Hindi cinema known as Bollywood and as Bombay cinema, is the Indian Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai. The term is a portmanteau of "Bombay" and "Hollywood"; the industry is related to Cinema of South India and other Indian film industries, making up Indian Cinema—the world's largest by number of feature films produced. Indian cinema has an annual output of 1,986 feature films in 2017. Bollywood is its largest film producer, with 364 Hindi films produced in 2017. Bollywood represents 43 percent of Indian net box-office revenue. Bollywood is one of the largest centres of film production in the world. In 2001 ticket sales, Indian cinema sold an estimated 3.6 billion tickets worldwide, compared to Hollywood's 2.6 billion tickets sold. Bollywood films tend to use vernacular Hindustani, mutually intelligible by people who self-identify as speaking either Hindi or Urdu, modern Bollywood movies incorporate elements of Hinglish; the most popular commercial genre in Bollywood since the 1970s has been the masala film, which mixes different genres including action, romance and melodrama along with musical numbers.
Masala films fall under the musical film genre, of which Indian cinema has been the largest producer since the 1960s when it exceeded the American film industry's total musical output after musical films declined in the West. Alongside commercial masala films, a distinctive genre of art films known as parallel cinema has existed, presenting realistic content and avoidance of musical numbers. In more recent years, the distinction between commercial masala and parallel cinema has been blurring, with an increasing number of mainstream films adopting the conventions which were once associated with parallel cinema. "Bollywood" is a portmanteau derived from Bombay and Hollywood, the centre of the American film industry. Unlike Hollywood, Bollywood is not a physical place. According to OxfordDictionaries.com, the word "Bollywood" originated during the 1970s, when Indian cinema overtook Hollywood in film production. A number of journalists have been credited by newspapers with coining the word. According to a 2004 article in The Hindu, journalist Bevinda Collaco coined the word.
According to Madhava Prasad, author of Surviving Bollywood, the term "Bollywood" was preceded by "Tollywood", which referred to the cinema of West Bengal. The Bengali film industry, based in Tollygunge, was referred to as "Tollywood" in a 1932 American Cinematographer article. In 1897, a film presentation by Professor Stevenson featured a stage show at Calcutta's Star Theatre. With Stevenson's encouragement and camera, Hiralal Sen, an Indian photographer, made a film of scenes from that show, The Flower of Persia; the Wrestlers by H. S. Bhatavdekar showed a wrestling match at the Hanging Gardens in Bombay. Dadasaheb Phalke's silent Raja Harishchandra is the first feature film made in India. By the 1930s, the industry was producing over 200 films per year; the first Indian sound film, Ardeshir Irani's Alam Ara, was commercially successful. With a great demand for talkies and musicals and the other regional film industries switched to sound films; the 1930s and 1940s were tumultuous times. Although most Bollywood films were unabashedly escapist, a number of filmmakers tackled tough social issues or used the struggle for Indian independence as a backdrop for their films.
Irani made the first Hindi colour film, Kisan Kanya, in 1937. The following year, he made a colour version of Mother India. However, colour did not become a popular feature until the late 1950s. At this time, lavish romantic musicals and melodramas were cinematic staples. Before the 1947 partition of India, which divided the country into the Republic of India and Pakistan, the Bombay film industry was linked to the Lahore film industry. Another centre of Hindustani film production was the Bengali film industry in Calcutta, Bengal Presidency, which produced Hindustani films and local Bengali language films. Many actors and musicians from the Lahore industry migrated to the Bombay industry during the 1940s, including actors K. L. Saigal, Prithviraj Kapoor, Dilip Kumar and Dev Anand. Around the same time and actors from the Calcutta film industry began migrating to Bombay. During this time period, actors such as Shantaram, Paidi Jairaj, Motilal have made their mark. For decades after partition, the Bombay industry was dominated by actors and musicians from Bengal and the North-West Frontier Province.
