Hindi cinema metonymously referred to as Bollywood, known as Bombay cinema, is the Indian Hindi-language film industry, based in Mumbai, India. The term originates as a portmanteau of "Bombay" and "Hollywood"; the Hindi-language film industry is related to Tamil film industry, Telugu film industry and others industries, which combined are components of Indian Cinema, the largest film industry in the world. Although American film industry has produced more than 150 musicals films by 1930 with first introduction of The Jazz Singer in the west, the world's first musical-talkie film, it took India more than 3 years to import the sound sequence technology but went on to produce its first song-sequence talkie film Alam Ara in the year 1931. Since Bollywood has produced major motion pictures in this genre exceeding Hollywood's total musicals from the 1960s when musical era declined in the west. Today, Bollywood is popular for its musicals though non-musicals have continued to be produced in India.
Linguistically, Bollywood films tend to use a colloquial dialect of Hindi-Urdu, or Hindustani, mutually intelligible to both Hindi and Urdu speakers, while modern Bollywood films increasingly incorporate elements of Hinglish. Indian cinema is the world's largest film industry in terms of film production, with an annual output of 1,986 feature films as of 2017, Bollywood is its largest film producer, with 364 Hindi films produced annually as of 2017. Bollywood represents 43% of Indian net box office revenue, while Tamil and Telugu cinema represent 36%, the rest of the regional cinema constitute 21%, as of 2014. Bollywood is thus one of the largest centers of film production in the world. In terms of ticket sales in 2001, Indian cinema sold an estimated 3.6 billion tickets annually across the globe, compared to Hollywood's 2.6 billion tickets sold. The name "Bollywood" is a portmanteau derived from Bombay and Hollywood, the center of the American film industry. Bollywood does not exist as a physical place.
The name Bollywood is criticized by some film journalists and critics by arguing that it makes the industry look like a poor cousin to Hollywood. According to Madhava Prasad- had described "Bollywood" is inspired by "Tollywood"—once refer to the cinema of West Bengal, dating back in 1932. "Tollywood" was the earliest Hollywood-inspired name, referring to the Bengali film industry based in Tollygunge, whose name is reminiscent of "Hollywood" and was the centre of the cinema of India at the time. According to P. Anandam Kavoori and Aswin Punathambekar book "Global Bollywood"—the popular Calcutta-based Junior Statesman youth magazine, establishing a precedent for other film industries to use similar-sounding names leading to the coining of "Bollywood"; as of now "Tollywood" is referred to the Telugu film industry, a part of Indian cinema. According to OxfordDictionaries.com— the word "Bollywood" got originated in 1970's. and print media claims that it got originated in 1970's and was popularized in the time when Cinema of India overtook Hollywood in terms of film production.
Many journalists have been credited by newspapers for the invention of the word "Bollywood". According to "The Telegraph" article published in 2005, it was Amit Khanna who had coined the word "Bollywood". and according to The Hindu article published in 2004 it was journalist Bevinda Collaco. Raja Harishchandra, by Dadasaheb Phalke, is known as the first silent feature film made in India. By the 1930s, the industry was producing over 200 films per year; the first Indian sound film, Ardeshir Irani's Alam Ara, was a major commercial success. There was a huge market for talkies and musicals; the 1930s and 1940s were tumultuous times: India was buffeted by the Great Depression, World War II, the Indian independence movement, the violence of the Partition. Most Bollywood films were unabashedly escapist, but there were a number of filmmakers who tackled tough social issues, or used the struggle for Indian independence as a backdrop for their plots. In 1937, Ardeshir Irani, of Alam Ara fame, made the first color film in Kisan Kanya.
