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Portuguese Timorese pataca

The pataca was a monetary unit of account used in Portuguese Timor between 1894 and 1958, except for the period 1942–1945, when the occupying Japanese forces introduced the Netherlands Indies gulden and the roepiah. As in the case of the Macanese pataca, still in use today, the East Timor unit was based on the silver Mexican dollar coins which were prolific in the wider region in the 19th century; these Mexican dollar coins were in turn the lineal descendants of the Spanish pieces of eight, introduced to the region by the Portuguese through Portuguese Malacca, by the Spanish through the Manila Galleon trade. The pataca was first introduced in Portuguese Macau and Portuguese Timor in the year 1894, but only as a unit of account for the silver Mexican dollar coins that circulated in the region at that time. In 1894, Macau and Portuguese Timor constituted one single administrative entity, but in 1896 Portuguese Timor became autonomous from Macau. In those days there was no single currency in circulation in Macau and East Timor, trade was dominated by the silver dollar coins, not only of Mexico, but of China, as well as the British silver trade dollars that were minted for use in Hong Kong and the Straits Settlements.

In East Timor, the 2½ Gulden coin of the neighbouring Netherlands East Indies corresponded to a silver dollar. In 1901 in Macau, it was decided to create a purely local currency, the authorities granted the Banco Nacional Ultramarino exclusive rights to print legal tender banknotes; these pataca banknotes were launched in 1906 at a sterling value of 2s 4d — the same as the new Straits dollar, issued in that same year. As in the Straits Settlements, all foreign coinage was outlawed, with the intention that the new currencies should establish their own market values; the Chinese were suspicious of these paper patacas, being accustomed to using silver for barter, so the paper patacas always circulated at a discount in relation to the silver dollar coins. These Macau banknotes circulated in East Timor, but in 1912 they were supplemented by local Timor issues for the first time. While the pataca continued at a discount to the silver dollars that were used in silver standard countries such as China and Hong Kong, the Straits dollar was pegged to sterling in a gold exchange standard, so the two currencies floated apart.

In 1935, when China and Hong Kong abandoned the silver standard, the pataca was pegged to the Portuguese escudo at a rate of 1 pataca = 5.5 escudos, making it equivalent to the British shilling and putting it at a 3d sterling discount in relation to the Hong Kong unit, at a 1s 4d discount in relation to the Straits dollar. In 1942, during the Second World War, the pataca was replaced by Japanese issues of the Netherlands Indies gulden at par; the gulden had been on the gold standard until the 1930s, had risen in value against the pataca so that the pataca was now closer in value to 1 gulden rather than the 2½ gulden rate that had prevailed around 1900. When the pataca was reintroduced in 1945, it was pegged to the Portuguese escudo at a rate of 5.5 escudos = 1 pataca and fractional coins denominated in avos were issued for the first time. In 1951, minting of avo coins ceased though in 1952 a full set of pataca coinage, including coins denominated in avos and a pataca coin, was issued in Macau.

In 1958, the pataca was replaced by the escudo at the rate of 1 pataca = 5.6 escudos. In 1975, Portuguese Timor was invaded by Indonesia, Indonesian currency was introduced; when this territory was established as an independent state in 2002, the US dollar was made the official currency. The US dollar was descended from the Spanish pieces of eight but it broke parity with the silver dollars of south-east Asia and Latin America following the great international silver devaluation of 1873. In 1945, bronze 10 avos, nickel-bronze 20 avos and silver 50 avos coins were introduced; the sizes of these coins matched 1 and 2 1/2 escudos. Coins were issued until 1951. In 1912, the Banco Nacional Ultramarino introduced notes in denominations of 1, 5, 10 and 20 patacas. 25 patacas notes from Macao circulated. In 1940, notes of 5, 10 and 50 avos were introduced; some of these notes were overprints of Macanese notes, as were the 5, 25 and 100 patacas notes introduced in 1945. The same year, specific issues for Timor were introduced in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20 and 25 patacas, followed by 20 avos in 1948.

