Muir Beach, California
Muir Beach is a census designated place, unincorporated community, beach, located 16.5 miles northwest of San Francisco in western Marin County, United States. It is named for John Muir; the population was 310 at the 2010 census. The community itself flanks the northwest side of the beach. Located about 2 miles from the entrance to Muir Woods National Monument, the beach is about 1000 feet long and 200 feet wide, with coarse sand and several large boulders. Redwood Creek empties into the beach. There is a parking lot at the beach, accessible via a footbridge; the beach was called Big Lagoon after a freshwater lagoon, located where the parking lot is now. Damage from 20th century dairy farms interfered with the flow of the lagoon. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 0.5 square miles, all of it land. The beach is one of the cleanest in the state; the 2010 United States Census reported that Muir Beach had a population of 310. The population density was 629.0 people per square mile.
The racial makeup of Muir Beach was 283 White, 5 African American, 1 Native American, 12 Asian, 1 from other races, 8 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7 persons; the Census reported that 95.8% of the population lived in households and 4.2% lived in non-institutionalized group quarters. There were 141 households, out of which 27 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 79 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 4 had a female householder with no husband present, 3 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 11 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 1 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 39 households were made up of individuals and 11 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.11. There were 86 families; the population was spread out with 38 people under the age of 18, 10 people aged 18 to 24, 56 people aged 25 to 44, 138 people aged 45 to 64, 68 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 52.6 years.
For every 100 females, there were 102.6 males. For every 100 females aged 18 and over, there were 106.1 males. There were 162 housing units at an average density of 328.7 per square mile, of which 73.8% were owner-occupied and 26.2% were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.0%. 75.2% of the population lived in owner-occupied housing units and 20.6% lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 295 people, 131 households, 69 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 596.8 people per square mile. There were 144 housing units at an average density of 291.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP in 2010 was 89.7% non-Hispanic White, 0.8% non-Hispanic African American, 3.9% Asian, 2.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.3% of the population. There were 131 households out of which 19.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.0% were married couples living together, 5.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 46.6% were non-families.
30.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.22 and the average family size was 2.67. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 14.2% under the age of 18, 2.7% from 18 to 24, 26.1% from 25 to 44, 46.8% from 45 to 64, 10.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 48 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.3 males. For every 100 females aged 18 and over, there were 91.7 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $125,402, the median income for a family was $152,174; the per capita income for the CDP was $66,476. None of the families and 10.5% of the population were living below the poverty line. Muir Beach is in the Mill Valley School District, Tamalpais Union High School District, the Marin Community College District. Students attend public schools in or near Mill Valley at Tamalpais Valley Elementary School, Mill Valley Middle School, Tamalpais High School. Muir Beach is unincorporated, receiving general government services from Marin County, including law enforcement, land-use planning, public health, code enforcement.
A special district, the Muir Beach Community Services District, provides local services, including fire protection, road maintenance, recreation. The District has a board of directors, with five members elected to four-year terms; the District includes all of the Muir Beach CDP, plus Green Gulch Farm. Muir Beach California Coastal Records Project, "Town of Muir Beach" Muir Beach Community Services District Muir Woods National Monument Golden Gate National Recreation Area Mt. Tamalpais State Park Redwood Creek Watershed
Point Reyes Station, California
Point Reyes Station is a small unincorporated town located in western Marin County, California. Point Reyes Station is located 13 miles south-southeast of Tomales, at an elevation of 39 feet. Point Reyes Station is located along State Route 1 and is a gateway to the Point Reyes National Seashore, an popular national preserve. About 350 people live in the town, it is the name of a census-designated place in northern California covering the unincorporated town and surrounding countryside, with a total CDP population of 848. Point Reyes Station is located at 38°04′09″N 122°48′25″W, just south and east of the southern end of Tomales Bay, east of the San Andreas Fault just before the fault submerges down the center of Tomales Bay. An actual port and railway terminus, Point Reyes Station, CA nominally borders Tomales Bay; the CDP has a total area of 3.62 sq mi, all land. Once land of the Coast Miwok Indians, Point Reyes Station gets its name from the nearby Point Reyes Peninsula and its status as a terminus stop on the North Pacific Coast Railroad connecting Cazadero to the Sausalito ferry.
