatius Catulus. After defeating the Teutones at Aquae Sextiae, Marius arrived with 32,000 soldiers to reinforce Catulus and defeat the Cimbri; the two armies met on the Raudian plain and the Romans won a total victory over the invaders. Much credit for this victory has been given to the actions of Proconsul Catulus' legate, Lucius Cornelius Sulla who led the Roman and allied Italian cavalry; the Cimbri were wiped out, with the Romans claiming to have killed 65,000–160,000 and captured 60,000, including large numbers of women and children. In 101 BC the Cimbri invaded Italy through the Eastern Alpine passes. No enemy army had invaded Roman Italy since Carthage in the Second Punic War.
Roman Consul Catulus, who had only 20,000 men to guard all of the passes, was forced to retreat before the Cimbrians. Catulus mounted a surprise attack on the Cimbric camp and was afterwards able to retreat to the north Italian plain; the Romans retreated to the Adige river, built fortifications on both banks and a bridge between the two positions, to fight on the defensive against Cimbric attacks. After the Cimbrians had dammed the river and sent heavy objects downriver to destroy the bridge, many of the Romans panicked and abandoned their second defensive position as well. Catulus retreated along with his men; some of his cavalry retreated all the way to Rome. A significant Roman force stayed behind to hold the Adige line but were defeated by the Cimbrians, who attacked and captured the fort. Catulus retreated to his third defensive position south of the Po; the Cimbrians now proceeded to sack Cisalpine Gaul. They did not pursue the Romans. Having defeated the Teutones at Aquae Sextiae and having returned to Rome without his army, consul Gaius Marius regathered his men and marched to the Po.
After merging Catulus' army with his own, Marius began negotiations with the Cimbrians, who demanded land to settle on. Marius refused and instead sought to demoralize the Cimbri by parading captured Teuton nobles before them. Neither side genuinely sought negotiations, the Romans not intending to hand over their land to foreign invaders and the Cimbri believing themselves to be on brink of a successful peace after their recent victories over the Romans. Over the next few days the armies maneuvered against each other, the Romans refusing to give battle. Marius chose the optimal location for an open plain near Vercelli; the Roman consul met with the Cimbri leader Boiorix to agree on the time of battle. Marius had 32,000 men and Catulus 20,300. Traditionally most historians locate the settlement of the battle in or near the modern Vercelli, Piedmont, in northern Italy; some historians think that "vercellae" is not a proper name and may refer to any mining area at the confluence of two rivers. The latter historians think that the Cimbri followed the river Adige after having crossed the Brenner Pass, instead of "unreasonably" turning west to the modern Vercelli.
At Borgo Vercelli, near the river Sesia, 5 km from Vercelli, items have been found that strengthen the tradition. Another suggested location is the hamlet in what is now the province of Cuneo, Piedmont; the 15,000 strong Cimbric cavalry rode onto the battlefield. Behind them came the infantry. According to Plutarch, Marius made a final sacrifice to the gods. "Marius washed his hands, lifting them up to heaven, vowed to make a sacrifice of 100 beasts should victory be his". The Romans got into position first, therefore the sun would be reflecting off the Roman's armor; the Cimbri thought. Sensing their sudden anxiety, the Romans attacked; the Cimbri cavalry were taken by surprise by the Roman cavalry. The Cimbri were forced back; the Roman legionaries engaged the Cimbri infantry. The Cimbri were unnerved by this. Plutarch writes. Boiorix and his noblemen made a last stand; the Romans had won a stunning victory. The victory of Vercellae, following close on the heels of Marius' destruction of the Teutones at the Battle of Aquae Sextiae the previous year, put an end to the Celto-Germanic threat on Rome's northern frontiers.
