"Kanariya" is a song recorded by Japanese recording artist Ayumi Hamasaki for her second studio album, Loveppears. It was released by Avex Trax in Japan and Hong Kong on December 8, 1999, through Avex USA in North America in early 2000; the recording served as Hamasaki's second limited edition single, with limited physical units of 300,000 copies. The track was written by Hamasaki herself, while production was handled by long-time collaborator Max Matsuura. Two versions of "Kanariya" were made available for consumption—a radio edit produced by American disc jockey Jonathan Peters, the album version composed by Yasuhiko Hoshino. Lyrically, the song was written in third person perspective. Upon its release, "Kanariya" received mixed reviews from music critics, with some of them praising the original and radio edit, but criticizing the remixes. Commercially, the single experienced success in Japan, peaking at number one on the Oricon Singles Chart and TBS' Count Down TV chart, it sold just below its 300,000 restricted copies, was certified Gold by the Recording Industry Association of Japan for shipments of 200,000 units.
An accompanying music video for the recording was directed by Wataru Takeishi, with it portraying Hamasaki in a dark laboratory surrounded by keyboards and electronic devices. To promote the single, it appeared on several remix and greatest hits compilation albums released by Hamasaki. "Kanariya" was written by Hamasaki herself, while production was handled by long-time collaborator Max Matsuura. Two versions of "Kanariya" were made available for consumption—a radio edit produced by disc jockey Jonathan Peters, the album version composed by Yasuhiko Hoshino. Peters' remix of the track portrays a dance composition, a genre that influenced Hamasaki's second studio album, Loveppears; the song includes musical elements of house and techno. "Kanariya"'s instrumentation consists of keyboards played by Peters. The track's album version was included as a hidden track with another album entry, "Who...", has been described by members of CD Journal as a pop recording with instrumentation of guitars and a drum kit.
Lyrically, the recording was written in third person perspective, a trait, shared with the rest of the album's tracks. The song was released by Avex Trax in Japan and Hong Kong on December 8, 1999 as a CD single, serving as Hamasaki's second limited edition single with limited physical units of 300,000 copies; the physical format of "Karariya" featured a total of thirteen tracks, of which eleven were remixes and an a cappella of the track incorporating a remix for Hamasaki's tracks "Two of Us" and "From the Letter". While the former appeared on her debut studio album, A Song for ××, the latter was included as a B-side track for her single "Depend on You". On June 12, 2000, "Kanariya" was distributed in North America through Avex USA as a 12" inch vinyl, including three remixes managed by Peters; the single's artwork was photographed by Japanese photographer Toru Kumazawa, featured Hamasaki sitting in a circular pod with rhinestones on her face. The physical version of "Kanariya" failed to include a booklet, which resulted in the cover sleeve being immolated as a picture disc, featuring an emphasised plastic sheet with information on the single.
Upon its release, "Kanariya" received mixed reviews from music critics. A reviewer from Jame World was favourable to the album version of the song, acclaiming the R&B approach and Hamasaki's vocal abilities; when reviewing the CD single, the website stated, "For fans of remixes, it is a great release – however, if you want substantial music with variety and professionalism, you should look elsewhere." A member of CD Journal was positive towards the original and radio edit of the single, but criticized the remixes and labelled the sound "tired". Commercially, the single experienced success in Japan, it debuted at number one on the Oricon Singles Chart, selling 248,070 units in its first week of availability. "Kanariya" lasted six weeks within the top 200, marking one of Hamasaki's lowest-spanning singles on that chart. It opened atop on the Count Down TV chart hosted by Tokyo Broadcasting System, lasting four weeks within the top 100. By the end of 1999, the recording sold over 289,200 units in Japan, but failed to be included on Oricon's Annual Chart for unknown reasons.
The subsequent year, "Karariya" was ranked at number 92 behind five other singles released by Hamasaki. It peaked at number 84 on TBS' Annual Chart in 1999. In February 2000, the track was certified Gold by the Recording Industry Association of Japan for shipments of 200,000 units; as of July 2016, "Kanariya" has been listed as the singer's 29th best-selling single based on Oricon Style's database. An accompanying music video for the single was directed by Wataru Takeishi, uses a shorten version of Peters' remix; the visual portrays Hamasaki in a dark laboratory, being surrounded by keyboards, electronic devices and a black bird. Throughout the music video, several people start to wear headphones and follow Hamasaki, with them starting to listen to the song and observing TV monitors of the singer; each person, including Hamasaki, wears black eye shadow on one eye, a code on their hand. Over the clip, the singer is seen singing to the recording in the laboratory, with interspersed scenes portraying her wearing the outfit used for the single's artwork.
