Counties of Romania
A total of 41 counties, along with the municipality of Bucharest, constitute the official administrative divisions of Romania. They represent the country's NUTS-3 statistical subdivisions within the European Union and each of them serves as the local level of government within its borders. Most counties are named after a major river, while some are named after notable cities within them, such as the county seat; the earliest organization into județe of the Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia dates back to at least the late 14th century. For most of the time since modern Romania was formed in 1859, the administrative division system has been similar to the French departments one; the system has been changed several times since and the number of counties has varied over time, from the 71 județe that existed before World War II to only 39 after 1968. The current format has been in place since 1968 as only small changes have been made since the last of, in 1997. According to a 2011 census data from the National Institute of Statistics, the average population of Romania's 41 counties is about 445,000, with Iași County as the most populous and Covasna County the least.
The average county's land area is 5,809 square kilometres, with Timiș County the largest and Ilfov County the smallest. The municipality of Bucharest, which has the same administrative level as that of a county, is both more populous and much smaller than any county, with 1,883,425 people and 228 square kilometres; the earliest organization into județe, ținuturi, dates back at least to the late 14th century. Inspired from the organization of the late Byzantine Empire, each județ was ruled by a jude, a person appointed with administrative and judicial functions. Transylvania was divided into royal counties headed by comes with administrative and judicial functions. After modern Romania was formed in 1859 through the union of Wallachia and the rump of Moldavia, the administrative division was modernized using the French administrative system as a model, with județ as the basic administrative unit. Aside from the 1950–1968 period, this system has remained in place until today. Since 1864, for each județ there exists a prefect, a subordinate of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and representative of the government inside the county.
Until 1948, each județ was further divided into several plăși, each administered by a pretor. After the adoption of a new Constitution in 1923, the traditional local administrative systems of the newly acquired regions of Transylvania and Bessarabia were made uniform in 1925 with that of the Romanian Old Kingdom. County borders were kept intact, with few adjustments, the total number of counties was raised to 71. In 1938, King Carol II modified the law on the administration of the Romanian territory according to the fascist model. Ten ținuturi were ruled by Rezidenți Regali, appointed directly by the Monarch; the ținuturi represented another layer of administration between counties and the country, as the county borders were not erased. Due to the territorial changes during World War II, this style of administration did not last, the administration at the județ level was reintroduced after the war. Between 1941–1944, Romania administered the territory between the Dniester and Southern Bug rivers known as Transnistria, which consisted of 13 separate counties.
After taking over the administration of the country in 1945, the Communist Party changed the administrative model to that of the Soviet Union in 1950, but changed it back in 1968. The county borders set were quite different from those present during the interbellum, as only 39 counties were formed from the 56 remaining after the war. In 1981, Giurgiu and Călărași were split from Ialomița and the former county of Ilfov, while in 1997, Ilfov County, a dependency of the municipality of Bucharest for nearly two decades, was reinstated; the county borders set in 1968 are still in place today, but the functions of different authorities have changed due to administrative reforms in the 1990s. At present, Romania is divided into one municipality; each of the counties is further divided into communes. The prefect and his administration have executive prerogatives within the county limits, while limited legislative powers are assigned to a County Council elected every four years during local elections.