Point Reyes Station is close to the San Andreas Fault, responsible for the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. At one time, the epicenter of the quake was thought to be near Olema. A walking tour of the fault can be taken from the Point Reyes National Seashore's Visitor Center; the place was called Olema Station when the railroad arrived in 1875. The Point Reyes post office opened in 1882, changed its name to Marin in 1891, changed it back to Point Reyes in 1891, changed it to Point Reyes Station in 1891; the 2010 United States Census reported that Point Reyes Station had a population of 848. The population density was 234.5 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Point Reyes Station was 725 White, 7 African American, 3 Native American, 10 Asian, 73 from other races, 30 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 155 persons; the Census reported. There were 412 households, out of which 87 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 168 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 19 had a female householder with no husband present, 21 had a male householder with no wife present.
There were 19 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 4 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 172 households were made up of individuals and 90 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.06. There were 208 families; the population was spread out with 155 people under the age of 18, 48 people aged 18 to 24, 152 people aged 25 to 44, 299 people aged 45 to 64, 194 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 51.1 years. For every 100 females, there were 81.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.4 males. There were 490 housing units at an average density of 135.5 per square mile, of which 50.2% were owner-occupied and 49.8% were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 0%. 50.6% of the population lived in owner-occupied housing units and 49.4% lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 818 people, 352 households, 218 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 225.1 people per square mile.
There were 373 housing units at an average density of 102.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP in 2010 was 77.8% non-Hispanic White, 0.6% non-Hispanic African American, 1.1% Asian, 2.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 18.3% of the population. There were 352 households out of which 27.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.1% were married couples living together, 8.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.8% were non-families. 29.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.83. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 19.3% under the age of 18, 7.1% from 18 to 24, 23.1% from 25 to 44, 35.8% from 45 to 64, 14.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females, there were 85.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.3 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $57,292, the median income for a family was $69,821.
Males had a median income of $41,181 versus $38,269 for females. The per capita income for the CDP was $39,339. About 6.0% of families and 6.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including none of those under age 18 and 15.5% of those age 65 or over. A number of agricultural companies, many using organic and sustainable practices, are located there, including Cowgirl Creamery and Point Reyes Farmstead Cheese Company. Marin Organic operates out of the city. List of people from Marin County, California West Marin Citizen homepage The Point Reyes Light homepage Point Reyes Station Pub
Olema is an unincorporated community in Marin County, California. It is located on Olema Creek 2.25 miles south-southeast of Point Reyes Station, at an elevation of 69 feet. Olema is along State Route 1 at its intersection with Sir Francis Drake Boulevard, on the eastern edge of the Point Reyes Peninsula in the western part of Marin County. "Olema-loke" is Miwok Indian for little coyote. Olema was once thought to be the epicenter of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake due to the huge fault rifts still visible via a nearby hiking path. There are historical references to this including at shops and restaurants. However, more recent evidence suggests that a location near Daly City is more the epicenter. Olema was the title subject of the late-1960s country-rock song, "Hippie from Olema", The Youngbloods' rejoinder to Merle Haggard's "Okie from Muskogee"; the Olema post office opened in 1859, closed in 1860, re-opened in 1864. Olema has a few shops, two restaurants, a lodge, several bed and breakfasts.