The music video was included on several DVD compilations released by Hamasaki, includingA Clips, A Complete Box Set, the digital release of A Clips Complete."Kanariya" has been promoted through compilation albums relea
A Song Is Born (song)
"A Song Is Born" was a collaboration between Ayumi Hamasaki and Keiko for the Song Nation non-profit project by Avex, created to raise funds to help the victims of the 9/11 attacks on the World Trade Center. The song was composed by Tetsuya Komuro, but unlike the other two single releases of the project, "The Meaning of Peace" and "Lovin' It", the lyrics were written by Ayumi Hamasaki. Hamasaki went on to record a solo version on this song, which appeared on her fourth studio album, I am.... "A Song Is Born" "A Song Is Born" Oricon Sales Chart
A-side and B-side
The terms A-side and B-side refer to the two sides of 78, 45, 331⁄3 rpm phonograph records, or cassettes, whether singles, extended plays, or long-playing records. The A-side featured the recording that the artist, record producer, or the record company intended to receive the initial promotional effort and receive radio airplay to become a "hit" record; the B-side is a secondary recording that has a history of its own: some artists released B-sides that were considered as strong as the A-side and became hits in their own right. Others took the opposite approach: producer Phil Spector was in the habit of filling B-sides with on-the-spot instrumentals that no one would confuse with the A-side. With this practice, Spector was assured that airplay was focused on the side he wanted to be the hit side. Music recordings have moved away from records onto other formats such as CDs and digital downloads, which do not have "sides", but the terms are still used to describe the type of content, with B-side sometimes standing for "bonus" track.
The first sound recordings at the end of the 19th century were made on cylinder records, which had a single round surface capable of holding two minutes of sound. Early shellac disc records records only had recordings on one side of the disc, with a similar capacity. Double-sided recordings, with one selection on each side, were introduced in Europe by Columbia Records in 1908, by 1910 most record labels had adopted the format in both Europe and the United States. There were no record charts until the 1930s, radio stations did not play recorded music until the 1950s. In this time, A-sides and B-sides existed. In June 1948, Columbia Records introduced the modern 331⁄3 rpm long-playing microgroove vinyl record for commercial sales, its rival RCA Victor, responded the next year with the seven-inch 45 rpm vinylite record, which would replace the 78 for single record releases; the term "single" came into popular use with the advent of vinyl records in the early 1950s. At first, most record labels would randomly assign which song would be an A-side and which would be a B-side.
Under this random system, many artists had so-called "double-sided hits", where both songs on a record made one of the national sales charts, or would be featured on jukeboxes in public places. As time wore on, the convention for assigning songs to sides of the record changed. By the early sixties, the song on the A-side was the song that the record company wanted radio stations to play, as 45 rpm single records dominated the market in terms of cash sales, it was not until 1968, for example, that the total production of albums on a unit basis surpassed that of singles in the United Kingdom. In the late 1960s, stereo versions of pop and rock songs began to appear on 45s; the majority of the 45s were played on AM radio stations, which were not equipped for stereo broadcast at the time, so stereo was not a priority. However, the FM rock stations did not like to play monaural content, so the record companies adopted a protocol for DJ versions with the mono version of the song on one side, stereo version of the same song on the other.
By the early 1970s, double-sided hits had become rare. Album sales had increased, B-sides had become the side of the record where non-album, non-radio-friendly, instrumental versions or inferior recordings were placed. In order to further ensure that radio stations played the side that the record companies had chosen, it was common for the promotional copies of a single to have the "plug side" on both sides of the disc. With the decline of 45 rpm vinyl records, after the introduction of cassette and compact disc singles in the late 1980s, the A-side/B-side differentiation became much less meaningful. At first, cassette singles would have one song on each side of the cassette, matching the arrangement of vinyl records, but cassette maxi-singles, containing more than two songs, became more popular. Cassette singles were phased out beginning in the late 1990s, the A-side/B-side dichotomy became extinct, as the remaining dominant medium, the compact disc, lacked an equivalent physical distinction.