The next year, he made a version of Mother India. However, color did not become a popular feature until the late 1950s. At this time, lavish romantic musicals and melodramas were the staple fare at the cinema. Prior to the 1947 partition of India, which divided the country into the Republic of India and Pakistan, the Bombay film industry was linked to the Lahore film industry, as both industries produced films in Hindi-Urdu, or Hindustani, the lingua franca across northern and central India. Another major center of Hindi-Urdu film production was the Bengali film industry in Calcutta, Bengal Presidency, which produced Hindi-Urdu films along with local Bengali language films. In the 1940s, many actors and musicians from the Lahore industry migrated to the Bombay industry, including actors such as K. L. Saigal, Prithviraj Kapoor, Dilip Kumar, Dev Anand, singers such as Mohammed Rafi and Shamshad Begum. Around the same time and actors from the Calcutta film industry began migrating to the Bombay film industry.
As a result, Bombay became the center of Hindi-Urdu film production in the new Republic of India after partitio
A film festival is an organized, extended presentation of films in one or more cinemas or screening venues in a single city or region. Film festivals show some films outdoors. Films may be of recent date and, depending upon the festival's focus, can include international and domestic releases; some festivals focus on genre or subject matter. A number of film festivals specialise in short films of a defined maximum length. Film festivals are annual events; some film historians, including Jerry Beck, do not consider film festivals official releases of film. The most prestigious film festivals in the world are considered to be Cannes and Venice; these festivals are sometimes called the "Big Three." The Toronto International Film Festival is North America's most popular festival in terms of attendance. The Venice Film Festival is the oldest film festival in the world; the Venice Film Festival in Italy began in 1932, is the oldest film festival still running. Raindance Film Festival is the UK's largest celebration of independent film-making, takes place in London in October.
Mainland Europe's biggest independent film festival is ÉCU The European Independent Film Festival, that started in 2006 and takes place every spring in Paris, France. Edinburgh International Film Festival is the longest running festival in Great Britain. Australia's first and longest running film festival is the Melbourne International Film Festival, followed by the Sydney Film Festival. North America's first and longest running short film festival is the Yorkton Film Festival, established in 1947; the first film festival in the United States was the Columbus International Film & Video Festival known as The Chris Awards, held in 1953. According to the Film Arts Foundation in San Francisco, "The Chris Awards one of the most prestigious documentary, educational and informational competitions in the U. S, it was followed four years by the San Francisco International Film Festival, held in March 1957, which emphasized feature-length dramatic films. The festival played a major role in introducing foreign films to American audiences.
Films in the first year included Akira Kurosawa's Throne of Blood and Satyajit Ray's Pather Panchali. Today, thousands of film festivals take place around the world—from high-profile festivals such as Sundance Film Festival and Slamdance Film Festival, to horror festivals such as Terror Film Festival, the Park City Film Music Festival, the first U. S. film festival dedicated to honoring music in film. Film Funding competitions such as Writers and Filmmakers were introduced when the cost of production could be lowered and internet technology allowed for the collaboration of film production. Although there are notable for-profit festivals such as SXSW, most festivals operate on a nonprofit membership-based model, with a combination of ticket sales, membership fees, corporate sponsorship constituting the majority of revenue. Unlike other arts nonprofits, film festivals receive few donations from the general public and are organized as nonprofit business associations instead of public charities.
Film industry members have significant curatorial input, corporate sponsors are given opportunities to promote their brand to festival audiences in exchange for cash contributions. Private parties to raise investments for film projects, constitute significant "fringe" events. Larger festivals maintain year-round staffs engaging in community and charitable projects outside festival season. While entries from established filmmakers are considered pluses by the organizers, most festivals require new or unknown filmmakers to pay an entry fee to have their works considered for screening; this is so in larger film festivals, such as the Cannes Film Festival, Toronto International Film Festival, Sundance Film Festival, South by Southwest, Montreal World Film Festival, smaller "boutique" festivals such as the Miami International Film Festival, British Urban Film Festival in London and Mumbai Women's International Film Festival in India. On the other hand, some festivals—usually those accepting fewer films, not attracting as many "big names" in their audiences as do Sundance and Telluride—require no entry fee.