Nearby is a large campground and a large retreat for the Vedanta Society. The Bear Valley Visitor Center, a quarter-mile from town on Bear Valley Road, provides a standard starting point for a visit to the Point Reyes National Seashore. Inside the center are exhibits and books for sale. Outside are picnic tables, a Morgan horse ranch, Kule Loklo, a reconstructed Miwok village. In the state legislature, Olema is in the 6th Assembly District. Federally, Olema is in California's 2nd congressional district, represented by Democrat Jared Huffman
Bolinas is an unincorporated coastal community in Marin County, California. The census designated place is located on the California coast 13 miles northwest of San Francisco by air; the community is known for its reclusive residents. It is only accessible via unmarked roads. Bolinas sits at an elevation of 36 feet above sea level, it is bound on the northeast by Bolinas Lagoon and Kent Island and on the south by Bolinas Bay and Duxbury Point. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 5.8 square miles, all of it land. The GNIS has cited archaic alternate town-names, including "Ballenas", "Baulenas", "Baulings", "Bawlines". Bolinas' downtown is located on the eastern side of town along Wharf Road, which ends at Bolinas Lagoon; the downtown buildings were built between 1850 and 1920. Brighton Avenue connects downtown to the south-facing Brighton Beach. In the southeast corner of town is the Little Mesa; the Big Mesa known as the Gridded Mesa, lies to the west, with Agate Beach at its western end.
By air, Bolinas is just 10 miles west-southwest of San Rafael, 13 miles northwest of San Francisco. While located just 2 miles from State Route 1, the area is not accessible by car; the driving time from San Rafael is 52 minutes, it takes over an hour to drive to downtown San Francisco. Bolinas lies west of the San Andreas Fault, which runs the length of Bolinas Lagoon and continues northward through Olema Valley and Tomales Bay. Bolinas and the Point Reyes peninsula are on the Pacific Plate, moving north relative to Stinson Beach and the North American Plate at an average rate of about 1 inch per year. Point Reyes National Seashore borders Bolinas to the northwest. Duxbury Reef State Marine Conservation Area encompasses Bolinas' western shoreline. Prior to the European colonization of California, the Coast Miwok lived in the area calling the area "Bali-N."Bolinas and present-day Stinson Beach were once encompassed by Rancho Las Baulines, a Mexican land grant given by Governor Pío Pico to Gregorio Briones in 1846.
The first post office in the town of Bolinas opened in 1863. In 1927, a 300-acre former dairy farm on the Big Mesa was subdivided into a grid of streets and 5,336 lots measuring 20' by 100'. Many of these lots were sold for $69.50 by the San Francisco Bulletin as a subscription promotion. Portions of the mesa, including sections of Ocean Parkway, have since eroded into the sea. A few streets on the mesa are paved and maintained by the county, but many are unpaved, either maintained by adjoining property owners or unmaintained; the Big Mesa has no sewer system, houses on the mesa have individual septic systems. In 1967, the Bolinas Community Public Utility District was formed by the Marin County Board of Supervisors, it merged two local water districts, the Bolinas Beach Public Utility District which served the Big Mesa, the Bolinas Public Utility District which served the Downtown and Little Mesa, with the Marin County Sanitary District #3, formed in 1908 to provide sewer service in the downtown.
The BCPUD provides water service and solid waste pickup throughout Bolinas, sewer service to the Downtown and Little Mesa. Bolinas' beaches were hit hard by the 1971 San Francisco Bay oil spill, with the community coming together to clean the beach of crude oil. In November 1971, the Bolinas Community Public Utility District instituted a moratorium on new water permits, which halted the construction of new homes; the moratorium was based on the limited local water supply during the summer months and in drought years, serves to limit new development in Bolinas. In 1990, the BCPUD enacted a moratorium on new sewer connections, to address the limited capacity of the sewage collection system. Many lots on the Big Mesa, remain undeveloped. Bolinas and its reclusive reputation are featured in the 1981 novel Ecotopia Emerging by Ernest Callenbach. In November 2003, Bolinas voters adopted Measure G, an advisory ballot measure declaring Bolinas "A acknowledged nature-loving town"; the Bolinas Museum was founded in 1983.
Today, it contains five galleries featuring contemporary art, historical information, works from local artists. Today, it puts on events for locals and visitors alike. Wildflowers, a film starring Daryl Hannah, was filmed in Bolinas. 2010The 2010 United States Census reported that the Bolinas CDP had a population of 1,620. The population density was 278.0 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Bolinas was 1,406 White, 27 African American, 10 Native American, 17 Asian, 14 Pacific Islander, 64 from other races, 82 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 260 persons; the Census reported that 88.4 percent of the population lived in households and 11.6 percent lived in non-institutionalized group quarters. There were 698 households, out of which 144 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 259 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 54 had a female householder with no husband present, 32 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 49 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, nine same-sex married couples or partnerships.