However, the term "B-side" is still used to refer to the "bonus" tracks or "coupling" tracks on a CD single. With the advent of downloading music via the Internet, sales of CD singles and other physical media have declined, the term "B-side" is now less used. Songs that were not part of an artist's collection of albums are made available through the same downloadable catalogs as tracks from their albums, are referred to as "unreleased", "bonus", "non-album", "rare", "outtakes" or "exclusive" tracks, the latter in the case of a song being available from a certain provider of music. B-side songs may be released on the same record as a single to provide extra "value for money". There are several types of material released in this way, including a different version, or, in a concept record, a song that does not fit into the story lin
"Love" is a song recorded by Japanese recording artist Ayumi Hamasaki, serving as the second single for her second studio album, Loveppears. It was released by Avex Trax in Japan and Taiwan on April 14, 1999, through Avex Entertainment Inc. worldwide in September 2008. The track was written by Hamasaki herself, while production was handled by long-time collaborator Max Matsuura. Three versions of the recording have been made available—a ballad version arranged by Tsunku, an edited version with vocals by Tsunku, a dance-influenced version included on Loveppears. Upon its release, "Love" received near universal acclaim from music critics, praising her vocal performance, with some highlighting the single as one of Hamasaki's best work. Commercially, the recording experienced success in Japan, reaching number one on the Oricon Singles Chart and TBS' Count Down TV chart, her first song to do so on either charts, it became Hamasaki's first single to sell over 500,000 units, was certified Platinum by the Recording Industry Association of Japan for shipments of 400,000 copies.
Due to the single's success, it re-entered both charts. An accompanying music video was directed by Wataru Takeishi, featured Hamasaki in a large skyscraper while singing to the song in different areas. In order to promote the single, it appeared on several remix and greatest hits compilation albums, live concert torus conducted by Hamasaki, it was used as the theme song for Japanese television show SemiDouble. To date, the recording remains one of her highest-selling singles according to Oricon Style. Three versions of the recording have been made available for purchase. "Love" served as Hamasaki's second single for her album Loveppears but did not appear on the album for unknown reasons. Written by the singer, the production process was handled by Max Matsuura whilst it was composed by Japanese musician and businessman Tsunku, who worked as the producer for Japanese group Morning Musume and vocalist of Sharan Q at that time; the composition was arranged by Shingo Kobayashi and Yasuaki Maejima, mixed by Atsushi Hattori.
The second version, "Love", portrayed a duet with Tsunki and featured songwriting credits by him during the English chorus. Being arranged by Takao Konishi and mixed by Koji Uchikado, the track appeared as an A-side single in Japan and Taiwan during its April 1999 release; the final counterpart of the recording was titled "Love", was composed by Tsunki, but arranged by Naoto Suzuki and programmed by Takahiro Iida. "Love" was added to the track list of Loveppears, is musically a dance song, a genre that influences the album. According to the demo sheet music published at Ultimate Guitar Archive, the recording is set in time signature of common time with a tempo of 89 beats per minute. Lyrically, each song was written in third person perspective, a trait, shared with the rest of the tracks on Loveppears; the lyrical content of the songs delves on a lonely woman. "Love" was released by Avex Trax in Japan and Taiwan on April 14, 1999, through Avex Entertainment Inc. worldwide in September 2008. The mini CD format featured a total of four tracks, with the first two being original recordings accompanied instrumentals.
Subsequently, on February 28, 2001, Avex Trax distributed a CD single including the four tracks from the mini CD, plus two remixes of Hamasaki's single "Kanariya" and one remix of a previous album track, "From Your Letter". The artwork of the CD and digital format was shot by Toru Kumazawa, featured an image of Hamasaki hugging an unidentified male. Upon its release, "Love" received widespread acclaim from music critics. A reviewer at Amazon was positive towards the songwriting, praised Hamasaki's "painful" and "love" performance. In 2015, Japanese website Goo.ne.jp hosted a 24-hour only poll for audiences in Japan to vote for their favorite single released by Hamasaki. Commercially, "Love" experienced success in Japan, it debuted inside the top ten on the Oricon Singles Chart, selling 70,540 in its first week of availability. The recording went to number one, becoming Hamasaki's first number one single on that chart, it lasted 26 weeks. Charting together as "Love"/"Love", both tracks debuted at number one on the Count Down TV chart hosted by Tokyo Broadcasting System, having become her first number one there as well, spent 26 weeks within the top 100.