The territorial districts of the Romanian judicial system overlap with county borders, thus avoiding further complication in the separation of powers on the government. Communes of Romania Development regions of Romania List of Romania county name etymologies Former administrative divisions of Romania List of Romanian counties by population List of cities and towns in Romania List of Romanian counties by foreign trade Municipiu Blog of the Romanian Royalty House showing various maps with the previous administrative divisions of Romania. Current and historical divisions of Romania at Statoids.com "Geopolitical Entities and Their Codes". National Institute of Standards and Technology. Archived from the original on 2010-08-22. Retrieved 2010-
Deta is a town in Timiș County in Banat, western Romania. It administers Opatița. In German: Detta. Opatița is known as Ungarisch-Opatitz in German, as Magyarapáca in Hungarian. In 2002: Romanians, Germans, Roma. Timiș County List of cities and towns in Romania www.detatm.ro
Lugoj is a city in Timiș County, western Romania. The Timiș River divides the city into two halves, the so-called Romanian Lugoj that spreads on the right bank and the German Lugoj on the left bank, it is the seat of the Eparchy of Lugoj in the Romanian Church United with Greek-Catholic. The city administers Măguri and Tapia. In German: Lugosch. In Hungarian, Măguri is called Szendelak, Tapia is known as Tápia. Lugoj was once a fortified city that developed along the Timiș River. During the Middle Ages and eighteenth century, it was of greater relative importance than at present. A diploma dated Wednesday 22 August 1376, signed by King Sigismund of Luxemburg, shows that Lugoj city was donated to landowners Ladislaus and Stephen Loszonczy. At the end of the 14th century, after the Battle of Nicopolis, the Turks crossed the Danube, invading Banat and reached the gates of Lugoj. During major campaigns against the Turks, Hunyadi, as a comite of Timis, took steps to organize the city's defense system.
He strengthened the city with trenches and palisades. The Banate of Lugoj-Caransebeș resisted Ottoman pressures until 1658, when Ákos Barcsay, Prince of Transylvania, asked Lugoj and Caransebeș to accept the decision taken by the Diet of Sighișoara to agree to Turkish occupation. After the defeat of the Turks during the Battle of Vienna in 1683, the Habsburgs went on the offensive and occupied the cities of Lugoj and Lipova. On September 25, 1695 the battle between the armies of the Habsburg Empire and the Ottoman Empire that took place near Lugoj ended with the defeat of the Austrians. After signing the Treaty of Karlovitz, Banat remained under Ottoman rule for nearly 20 years; the Treaty of Passarowitz was signed and the Turks were expelled. The Habsburg Monarchy wanted to repopulate the Banat, which had emptied following the years of occupation and earlier bubonic plague; the government recruited Germans from Bavaria and Alsace-Lorraine farmers to revive agriculture in the rich floodplain.
They traveled down the Danube River on boats to this area. They took the rafts apart to use to build their first houses. In this area, the first German colonists settled on the left bank of the river Timis, creating what was called "German Lugoj"; the government had offered them the privileges of keeping their German religion. In the 18th century, many public buildings were built in the city, including the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church "Assumption". In 1778, following the incorporation of Banat into Hungary, Lugoj became the county seat of Caras. In 1795 the government unified the German Lugoj. Eftimie Murgu settled in Lugoj in 1841. In June 1848 he chaired the second National Assembly of Romanians of Banat, where they expressed in postulates the National Order of Romanians during the Revolutionary Movement from Banat, whose center was Lugoj. In the summer of 1842 a great fire took place, in which about 400 houses and important buildings were destroyed. In August 1849 Lugoj was the last seat of the Hungarian revolutionary government.