Rotterdam Film Festival, Mumbai Film Festival, many smaller film festivals in the United States, are examples. The Portland International Film Festival charges an entry fee, but waives it for filmmakers from the Northwestern United States, some others with regional focuses have similar approaches. Several film festival submission portal websites exist to streamline filmmakers' entries into multiple festivals, they provide databases of festival calls for entry and offer filmmakers a convenient "describe once, submit many" service. The core tradition of film festivals is competition, that is, the consideration of films with the intention of judging which are most deserving of various forms of recognition. In contrast to those films, some festivals may screen some films without treating them as part of the competition; the three most prestigious film festivals are considered to be Cannes, B
Prague is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and the historical capital of Bohemia. Situated in the north-west of the country on the Vltava river, the city is home to about 1.3 million people, while its metropolitan area is estimated to have a population of 2.6 million. The city has a temperate climate, with chilly winters. Prague has been a political and economic centre of central Europe complete with a rich history. Founded during the Romanesque and flourishing by the Gothic and Baroque eras, Prague was the capital of the Kingdom of Bohemia and the main residence of several Holy Roman Emperors, most notably of Charles IV, it was an important city to its Austro-Hungarian Empire. The city played major roles in the Bohemian and Protestant Reformation, the Thirty Years' War and in 20th-century history as the capital of Czechoslovakia, during both World Wars and the post-war Communist era. Prague is home to a number of well-known cultural attractions, many of which survived the violence and destruction of 20th-century Europe.
Main attractions include Prague Castle, Charles Bridge, Old Town Square with the Prague astronomical clock, the Jewish Quarter, Petřín hill and Vyšehrad. Since 1992, the extensive historic centre of Prague has been included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites; the city has more than ten major museums, along with numerous theatres, galleries and other historical exhibits. An extensive modern public transportation system connects the city, it is home to a wide range of public and private schools, including Charles University in Prague, the oldest university in Central Europe. Prague is classified as an "Alpha −" global city according to GaWC studies and ranked sixth in the Tripadvisor world list of best destinations in 2016, its rich history makes it a popular tourist destination and as of 2017, the city receives more than 8.5 million international visitors annually. Prague is the fourth most visited European city after London and Rome. During the thousand years of its existence, the city grew from a settlement stretching from Prague Castle in the north to the fort of Vyšehrad in the south, becoming the capital of a modern European country, the Czech Republic, a member state of the European Union.
The region was settled as early as the Paleolithic age. A Jewish chronicler David Solomon Ganz, citing Cyriacus Spangenberg, claimed that the city was founded as Boihaem in c. 1306 BC by an ancient king, Boyya. Around the fifth and fourth century BC, a Celts tribe appeared in the area establishing settlements including an oppidum in Závist, a present-day suburb of Prague, naming the region of Bohemia, which means "home of the Boii people". In the last century BC, the Celts were driven away by Germanic tribes, leading some to place the seat of the Marcomanni king, Maroboduus, in southern Prague in the suburb now called Závist. Around the area where present-day Prague stands, the 2nd century map drawn by Ptolemaios mentioned a Germanic city called Casurgis. In the late 5th century AD, during the great Migration Period following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, the Germanic tribes living in Bohemia moved westwards and in the 6th century, the Slavic tribes settled the Central Bohemian Region.
In the following three centuries, the Czech tribes built several fortified settlements in the area, most notably in the Šárka valley and Levý Hradec. The construction of what came to be known as Prague Castle began near the end of the 9th century, growing a fortified settlement that existed on the site since the year 800; the first masonry under Prague Castle dates from the year 885 at the latest. The other prominent Prague fort, the Přemyslid fort Vyšehrad, was founded in the 10th century, some 70 years than Prague Castle. Prague Castle is dominated by the cathedral, which began construction in 1344, but wasn't completed until the 20th century; the legendary origins of Prague attribute its foundation to the 8th century Czech duchess and prophetess Libuše and her husband, Přemysl, founder of the Přemyslid dynasty. Legend says that Libuše came out on a rocky cliff high above the Vltava and prophesied: "I see a great city whose glory will touch the stars." She ordered a town called Praha to be built on the site.