The Cimbri were wiped out, with the Romans claiming to have killed 120,000 and captured 60,000, including large numbers of women and children. Children of the surviving captives may have been among the rebelling gladiators in the Third Servile War. Politically, this battle had great implications for Rome as well, it marked a continuation in the rivalry between Marius and Sulla, which would lead to the first of Rome's great civil wars. As a reward for their gallant service, Marius granted Roman citizenship to his Italian allied soldiers, without consulting or asking permission from the Senate first; when some senators questioned this action, he would claim that in the heat of battle he could not distinguish the voice of Roman from ally from the voice of the law. Henceforth all Italian legions would be Roman legions; this was the first time a victorious general had defied the Senate and it would not be the last. And Julius Caesar, when ordered by the Senate to lay down his command an
History of Denmark
The history of Denmark as a unified kingdom began in the 8th century, but historic documents describe the geographic area and the people living there— the Danes —as early as 500 AD. These early documents include the writings of Procopius. With the Christianization of the Danes c. 960 AD, it is clear. Queen Margrethe II can trace her lineage back to the Viking kings Gorm the Old and Harald Bluetooth from this time, thus making the Monarchy of Denmark the oldest in Europe; the area now known as Denmark has a rich prehistory, having been populated by several prehistoric cultures and people for about 12,000 years, since the end of the last ice age. Denmark's history has been influenced by its geographical location between the North and Baltic seas, a strategically and economically important placement between Sweden and Germany, at the center of mutual struggles for control of the Baltic Sea. Denmark was long in disputes with Sweden over control of Skånelandene and with Germany over control of Schleswig and Holstein.
Denmark lost these conflicts and ended up ceding first Skåneland to Sweden and Schleswig-Holstein to the German Empire. After the eventual cession of Norway in 1814, Denmark retained control of the old Norwegian colonies of the Faroe Islands and Iceland. During the 20th century, Iceland gained independence and the Faroese became integral parts of the Kingdom of Denmark and North Schleswig reunited with Denmark in 1920 after a referendum. During World War II, Denmark was occupied by Nazi Germany, but was liberated by British forces of the Allies in 1945, after which it joined the United Nations. In the aftermath of World War II, with the emergence of the subsequent Cold War, Denmark was quick to join the military alliance of NATO as a founding member in 1949; the Scandinavian region has a rich prehistory, having been populated by several prehistoric cultures and people for about 12,000 years, since the end of the last ice age. During the ice age, all of Scandinavia was covered by glaciers most of the time, except for the southwestern parts of what we now know as Denmark.
When the ice began retreating, the barren tundras were soon inhabited by reindeer and elk, Ahrenburg and Swiderian hunters from the south followed them here to hunt occasionally. The geography was different from what we know today. Sea levels were much lower; as the climate warmed up, forceful rivers of meltwater started to flow and shape the virgin lands, more stable flora and fauna began emerging in Scandinavia, Denmark in particular. The first human settlers to inhabit Denmark and Scandinavia permanently were the Maglemosian people, residing in seasonal camps and exploiting the land, sea and lakes, it was not until around 6,000 BC that the approximate geography of Denmark as we know it today had been shaped. Denmark has some unique natural conditions for preservation of artifacts, providing a rich and diverse archeological record from which to understand the prehistoric cultures of this area; the Weichsel glaciation covered all of Denmark most of the time, except the western coasts of Jutland.
It ended around 13,000 years ago, allowing humans to move back into the ice-covered territories and establish permanent habitation. During the first post-glacial millennia, the landscape changed from tundra to light forest, varied fauna including now-extinct megafauna appeared. Early prehistoric cultures uncovered in modern Denmark include the Maglemosian Culture; the first inhabitants of this early post-glacial landscape in the so-called Boreal period, were small and scattered populations living from hunting of reindeer and other land mammals and gathering whatever fruits the climate was able to offer. Around 8,300 BC the temperature rose drastically, now with summer temperatures around 15 degrees Celsius, the landscape changed into dense forests of aspen and pine and the reindeer moved north, while aurochs and elk arrived from the south; the Koelbjerg Man is the oldest known bog body in the world and the oldest set of human bones found in Denmark, dated to the time of the Maglemosian culture around 8,000 BC.