It served as the last refuge of Lajos Kossuth and several other leaders of the Revolution prior to their escape to the Ottoman Empire. Under the imperial resolution of 12 December 1850, Lugoj became the seat of the Greek-Catholic Diocese of Banat. Lugoj was the seat of Krassó-Szörény County from 1881 to 1918. Following the break-up of Austria-Hungary at the end of World War I, the Banat, after a brief period of Serbian occupation, came under Romanian administration. Severin County was organized and named, its seat was located in Lugoj until the temporary abolition of counties in 1950; the Iron Bridge, a symbol of Lugoj, was built in 1902. On November 3, 1918 a Great National Assembly took place in Lugoj; the right of self-determination of the Romanian nation was proclaimed after the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in World War I. In modern times, the city was the home town of famous Dracula actor Bela Lugosi. Lugosi's family name was Blaskó. Coriolan Brediceanu National College Iulia Hașdeu National College Aurel Vlaicu School Group Valeriu Braniște College Drăgan European University of Lugoj Simona Arghir, handballer Caius Brediceanu, diplomat Coriolan Brediceanu and lawyer Tiberiu Brediceanu, composer Corina Caprioriu, judoka Aurel Ciupe, painter Konstantin Danil, portraiture painter Georges Devereux, ethnopsychologist Iosif Constantin Drăgan and author Traian Grozăvescu, opera tenor György Kurtág, composer Bela Lugosi, actor Lavinia Miloșovici, gymnast Victor Neumann, historian Dumitru Pârvulescu, wrestler Aurel Popovici, politician Josef Posipal, soccer player Otilia Ruicu-Eșanu, 400m athlete Aura Twarowska, mezzo-soprano Lugoj is twinned with: Vršac Szekszárd Orléans Jena Assos-Lechaio Nisporeni Monopoli City Hall site Lugojul - local info site Lugoj Lugoj fun "Drăgan" European University of Lugoj Actualitatea, weekly newspaper Redeşteptarea, weekly newspaper Lugoj Online, online newspaper
Balinț is a commune in Timiș County, Romania. It is composed of four villages: Balinț, Bodo, Fădimac and Târgoviște
Cenad is a commune in Timiș County, Romania. It is composed of Cenad; the village serves. Cenad was known until the 13th century as Morisena; the legionary camp of the Legio XIII Gemina was located there. In the Middle Ages, the site was a temporary capital for Huns and for Avars, it was subsequently ruled by the First Bulgarian Empire, prior to the Hungarian conquest. In 1028 or 1030, Chanadinus, a local pretender to Ahtum's duchy, rebelled against Ahtum and conquered the duchy with the help of Magyars. Cenad was the site of a bishopric in the Middle Ages, its first bishop was Saint Gerard. It was the initial seat of Csanád County, until 1526, it was part of the Eastern Hungarian Kingdom between 1551, before the Ottoman conquest. It was the centre of the Sanjak of Çanad between 1551 and 1595 and again between 1598 and 1707. From 1707 to 1716, it was a kaza centre within the Sanjak of Temeşvar in the Eyalet of Temeşvar. Ottoman rule there was interrupted when the area was occupied by the Principality of Transylvania between 1595 and 1598, ended with the Austrian conquest in 1716.
It was part of the Banat of Temesvar between 1716 and 1778 and of Nagyszentmiklós district in Torontal County between 1778 and 1918. It was occupied by Serbian troops in 1918 and passed to Romania after the Treaty of Trianon in 1920. At the 2011 census, of those for whom ethnic data were available, 66.2% of inhabitants were Romanians, 12.9% Hungarians, 12.9% Roma, 6.7% Serbs and 0.7% Germans
Făget is a town in Timiș County, western Romania, with a population of about 6,500. Its name means "beech tree forest" in Romanian. In German: Fatschet; the town administers ten villages: Bătești, Begheiu Mic, Bichigi, Brănești, Bunea Mare, Bunea Mică, Colonia Mică, Jupânești, Povârgina and Temerești. In 2002: Romanians, Germans, Serbs; the town is situated in the center of a distinct ethno-folkloric area, at the north-west side of the Poiana Ruscă mountains, on the DN68 national road. The road stretches from Ilia to Lugoj—and on the CFR 212 railroad line. At the north side of Făget, the Bega river is visible. Around it there are still signs of a medieval fortification dating back to 1548; the town has on display busts of Eftimie Murgu, Victor Feneșiu and the aviation pioneer Traian Vuia
Buziaș is a town in Timiș County, Romania. As of 2011, it had a population of 6,504. In German: Busiasch, in Hungarian: Buziás or Buziásfürdő, in Serbian: Бузјаш or Buzjaš; the town was first mentioned in 1321 in a document of Charles I of Hungary. It was declared a city in 1956, it administers two villages and Silagiu. Buziaș is an old health spa, the first establishments being built in 1819. In 1839 was declared a spa; the mineral waters of Buziaș are used in the treatment of a wide range of diseases. They are bottled for common use; the park of Buziaș, with a surface of over 20 ha, is a dendrological park with many rare species of trees, the most important being the plane. The architectural symbolic element of the spa is the covered colonnade of the park built in Turkish-Byzantine style, unique to Romania; the only two other similar promenades in Europe are found in Karlovy Baden-Baden. Train services to Gataia and Jamu Mare are operated by Regiotrans. According to 2011 census