The region became the seat of the dukes, kings of Bohemia. Under Holy Roman Emperor Otto II the area became a bishopric in 973; until Prague was elevated to archbishopric in 1344, it was under the jurisdiction of the Archbishopric of Mainz. Prague was an important seat for trading where merchants from all of Europe settled, including many Jews, as recalled in 965 by the Hispano-Jewish merchant and traveller Ibrahim ibn Ya'qub; the Old New Synagogue of 1270 still stands in the city. Prague was once home to an important slave market. At the site of the ford in the Vltava river, King Vladislaus I had the first bridge built in 1170, the Judith Bridge, named in honour of his wife Judith of Thuringia; this bridge was destroyed by a flood in 1342, but some of the original foundation stones of that bridge remain in the river. It was named the Charles Bridge. In 1257, under King Ottokar II, Malá Strana was founded in Prague on the site of an older village in what would become the Hradčany area; this was the district of the German people, who had the right to administer the law autonomously, pursuant to Magdeburg rights.
The new district was on the bank opposite of the Staré Město, which had borough status and was bordered by a line of walls and fortifications. Prague flourished dur
Cosmopolitan is an international fashion magazine for women, titled The Cosmopolitan. The Cosmopolitan magazine is one of the best-selling magazines and is directed toward women readers. Jessica Pels is an appointed editor-in-chief of Cosmopolitan magazine; the magazine was first distributed in 1886 in the US as a family magazine. Referred to as Cosmo, its content as of 2011 includes articles discussing relationships, health, self-improvement, fashion and beauty. Published by Hearst Corporation, Cosmopolitan has 64 international editions, including Armenia, Croatia, Finland, Greece, Latin America, the Middle East, the Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, South Africa, Spain and the United Kingdom and is printed in 35 different languages and distributed in over 110 countries. Cosmopolitan began as a family magazine, launched in March 1886 by Schlicht & Field of New York as The Cosmopolitan. Authors and their writings in the first issue included: Paul Schlicht told his first-issue readers inside of the front cover that his publication was a "first-class family magazine" adding, "There will be a department devoted to the concerns of women, with articles on fashions, on household decoration, on cooking, the care and management of children, etc.
There was a department for the younger members of the family."Cosmopolitan's circulation reached 25,000 that year, but by November 1888, Schlicht & Field were no longer in business. John Brisben Walker acquired the magazine in 1889; that same year, he dispatched Elizabeth Bisland on a race around the world against Nellie Bly to draw attention to the magazine. Under John Brisben Walker's ownership, E. D. Walker with Harper's Monthly, took over as the new editor, introducing colour illustrations and book reviews, it became a leading market for fiction, featuring such authors as Annie Besant, Ambrose Bierce, Willa Cather, Theodore Dreiser, Rudyard Kipling, Jack London, Edith Wharton, H. G. Wells; the magazine's press run climbed to 100,000 by 1892. In 1897, Cosmopolitan announced plans for a free correspondence school: "No charge of any kind will be made to the student. All expenses for the present will be borne by the Cosmopolitan. No conditions, except a pledge of a given number of hours of study."
When 20,000 signed up, Walker could not fund the school and students were asked to contribute 20 dollars a year. In 1897, H. G. Wells' The War of the Worlds was serialized, as was his The First Men in the Moon. Olive Schreiner contributed a lengthy two-part article about the Boer War in the September and October issues of 1900. In 1905, William Randolph Hearst purchased the magazine for US$400,000 and brought in journalist Charles Edward Russell, who contributed a series of investigative articles, including "The Growth of Caste in America", "At the Throat of the Republic" and "What Are You Going to Do About It?". Other contributors during this period included O. Henry, A. J. Cronin, Alfred Henry Lewis, Bruno Lessing, Sinclair Lewis, O. O. McIntyre, David Graham Phillips, George Bernard Shaw, Upton Sinclair, Ida Tarbell. Jack London's novella, "The Red One", was published in the October 1918 issue, a constant presence from 1910–18 was Arthur B. Reeve, with 82 stories featuring Craig Kennedy, the "scientific detective".