With a continuing rise in temperature the oak and hazel arrived in Denmark around 7,000 BC. Now boar, red deer, roe deer began to abound. A burial from Bøgebakken at Vedbæk dates to c. 6,000 BC and contains 22 persons - including four newborns and one toddler. Eight of the 22 had died before reaching 20 years of age - testifying to the hardness of hunter-gatherer life in the cold north. Based on estimates of the amount of game animals, scholars estimate the population of Denmark to have been between 3,300-8,000 persons in the time around 7,000 BC, it is believed that the early hunter-gatherers lived nomadically, exploiting different environments at different times of the year shifting to the use of semi permanent base camps. With the rising temperatures, sea levels rose, during the Atlantic period, Denmark evolved from a contiguous landmass around 11,000 BC to a series of islands by 4,500 BC; the inhabitants shifted to a seafood based diet, which allowed the population to increase. Agricultural settlers made inroads around 3,000 BC.
Many dolmens and rock tombs date from this period. The Nordic Bronze Age period in Denmar
The Cimbri were an ancient tribe. They are believed to have been a Germanic tribe originating in Jutland, but Celtic influences have been suggested. Together with the Teutones and the Ambrones, they fought the Roman Republic between 113 and 101 BC; the Cimbri were successful at the Battle of Arausio, in which a large Roman army was routed, after which they raided large areas in Gaul and Hispania. In 101 BC, during an attempted invasion of Italy, the Cimbri were decisively defeated by Gaius Marius, their king, was killed; some of the surviving captives are reported to have been among the rebelling gladiators in the Third Servile War. The origin of the name Cimbri is unknown. One etymology is PIE *tḱim-ro- "inhabitant", from tḱoi-m- "home", itself a derivation from tḱei- "live"; the name has been related to the word kimme meaning “rim”, i.e. "the people of the coast". Since Antiquity, the name has been related to that of the Cimmerians. Himmerland is thought to preserve their name. Alternatively, Latin c- represents an attempt to render the unfamiliar Proto-Germanic h = due to Celtic-speaking interpreters.
Because of the similarity of the names, the Cimbri have been at times associated with Cymry, the Welsh name for themselves. However, Welsh Cymry is derived from Brittonic *Kombrogi, meaning “compatriots”, is linguistically unrelated to Cimbri; the Cimbri are believed to have been a Germanic tribe originating in Jutland. Though Celtic origins have been suggested, this is controversial. Archaeologists have not found any clear indications of a mass migration from Jutland in the early Iron Age; the Gundestrup Cauldron, deposited in a bog in Himmerland in the 2nd or 1st century BC, shows that there was some sort of contact with southeastern Europe, but it is uncertain if this contact can be associated with the Cimbrian expedition. Advocates for a northern homeland point to Greek and Roman sources that associate the Cimbri with the Jutland peninsula. According to the Res gestae of Augustus, the Cimbri were still found in the area around the turn of the 1st century AD: My fleet sailed from the mouth of the Rhine eastward as far as the lands of the Cimbri, to which, up to that time, no Roman had penetrated either by land or by sea, the Cimbri and Charydes and Semnones and other peoples of the Germans of that same region through their envoys sought my friendship and that of the Roman people.
The contemporary Greek geographer Strabo testified that the Cimbri still existed as a Germanic tribe in the "Cimbric peninsula": As for the Cimbri, some things that are told about them are incorrect and others are improbable. For instance, one could not accept such a reason for their having become a wandering and piratical folk as this that while they were dwelling on a Peninsula they were driven out of their habitations by a great flood-tide, and the assertion that an excessive flood-tide once occurred looks like a fabrication, for when the ocean is affected in this way it is subject to increases and diminutions, but these are regulated and periodical. On the map of Ptolemy, the "Kimbroi" are placed on the northernmost part of the peninsula of Jutland. I.e. in the modern landscape of Himmerland south of Limfjorden. Some time before 100 BC many of the Cimbri, as well as the Ambrones migrated south-east. After several unsuccessful battles with the Boii and other Celtic tribes, they appeared ca 113 BC in Noricum, where they invaded the lands of one of Rome's allies, the Taurisci.