By the end of 1999, "Love" sold over 650,790 units in Japan, thus being ranked at number 30 on Oricon's Annual 1999 chart behind two fellow releases of the singer, "Boys & Girls" and her extended play A. Likewise, it charted at number 28 on TBS' Annual Chart. In July 1999, the single was certified Platinum by the Recording Industry Association of Japan for shipments of 400,000 units; as of July 2016, "Love" marks the singer's 12th highest-selling song based on Oricon Style's database. Following the CD single release, "Love" charted at number 20 on the Oricon Singles Chart, the highest result from her re-released maxi CDs, it lasted four weeks within the top 100, sold 39,080 units. Additionally, the song reached number 100 on TBS Count Down TV chart on May 14, 2001, her lowest entry to date. An accompanying music video for the single was directed by Wataru Takeishi, it opens with Hamasaki watching her previous music videos on several television screens. Sitting in a small room, she exits it and finds a large number
Audience (Ayumi Hamasaki song)
"Audience" is a song by Japanese recording artist Ayumi Hamasaki from her third studio album Duty. It was released as the album's final single on 1 November 2000 by Avex Trax. Hamasaki wrote Max Matsuura Lewis produced it. Dai Nagao and HΛL composed both the single and album version; the single artwork was shot by Japanese photographer Toru Kumazawa and features duplicate clones of Hamasaki, resembling an audience. Musically, "Audience" is a dance -- disco song. "Audience" received positive reviews from music critics. It achieved lukewarm success in compare to her previous singles, with a peak position of number three on the Oricon Singles Chart and a gold certification by the Recording Industry Association of Japan; the single remains Hamasaki's twenty–seventh best selling single in Japan. No music video was shot for the single. Ayumi Hamasaki's track. Hamasaki begun work on Duty and followed a similar musical concept like her first two albums A Song for ×× and Loveppears. "Audience" was written by Hamasaki.
Majority of the lyrics were about loneliness, chaos and the burden of her responsibilities, aimed towards her public image as an recording artist. In contrast to "Audience", the trilogy singles focused on hopelessness, a reflection of Hamasaki's disappointment that she had not expressed herself in any of her previous lyrics, she described her feelings after the writing as "unnatural" and was "nervous" for the final result. The song was recorded in mid -- 2000 in Japan. Max Matsuura produced both the single version and the album version, with additional production handling by Naoto Suzuki for the single version. HΛL played the keyboard, Suzuki played the guitar and all other instruments were handled by Dai Nagao. "Audience" is a dance song. In comparison, Duty was a rock–influenced album and "Audience" was the only dance track on the album."Audience" was her third song to incorporate an English–language phrase, alongside her single "Whatever" and the b–side to "Love", "Love: Since 1999". But because "Audience" and "Whatever" used one–worded phrases and "Love: Since 1999" was not written by Hamasaki, it does not count in using English–language conversation like she did in her 2002 album Rainbow.
"Audience" was released on 1 November 2000 in CD format by Avex Trax. The maxi single features over nine remixes, one instrumental and an a cappella of "Seasons"; the cover sleeve features several clones of Hamasaki. The cover shoot was photographed by Japanese photographer Toru Kumazawa with a total off seven make–up and hair assistants. Shinichi Hara had directed the cover sleeve and has been Hamasaki's creative director for promotional work and began collaborating with her in 1998, his final work was directing the sleeve for Hamasaki's 2009 single "Sunrise/Sunset". A digital release of the single was released in Australia, New Zealand, North America and the United Kingdom. A vinyl was distributed in Japan only. "Audience" has featured on three greatest hits compilation albums by Hamasaki including the white deluxe edition of A Best 2, A Complete: All Singles and A Summer Best. No music video was shot for the single. Only a video commercial for the single was aired in Japan; this became Hamasaki's first single to not feature a music video.
"Audience" received favorable reviews from most music critics. Alexey Eremenko, who had written her extended biography at Allmusic, highlighted the song as an album and career stand out. A reviewer for CDJournal was positive towards the track, commending the production and calling it “fun” but “aggressive” Hamasaki hosted an online voting poll for fans to choose their favorite tracks to be featured on her Ayumi Hamasaki 15th Anniversary Tour Best Live Tour; as a result, "Audience" were featured on the list."Audience" debuted at number three on the Japanese Count Down TV chart. The song was unable to pass Misia's single "Everything" and Southern All Stars' single "Blue in Green", it fell to number eight the next week. It fell to sixteen in its third week, fell at number thirty and forty-six in its fourth and fifth week, respectively; the song fell to seventy-nine. "Audience" lasted eight weeks. In the 2000 annual Count Down TV chart, "Audience" was placed at ninety-two."Audience" was certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of Japan for shipment of 200,000 units.