Magazine illustrators included Francis Attwood, Dean Cornwell, Harrison Fisher, James Montgomery Flagg. Hearst formed Cosmopolitan Productions, a film company based in New York City from 1918 to 1923 Hollywood until 1938; the vision for this film company was to make films from stories published in the magazine. Cosmopolitan magazine was titled as Hearst's International Combined with Cosmopolitan from 1925 until 1952, but was referred to as Cosmopolitan. In 1911, Hearst had bought a middling monthly magazine called World To-Day and renamed it Hearst's Magazine in April 1912. In June 1914 it was shortened to Hearst's and was titled Hearst's International in May 1922. In order to spare serious cutbacks at San Simeon, Hearst merged the magazine Hearst's International with Cosmopolitan effective March 1925, but while the Cosmopolitan title on the cover remained at a typeface of eight-four points, over time span the typeface of the Hearst's International decreased to thirty-six points and to a legible twelve points.
After Hearst died in 1951, the Hearst's International disappeared from the magazine cover altogether in April 1952. With a circulation of 1,700,000 in the 1930s, Cosmopolitan had an advertising income of $5,000,000. Emphasizing fiction in the 1940s, it was subtitled The Four-Book Magazine since the first section had one novelette, six or eight short stories, two serials, six to eight articles and eight or nine special features, while the other three sections featured two novels and a digest of current non-fiction books. During World War II, sales peaked at 2,000,000; the magazine began to run less fiction during the 1950s. Circulation dropped to over a million by 1955, a time when magazines were overshadowed during the rise of paperbacks and television; the Golden Age of magazines came to an end as mass market, general interest publications gave way to special interest magazines targeting specialized audiences. Cosmo was known as a "bland" and boring magazine by critics. Cosmopolitan's circulation continued to decline for another decade until Helen Gurley Brown became
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Český rozhlas is the public radio broadcaster of the Czech Republic, operating since 1923. The service broadcasts throughout the Czech Republic nationally and locally, its four national services are Radiožurnál, Dvojka and Plus. It is the oldest radio broadcaster in continental Europe and the second oldest in Europe after the BBC from the United Kingdom. Český rozhlas Československý rozhlas was established on 18 May 1923, making its first broadcast from a scout tent in the Kbely district of Prague, under the name Radiojournal. The premises of the station changed numerous times, firstly moving to the district of Hloubětín, before using locations in the Poštovní nákupny building, the Orbis building and the Národní dům na Vinohradech building, all in Prague; the first regular announcer of the station, who prepared and presented the news from the daily papers, was Adolf Dobrovolný. He took up the position on 17 January 1924, becoming the station's first professional radio announcer and his position was made permanent on 1 January 1925.
He held the position until his death in 1934. A message broadcast on Czech Radio on 5 May 1945 brought about the start of the Prague uprising. In the same year, regional studios in the cities of Plzeň, České Budějovice, Hradec Králové and Ústí nad Labem were launched; the station was taken over by Soviet forces, after short fighting with unarmed civilians, in August 1968, in the first day of the Soviet invasion, although broadcasting managed to continue from alternative locations. In 1991, the Czech radio group changed its status and became an independent organisation, although as of 2008 was still publicly funded. A regional studio was established in Olomouc in 1994. An envisaged new premises for Czech Radio, a 30-storey building in the district of Pankrác which took 22 years to build at a cost of 1.35 billion Czech koruna, was sold after the construction phrase in 1996 as it was deemed too big for the station's requirements. In 2002 the Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty station stopped broadcasting in the Czech Republic, with the broadcast rebranded as Czech Radio 6 under the Czech Radio group.