There were 280 households made up of individuals and 98 had someone living alone, 65 y
Stinson Beach, California
Stinson Beach is a census-designated place in Marin County, California, on the west coast of the United States. Stinson Beach is located 2.5 miles east-southeast of Bolinas, at an elevation of 26 feet. The population of the Stinson Beach CDP was 632 at the 2010 census. Stinson Beach is about a 35-minute drive from the Golden Gate Bridge on California's Highway 1, it is near important attractions such as Muir Woods National Monument, Muir Beach, Mount Tamalpais. It has a long beach, the cold water produces fog throughout the year. Stinson Beach is a popular day trip for people in the San Francisco Bay Area and for tourists visiting northern California. Although most visitors arrive by private car, Stinson Beach is linked to Marin City by a daily bus service, the network of hiking trails around Mount Tamalpais reaches the town; the beach is one of the cleanest in the state, sandy, unlike the rockier neighboring beach in Bolinas. Nathan H. Stinson bought land at the site in 1866. In 1870, the first road was built along the Pacific coast from Sausalito, a tent settlement sprang up amongst the willow trees at the beach, which gave rise to the town's original name, Willow Camp.
The Mt. Tamalpais & Muir Woods Railway opened in 1896. Visitors could ride the train to West Point Inn and hike or arrange a stagecoach to take them to the beach. In 1906, refugees from the San Francisco earthquake came to the area and built some of the area's first businesses. Stinson Beach became the official town name in 1916, in honor of the largest landowners and Nathan Stinson; the first post office opened in 1916. In 1939, the beach was sold to Marin County, it was transferred to the State of California in 1950, was transferred to the National Park Service in 1977. Stinson Beach is located at 37 ° 54 ′ 02 ″ N 122 ° 38 ′ 40 ″ W, between Muir Beach; the CDP has a total area of 1.46 square miles, of which, 1.44 square miles of it is land and 0.02 square miles of it is water. The 2010 United States Census reported that Stinson Beach had a population of 632; the population density was 433.1 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Stinson Beach was 582 White, 3 African American, 8 Native American, 14 Asian, 1 Pacific Islander, 9 from other races, 15 from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 33 persons. The Census reported that 629 people lived in households, 3 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 339 households, out of which 50 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 134 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 14 had a female householder with no husband present, 10 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 26 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 8 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 147 households were made up of individuals and 45 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.86. There were 158 families; the population was spread out with 76 people under the age of 18, 26 people aged 18 to 24, 117 people aged 25 to 44, 278 people aged 45 to 64, 135 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 54.4 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.1 males.
There were 773 housing units at an average density of 529.8 per square mile, of which 209 were owner-occupied, 130 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.3%. 425 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 204 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 751 people, 374 households, 178 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 712 people per square mile. There were 693 housing units at an average density of 657/sq mi; the racial makeup of the CDP in 2010 was 89.6% non-Hispanic White, 0.5% non-Hispanic African American, 0.2% Native American, 2.2% Asian, 0.2% from Pacific Islander, 0.5% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.2% of the population. There were 374 households out of which 18.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.6% were married couples living together, 4.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 52.4% were non-families. 42.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 1.98 and the average family size was 2.75. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 16.9% under the age of 18, 3.3% from 18 to 24, 25.8% from 25 to 44, 39.4% from 45 to 64, 14.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 47 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.0 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $87,679, the median income for a family was $105,827. Males had a median income of $58,750 versus $56,875 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $62,452. About 3.8% of families and 5.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.8% of those under the age of eighteen and 10.4% of those sixty five or over. Stinson Beach is in the Bolinas-Stinson Union School District, the Tamalpais Union High School District, the Marin Community College District. Students in primary grades (kindergarten – grad
California State Route 1
California State Route 1 is a major north–south state highway that runs along most of the Pacific coastline of the U. S. state of California. At a total of just over 659 miles, it is the longest state route in California. SR 1 has several portions designated as either Pacific Coast Highway, Cabrillo Highway, Shoreline Highway, or Coast Highway, its southern terminus is at Interstate 5 near Dana Point in Orange County and its northern terminus is at U. S. Route 101 near Leggett in Mendocino County. SR 1 at times runs concurrently with US 101, most notably through a 54-mile stretch in Ventura and Santa Barbara counties, across the Golden Gate Bridge; the highway is designated as an All-American Road. In addition to providing a scenic route to numerous attractions along the coast, the route serves as a major thoroughfare in the Greater Los Angeles Area, the San Francisco Bay Area, several other coastal urban areas. SR 1 was built piecemeal in various stages, with the first section opening in the Big Sur region in the 1930s.