Macanese pataca

Amie Casey

Amie Casey is an Australian actress and producer. Amie Casey grew up in Bellambi, she attended Wollongong High School Of The Performing Arts before relocating to Maryborough, Queensland as a teenager. Amie participated in multiple school plays, she moved to Brisbane upon graduation at Aldridge State High School in 2008 to pursue a career in the arts. Amie resides in Brisbane and is the mother of two children and Shoaib, she is an animal advocate of female rights. In 2011 Amie began modelling for local brands throughout the Gold Coast, she soon moved into styling and fashion design and launched a wearable couture label in 2014 called Kill Casey. The label failed to take off and 2015 saw Amie propelled into the film and television industry where she acted in a number of local productions, including BMC's short film'9ball', directed by Darwin Brooks. Amie joined the Stage One International Film Festival team for 2015/2016 as the Entertainment Director. Late 2015, Amie joined the production "We Were Tomorrow" as a co-producer, which stars Chai Hansen, Gyton Grantley, Alicia Banit and Madeleine Kennedy.

A feature film, the production reformatted in 2016 as a television series and other well known actors joined the cast, including Tessa James, Johnny Brady and Nic Westaway. In early 2017, Amie joined the Queensland television production "Stage Mums" as a producer and contributed to the full eight episodic third season

José Manuel Colmenero Crespo

José Manuel Colmenero Crespo, known as José Manuel, is a Spanish former footballer who played as a right midfielder. José Manuel was born in Asturias. A product of hometown's Sporting de Gijón youth academy, he was not successful in his first stint with the club but, after a loan spell with RCD Mallorca in the second division in the 1996–97 campaign, with promotion, he returned as a full member of the main squad, but Sporting were relegated from La Liga in his first year back. Having attracted attention from Deportivo de La Coruña in 1999 and subsequently purchased for €300.000, Manuel would begin a series of loan spells in the first and second levels, adding to this a short experience with Germany's Hannover 96 in the Bundesliga. Released in June 2003 he resumed his career in division three, retiring well into his 30s. During this timeframe he played for CD Roquetas, in the third but in the fourth divisions. José Manuel at BDFutbol José Manuel at fussballdaten.de José Manuel at WorldFootball.net

2013 South American U-17 Championship

The 2013 South American Under-17 Football Championship was the 15th U-17 tournament for national teams affiliated with CONMEBOL. It was held in Argentina; this tournament gave four berths to the 2013 FIFA U-17 World Cup, held in United Arab Emirates. Argentina was chosen as host country, as agreed at a meeting of the Executive Committee of CONMEBOL on March 18, 2011 at the headquarters of South American football being located in Luque, Paraguay; the meeting lasted about 3 hours and during that time it was decided to have Argentina as the headquarters for both the 2013 South American U-17 and U-20 Tournaments in 2013. Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Paraguay Peru Uruguay Venezuela A total of two cities hosted the tournament; the list of referees selected for the tournament was announced on March 9, 2013 by CONMEBOL's Referee Commission. The referees were: When teams finished level on points, the final order was determined according to: superior goal difference in all matches greater number of goals scored in all group matches better result in matches between the tied teams drawing of lots Venue: Estadio Provincial Juan Gilberto Funes, San Luis Venue: Estadio Malvinas Argentinas, Mendoza Venue: Estadio Provincial Juan Gilberto Funes, San Luis 2013 FIFA U-17 World Cup CONMEBOL Official website

Thomas B. Hagen

Thomas Bailey Hagen is an American billionaire businessman, the Chairman and former CEO of Erie Insurance Group, the son-in-law of the company's founder. Hagen was born circa 1935/1936, he attended Penn State Behrend from 1953 to 1955, earned a bachelor's degree from Ohio State University in 1957. As of 2018, Hagen has worked for Erie for over 40 years and is the chairman of Erie Insurance Group, having been its CEO from 1990 to 1993. Hagen was Secretary of Commerce and Secretary of Community & Economic Development for the state of Pennsylvania from January 1995 to March 1997. Hagen was married to the daughter of the co-founder Erie Insurance, H. O. Hirt, she was Erie's longest serving director. They had two children, Jonathan Hirt Hagen, Sarah Hagen McWilliams. Hagen lives in Pennsylvania. In 2017, Hagen gave $1.5 million to Mercyhurst University's history department, renamed in his honour. As of 2017, Hagen and Erie Insurance Group was involved in restoration efforts in Erie, Pennsylvania