On the request of the Roman consul Gnaeus Papirius Carbo, sent to defend the Taurisci, they retreated, only to find themselves deceived and attacked at the Battle of Noreia, where they defeated the Romans. Only a storm, which separated the combatants, saved the Roman forces from complete annihilation. Now the road to Italy was open, they came into frequent conflict with the Romans, who came out the losers. In Commentarii de Bello Gallico the Aduaticii—Belgians of Cimbrian origin—repeatedly sided with Rome's enemies. In 109 BC, they defeated a Roman army under the consul Marcus Junius Silanus, the commander of Gallia Narbonensis. In 107 BC they defeated another Roman army under the consul Gaius Cassius Longinus, killed at the Battle of Burdigala against the Tigurini, who were allies of the Cimbri, it was not until 105 BC. At the Rhône, the Cimbri clashed with the Roman armies. Discord between the Roman commanders, the proconsul Quintus Servilius Caepio and the consul Gnaeus Mallius Maximus, hindered Roman coordination and so the Cimbri succeeded in first defeating
Titus Livius – rendered as Livy in English – was a Roman historian. He wrote a monumental history of Rome and the Roman people – Ab Urbe Condita Libri – covering the period from the earliest legends of Rome before the traditional foundation in 753 BC through the reign of Augustus in Livy's own lifetime, he was on familiar terms with members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty and in friendship with Augustus, whose young grandnephew, the future emperor Claudius, he exhorted to take up the writing of history. Livy was born in Patavium in northern Italy, now modern Padua. There is a debate about the year of his birth- either in 64 BC, or more in 59 BC. At the time of his birth, his home city of Patavium was the second wealthiest on the Italian peninsula, the largest in the province of Cisalpine Gaul. Cisalpine Gaul was merged in Italia during his lifetime and its inhabitants were given Roman citizenship by Julius Caesar. In his works, Livy expressed his deep affection and pride for Patavium, the city was well known for its conservative values in morality and politics.
"He was by nature a recluse, mild in averse to violence. The governor of Cisalpine Gaul at the time, Asinius Pollio, tried to sway Patavium into supporting Marcus Antonius, the leader of one of the warring factions; the wealthy citizens of Patavium refused to contribute money and arms to Asinius Pollio, went into hiding. Pollio attempted to bribe the slaves of those wealthy citizens to expose the whereabouts of their masters, it is therefore that the Roman civil wars prevented Livy from pursuing a higher education in Rome or going on a tour of Greece, common for adolescent males of the nobility at the time. Many years Asinius Pollio derisively commented on Livy's "patavinity", saying that Livy's Latin showed certain "provincialisms" frowned on at Rome. Pollio's dig may have been the result of bad feelings he harboured toward the city of Patavium from his experiences there during the civil wars. Livy went to Rome in the 30s BC, it is that he spent a large amount of time in the city after this, although it may not have been his primary home.
During his time in Rome, he held a government position. His writings contain elementary mistakes on military matters, indicating that he never served in the Roman army. However, he was educated in rhetoric, it seems that Livy had the financial resources and means to live an independent life, though the origin of that wealth is unknown. He devoted a large part of his life to his writings, which he was able to do because of his financial freedom. Livy was known to give recitations to small audiences, but he was not heard of to engage in declamation a common pastime, he was familiar with the imperial family. Augustus was considered by Romans to have been the greatest Roman emperor, benefiting Livy's reputation long after his death. Suetonius described how Livy encouraged the future emperor Claudius, born in 10 BC, to write historiographical works during his childhood. Livy's most famous work was his history of Rome. In it he narrates a complete history of the city of Rome, from its foundation to the death of Augustus.
Because he was writing under the reign of Augustus, Livy's history emphasizes the great triumphs of Rome. He wrote his history with embellished accounts of Roman heroism in order to promote the new type of government implemented by Augustus when he became emperor. In Livy's preface to his history, he said that he did not care whether his personal fame remained in darkness, as long as his work helped to "preserve the memory of the deeds of the world’s preeminent nation"; because Livy was writing about events that had occurred hundreds of years earlier, the historical value of his work was questionable, although many Romans came to believe his account to be true. Livy had at least one daughter and one son, he produced other works, including an essay in the form of a letter to his son, numerous dialogues, most modelled on similar works by Cicero. Titus Livius died in his home city of Patavium in either AD 12 or 17. Livy's only surviving work is the "History of Rome", his career from his mid-life 32, until he left Rome for Padua in old age in the reign of Tiberius after the death of Augustus.