However, portions of the route had several numbers over the years as more segments opened. It was not until the 1964 state highway renumbering that the entire route was designated as SR 1. Although SR 1 is a popular route for its scenic beauty, frequent landslides and erosion along the coast have caused several segments to be either closed for lengthy periods for repairs, or re-routed inland. SR 1 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, through the Los Angeles metro area, Santa Cruz, San Francisco metro area, Leggett is part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration. SR 1 is eligible to be included in the State Scenic Highway System; the Big Sur section from San Luis Obispo to Carmel is an official National Scenic Byway. The entire route is designated as a Blue Star Memorial Highway to recognize those in the United States armed forces. In Southern California, the California State Legislature has designated the segment between Interstate 5 in Dana Point and US 101 near Oxnard as the Pacific Coast Highway.
Between US 101 at the Las Cruces junction and US 101 in Pismo Beach, between US 101 in San Luis Obispo and Interstate 280 in San Francisco, the legislature has designated SR 1 as the Cabrillo Highway, after the explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo who sailed along the coast line. The legislature has designated the route as the Shoreline Highway between the Manzanita Junction near Marin City and Leggett. Smaller segments of the highway have been assigned several other names by the state and municipal governments; the legislature has relinquished state control of segments within Dana Point, Newport Beach, Santa Monica, Oxnard. In addition to connecting the coastal cities and communities along its path, SR 1 provides access to beaches and other attractions along the coast, making it a popular route for tourists; the route annually helps bring several billion dollars to the state's tourism industry. The route runs right besides the coastline, or close to it, for the most part, it turns several miles inland to avoid several federally controlled or protected areas such as Vandenberg Air Force Base, Diablo Canyon Power Plant and Point Reyes National Seashore.
Segments of SR 1 range from a rural two-lane road to an urban freeway. Because of the former, long distance thru traffic traveling between the coastal metropolitan areas are instead advised to use faster routes such as US 101 or I-5. At its southernmost end in Orange County, SR 1 terminates at I-5 in Capistrano Beach in Dana Point, it travels west into the city center. After leaving Dana Point, Pacific Coast Highway becomes "Coast Highway" while at the same time continues northwest along the coast through Laguna Beach and Crystal Cove State Park. SR 1 enters Newport Beach and passes through several affluent neighborhoods, including Newport Coast and Corona Del Mar, spans the entrance to the Upper Newport Bay, which marks the boundary between East Coast Highway and West Coast Highway, crosses California State Route 55 near its southern terminus. Upon entering Huntington Beach, SR 1 regains the Pacific Coast Highway designation, it passes Huntington State Beach and the southern terminus of California State Route 39 before reaching Bolsa Chica State Beach and the Bolsa Chica Ecological Reserve.