"Audience" resulted in the lowest selling single off Duty, with only the lead "trilogy" singles selling over 500,000 units in Japan. Despite this result, "Audience" now remains Hamasaki's second best selling limited edition single to date with sales over 293,000 units, just behind "Fly High" which sold 300,000 units. "Audience" is her twenty–seventh best selling single. Hamasaki has performed "Audience" in all of her New Years countdown concerts up until the Ayumi Hamasaki Countdown Live 2006–2007 A, which became the songs last live performance at the countdown shows. Additionally, Hamasaki has performed "Audience" twice in her involvement with Avex Trax's concert A Nation, being performed in 2006 and the last performance being held in 2008."Audience" has been featured on several of Hamasaki's national and international tours that has spread throughout many Asian territories. The song had made its debut tour performance on Hamasaki's 2001 Ayumi Hama
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
J-pop, natively known as pops, is a musical genre that entered the musical mainstream of Japan in the 1990s. Modern J-pop has its roots in traditional Japanese music, but in 1960s pop and rock music, such as The Beatles and The Beach Boys, which led to Japanese rock bands such as Happy End fusing rock with Japanese music in the early 1970s. J-pop was further defined by new wave groups in the late 1970s electronic synth-pop band Yellow Magic Orchestra and pop rock band Southern All Stars. J-pop replaced kayōkyoku in the Japanese music scene; the term was coined by the Japanese media to distinguish Japanese music from foreign music and now refers to most Japanese popular music. Popular styles of Japanese pop music included technopop during the 1970s–1980s, city pop in the 1980s, Shibuya-kei in the 1990s; the origin of modern J-pop is said to be Japanese-language rock music inspired by the likes of The Beatles. Unlike the Japanese music genre called kayōkyoku, J-pop uses a special kind of pronunciation, similar to that of English.
One notable singer to do so is Keisuke Kuwata. Additionally, unlike Western music, the major second was not used in Japanese music, except art music, before rock music became popular in Japan; when the Group Sounds genre, inspired by Western rock, became popular, Japanese pop music adopted the major second, used in the final sounds of The Beatles' song "I Want to Hold Your Hand" and The Rolling Stones' song " Satisfaction". Although Japanese pop music changed from music based on Japanese pentatonic scale and distortional tetrachord to the more occidental music over time, music that drew from the traditional Japanese singing style remained popular. At first, the term J-pop was used only for Western-style musicians in Japan, such as Pizzicato Five and Flipper's Guitar, just after Japanese radio station J-Wave was established. On the other hand, Mitsuhiro Hidaka of AAA from Avex Trax said that J-pop was derived from the Eurobeat genre. However, the term became a blanket term, covering other music genres—such as the majority of Japanese rock music of the 1990s.
In 1990, the Japanese subsidiary of Tower Records defined J-pop as all Japanese music belonging to the Recording Industry Association of Japan except Japanese independent music. Ito Music City, a Japanese record store, adopted expanded classifications including Group Sounds, idol of the 1970s–1980s, enka and established musicians of the 1970s–1980s, in addition to the main J-pop genres. Whereas rock musicians in Japan hate the term "pop", Taro Kato, a member of pop punk band Beat Crusaders, pointed out that the encoded pop music, like pop art, was catchier than "J-pop" and he said that J-pop was the pops music, memorable for its frequency of airplay, in an interview when the band completed their first full-length studio album under a major label, P. O. A.: Pop on Arrival, in 2005. Because the band did not want to perform J-pop music, their album featured the 1980s Pop of MTV. According to his fellow band member Toru Hidaka, the 1990s music that influenced him was not listened to by fans of other music in Japan at that time.
In contrast to this, although many Japanese rock musicians until the late 1980s disrespected the kayōkyoku music, many of Japanese rock bands of the 1990s—such as Glay—assimilated kayōkyoku into their music. After the late 1980s, breakbeat and samplers changed the Japanese music scene, where expert drummers had played good rhythm because traditional Japanese music did not have the rhythm based on rock or blues. Hide of Greeeen described their music genre as J-pop, he said, "I love rock, hip hop and breakbeats, but my field is J-pop. For example, hip hop musicians learn'the culture of hip hop'. We are not like those musicians and we love the music as sounds much; those professional people may say'What are you doing?' but I think that our musical style is cool after all. The good thing is good." Japanese popular music, called ryūkōka before being split into enka and poppusu, has origins in the Meiji period, but most Japanese scholars consider the Taishō period to be the actual starting point of ryūkōka, as it is the era in which the genre first gained nationwide popularity.
By the Taishō period, Western musical techniques and instruments, introduced to Japan in the Meiji period, were used. Influenced by Western genres such as jazz and blues, ryūkōka incorporated Western instruments such as the violin and guitar. However, the melodies were written according to the traditional Japanese pentatonic scale. In the 1930s, Ichiro Fujiyama released popular songs with his tenor voice. Fujiyama sang songs with a lower volume than opera through the microphone. Jazz musician Ryoichi Hattori attempted to produce Japanese native music which had a "flavor" of blues, he composed Noriko Awaya's hit song "Wakare no Blues". Awaya was called "Queen of Blues" in Japan. Due to pressure from the Imperial Army during the war, the performance of jazz music was temporarily halted in Japan. Hattori, who