When he began this work he was past his youth. Seneca the Younger gives brief mention that he was known as an orator and philosopher and had written some treatises in those fields from a historical point of view. Livy's History of Rome was in high demand from the time it was published and remained so during the early years of the empire. Pliny the Younger reported that Livy's celebrity was so widespread, a man from Cadiz travelled to Rome and back for the sole purpose of meeting him. Livy's work was a source for the works of Aurelius Victor, Eutropius, Florus, Granius Licinianus and Orosius. Julius Obsequens used Livy, or a source with access to Livy, to compose his De Prodigiis, an account of supernatural e
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire. The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian Peninsula, conventionally founded in 753 BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed; the Roman Empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world, though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117. In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and to an autocratic semi-elective empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it dominated the North African coast and most of Western Europe, the Balkans and much of the Middle East.
It is grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern language, society, law, government, art, literature and engineering. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France, it achieved impressive technological and architectural feats, such as the construction of an extensive system of aqueducts and roads, as well as the construction of large monuments and public facilities. The Punic Wars with Carthage were decisive in establishing Rome as a world power. In this series of wars Rome gained control of the strategic islands of Corsica and Sicily. By the end of the Republic, Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond: its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia and from the mouth of the Rhine to North Africa.
The Roman Empire emerged with the dictatorship of Augustus Caesar. 721 years of Roman–Persian Wars started in 92 BC with their first war against Parthia. It would become the longest conflict in human history, have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires. Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak, it stretched from the entire Mediterranean Basin to the beaches of the North Sea in the north, to the shores of the Red and Caspian Seas in the East. Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would temporarily divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the western part of the empire broke up into independent "barbarian" kingdoms in the 5th century; this splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of universal history from the pre-medieval "Dark Ages" of Europe.
The eastern part of the empire endured through the 5th century and remained a power throughout the "Dark Ages" and medieval times until its fall in 1453 AD. Although the citizens of the empire made no distinction, the empire is most referred to as the "Byzantine Empire" by modern historians during the Middle Ages to differentiate between the state of antiquity and the nation it grew into. According to the founding myth of Rome, the city was founded on 21 April 753 BC on the banks of the river Tiber in central Italy, by the twin brothers Romulus and Remus, who descended from the Trojan prince Aeneas, who were grandsons of the Latin King Numitor of Alba Longa. King Numitor was deposed by his brother, while Numitor's daughter, Rhea Silvia, gave birth to the twins. Since Rhea Silvia had been raped and impregnated by Mars, the Roman god of war, the twins were considered half-divine; the new king, feared Romulus and Remus would take back the throne, so he ordered them to be drowned. A she-wolf saved and raised them, when they were old enough, they returned the throne of Alba Longa to Numitor.
The twins founded their own city, but Romulus killed Remus in a quarrel over the location of the Roman Kingdom, though some sources state the quarrel was about, going to rule or give his name to the city. Romulus became the source of the city's name. In order to attract people to the city, Rome became a sanctuary for the indigent and unwanted; this caused a problem, in that Rome was bereft of women. Romulus visited neighboring towns and tribes and attempted to secure marriage rights, but as Rome was so full of undesirables he was refused. Legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins with the Sabines. Another legend, recorded by Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus, says that Prince Aeneas led a group of Trojans on a sea voyage to found a new Troy, since the original was destroyed at the end of the Trojan War. After a long time in rough seas, they landed on the banks of the Tiber River. Not long after they landed, the men wanted to take to the sea again, but the women who were traveling with them did not want to leave.
One woman, named Roma, suggested that the women burn the ships out at sea to prevent their leaving