Prahlad Chandra Tasa is an Indian writer and educationist, best known for his writings on education. He is the vice president of the Asam Sahitya Sabha where he has served as a general secretary, he has published several books on educational and social issues, including Asomor chah janagosthi, an anthology of articles on the lives of the tea workers of Assam. The Government of India awarded him the fourth highest civilian honour of the Padma Shri, in 2016, for his contributions to literature and education. Prahlad Chandra Tasa was born on 26 October 1950 at Gachemora in the northeast Indian state of Assam in a poor family to Lakhan Tasa–Mukti couple and did his early education at the local primary school. After completing the schooling at Gachemora High School, he graduated from Dibrugarh Hanumanbux Surajmal Kanoi College and started his career as a school teacher at Bagmibar Nilmoni Phukan Higher Secondary School known as George Institution, on a temporary position, in 1973. While serving there, he founded Jamira Xahitya Xabha, a literary organization and served as its founder general secretary.
When the tenure of the temporary post at the school expired, he joined Jamira Tea Estate Lower Primary School where he worked for five years and moved to Rameswar High School as a teacher till 1985. It was this time, he served in the education department for 27 years and superannuated as the Block Elementary Education Officer of Barbarua in 2012. Tasa was elected as the president of Dibrugarh Xahitya Xabha in 1995 and became the district president in 2000. In 2013, he was made the general secretary of the Asam Sahitya Sabha for a two-year term at the end of which he became the vice president of the organization, his term expiring in 2017, he has published a number of books, on education as well as on the socio-cultural milieu of Assam. Asomor chah janagosthi, a collection of articles edited by him is an account on the lives of the tea workers of the state, his other publications include the poem anthology, Satabdi, a biography, Byaktitor Sandhanot and prose writings such as Siksha Samikhya, Siksha Anwesha, Chah Bagichat Gana Sakhyarota, Chah Bagichat Sikshar Prokhar, Chah Shramikor Sanskritir Ruprekha, Jhumoir Nritya Geet and Chah Shramikor Swasthya Chinta.
The Government of India awarded him the civilian honor of the Padma Shri in 2016. He is married to Hema Prabha Gogoi and the couple has two sons, Anadi Swami and Ananta Swami, both medical doctors; the family lives in Dibrugarh. Asam Sahitya Sabha
Marcel Carrière is a Canadian film director and sound engineer. Marcel Carrière joined the NFB in 1955 after studying electronic engineering and developed his skills as a sound engineer while working on wildlife films, the Candid Eye series and the work of the newly formed French Unit. On Les raquetteurs, his love of experimenting led him to devise a way to record synchronized sound before it was technically possible for sound to be synched with the camera; this flexibility and resourcefulness lead him to doing sound engineering for the landmark documentary film Pour la suite du monde in which the sound was a pivotal element. He went on to participate on the sound in more than one hundred productions at the NFB. Carrière first began to dabble in directing on several shorts with other directors, his first solo effort was Villeneuve, peintre-barbier but it was the documentary short Avec tambours et trompettes, his first great success and drew critical acclaim. In 1973 he directed his first feature film, O.
K.... Laliberté, a major work of Québécois cinema; the film is a comical social satire about a jobless and penniless middle-aged man who has a brief romance with a young woman before being caught by his creditors. Carrière excelled at spotlighting everyday characters not seen in films. Carrière was nominated in 1978 as director of the NFB's Program Committee for French Productions and as director of Technical Services, Distribution and Development. No other French Canadian had before reached such a high position in the hierarchy of the NFB and he held the position until his retirement in 1994, he had an active role in founding INIS and the Phonothèque québécoise and still offers his services as a consultant on documentary films. St-Denis dans le temps... O. K.... Laliberté Le grand voyage Bernie and the Gang La bataille de la Châteauguay La lutte Recontres à Mitzic Villeneuve, peintre-barbier Bois-Francs In Search of Medea: The Art of Sylvia Lefkovitz La Colombie-Britannique et l'habitation L'Indien parle With Drums and Trumpets Épisode 10 milles/heure/10 Miles/Hour Hôtel-Château Chez nous, c'est chez nous Images de Chine Ping-pong Jeux de la XXIe Olympiade De grâce et d'embarras Marcel Carrière on IMDb