PCH continues along the coast into Seal Beach, the final city on its journey in Orange County. PCH enters the city of Long Beach after crossing the San Gabriel River. SR 1 continues northwest through the city to its junction with Lakewood Boulevard and Los Coyotes Diagonal at the Los Alamitos Circle, more than 2 miles from the coast. From the traffic circle, it continues inland west through Long Beach, including one mile adjacent to the southern boundary of Signal Hill. PCH is marked as such in Long Beach, but bore the name of Hathaway Avenue east of the traffic circle and State Street west of there. PCH passes through the Los Angeles districts of Wilmington and Harbor City. While bypassing the immediate coastline of Palos Verdes, SR 1 continues to head west
An estuary is a enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, with a free connection to the open sea. Estuaries form a transition zone between river environments and maritime environments, they are subject both to marine influences—such as tides and the influx of saline water—and to riverine influences—such as flows of fresh water and sediment. The mixing of sea water and fresh water provide high levels of nutrients both in the water column and in sediment, making estuaries among the most productive natural habitats in the world. Most existing estuaries formed during the Holocene epoch with the flooding of river-eroded or glacially scoured valleys when the sea level began to rise about 10,000–12,000 years ago. Estuaries are classified according to their geomorphological features or to water-circulation patterns, they can have many different names, such as bays, lagoons, inlets, or sounds, although some of these water bodies do not meet the above definition of an estuary and may be saline.
The banks of many estuaries are amongst the most populated areas of the world, with about 60% of the world's population living along estuaries and the coast. As a result, many estuaries suffer degradation from a variety of factors including: sedimentation from soil erosion from deforestation and other poor farming practices; the word "estuary" is derived from the Latin word aestuarium meaning tidal inlet of the sea, which in itself is derived from the term aestus, meaning tide. There have been many definitions proposed to describe an estuary; the most accepted definition is: "a semi-enclosed coastal body of water, which has a free connection with the open sea, within which sea water is measurably diluted with freshwater derived from land drainage". However, this definition excludes a number of coastal water bodies such as coastal lagoons and brackish seas. A more comprehensive definition of an estuary is "a semi-enclosed body of water connected to the sea as far as the tidal limit or the salt intrusion limit and receiving freshwater runoff.
This broad definition includes fjords, river mouths, tidal creeks. An estuary is a dynamic ecosystem having a connection to the open sea through which the sea water enters with the rhythm of the tides; the sea water entering the estuary streams. The pattern of dilution varies between different estuaries and depends on the volume of fresh water, the tidal range, the extent of evaporation of the water in the estuary. Drowned river valleys are known as coastal plain estuaries. In places where the sea level is rising relative to the land, sea water progressively penetrates into river valleys and the topography of the estuary remains similar to that of a river valley; this is the most common type of estuary in temperate climates. Well-studied estuaries include the Severn Estuary in the United Kingdom and the Ems Dollard along the Dutch-German border; the width-to-depth ratio of these estuaries is large, appearing wedge-shaped in the inner part and broadening and deepening seaward. Water depths exceed 30 m.
Examples of this type of estuary in the U. S. are the Hudson River, Chesapeake Bay, Delaware Bay along the Mid-Atlantic coast, Galveston Bay and Tampa Bay along the Gulf Coast. Bar-built estuaries are found in place where the deposition of sediment has kept pace with rising sea level so that the estuaries are shallow and separated from the sea by sand spits or barrier islands, they are common in tropical and subtropical locations. These estuaries are semi-isolated from ocean waters by barrier beaches. Formation of barrier beaches encloses the estuary, with only narrow inlets allowing contact with the ocean waters. Bar-built estuaries develop on sloping plains located along tectonically stable edges of continents and marginal sea coasts, they are extensive along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the U. S. in areas with active coastal deposition of sediments and where tidal ranges are less than 4 m. The barrier beaches that enclose bar-built estuaries have been developed in several ways: building up of offshore bars by wave action, in which sand from the sea floor is deposited in elongated bars parallel to the shoreline, reworking of sediment discharge from rivers by wave and wind action into beaches, overwash flats, dunes, engulfment of mainland beach ridges due to sea level rise and resulting in the breaching of the ridges and flooding of the coastal lowlands, forming shallow lagoons, elongation of barrier spits from the erosion of headlands due to the action of longshore currents, with the spits growing in the direction of the littoral drift.
Barrier beaches form in shallow water and are parallel to the shoreline, resulting in long, narrow estuaries. The average water depth is less than 5 m, exceeds 10 m. Examples of bar-built estuaries are Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Fjords were formed where pleistocene glaciers deepened and widened existing river valleys so that they become U-shaped in cross s