Czech Radio launched a new logo in 2013, featuring the letter R with stripes, at a cost of 2.2 million Czech koruna. The organisation marked 90 years of existence in 2013, celebrating the occasion with a 48-hour broadcast including 90 interviews interspersed with news reports every half-hour; the event, which took place on Wenceslas Square, set a new national record for the longest uninterrupted radio broadcast. 2013 saw Čro 6 taken off the airwaves. At the same time, three new stations were launched, namely ČRo Junior for young listeners, ČRo Plus, a spoken word station and ČRo Jazz. Czech Radio offers the following radio channels: Radiožurnál – "infotainment" station Dvojka – talk and family programmes Vltava – culture and classical music Plus – spoken word 13 regional channels ČRo Brno ČRo České Budějovice ČRo Hradec Králové ČRo Karlovy Vary ČRo Liberec ČRo Olomouc ČRo Ostrava ČRo Pardubice ČRo Plzeň ČRo Regina ČRo Region, Středočeský kraj ČRo Region, Vysočina ČRo Sever ČRo Radio Wave – youth radio ČRo D-Dur: classical music ČRo Jazz: jazz station ČRo Rádio Junior: children's radio ČRo Sport: sports radio Radio Prague: external broadcasts, six languages available.
ČRo 6 ended in 2013 ČRo Leonardo ended in 2013 ČRo Rádio Česko ended in 2013 Česká televize, the Czech publicly funded television broadcaster Battle for Czech Radio in World War Two Official website Official website in English LyngSat Logo – Czechia — Logos of Český Rozhlas stations
Shekhar Kapur is an Indian film director and producer, known for his works in Hindi cinema and international cinema. Part of the Anand family, Kapur became known in Bollywood with his recurring role in the TV series Khandan in the mid-1980s and his directorial debut in the cult Bollywood film Masoom in 1983, which won the Filmfare Critics Award for Best Movie for that year, before gaining widespread success with the science fiction film Mr. India, he gained international recognition with the 1994 Bollywood film Bandit Queen, based on Mala Sen's biography of infamous Indian bandit and politician Phoolan Devi, which won the National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Hindi and Filmfare Critics Awards for Best Movie and Best Direction for that year. It was premiered in the Directors Fortnight section of the 1994 Cannes Film Festival and was screened at the Edinburgh Film Festival. In international cinema, his historical biopics on Queen Elizabeth and Elizabeth: The Golden Age, won the BAFTA Award for Best Film and two Academy Awards.
He has been the recipient of the Indian National Film Award, the BAFTA Award, the National Board of Review Award, three Filmfare Awards. In 2010, he served as one of the Jury Members at the 63rd Cannes Film Festival. Shekhar Kapur was born in Lahore, British India to Kulbhushan Kapur, a doctor with a flourishing practice, his wife Sheel Kanta Kapur. Shekhar Kapur's mother played dead and hid both himself and his sister under her body on a train from the newly created Pakistan to India. Reflecting on this, Kapur stated that the partition of India happened through "the blood of one people"; the nephew of famous Indian actor Dev Anand, he was discouraged from getting into films by his father. Sheel Kanta was the sister of actors Chetan and Vijay Anand. Shekhar is the only son of his parents and he has three sisters. One of his sisters, was the first wife of actor Navin Nischol, while another sister, Aruna, is the wife of actor Parikshit Sahni, his third and youngest sister is Sohaila Kapur. Kapur's schooling was at New Delhi.
He studied economics at St. Stephen's College. At 22, Kapur became a Chartered Accountant with the ICAEW in England, having studied accountancy at the behest of his parents. Shekhar Kapur started his career working with a multinational oil company, he moved to the United Kingdom in 1970, spent several years working as an accountant and management consultant. He was married to niece of former Indian Prime Minister I. K. Gujral, they split in 1994. Medha married popular bhajan singer Anup Jalota, she died on November 25, 2014 at a hospital in New York City of liver failure following a second heart and first kidney transplant. Kapur married Suchitra Krishnamoorthi, an Indian actress, writer and singer in 1997, they are divorced. They have a daughter named Kaveri Kapur. Shekhar Kapur started his career as an actor in the movie Jaan Hazir Hai and in Toote Khilone, in Bollywood, he appeared in several Hindi television dramas, such as Udaan, opposite Kavita Chaudhary, Upanyaas opposite Nisha Singh, Masoom opposite Neena Gupta.
He turned director with the family drama Masoom, starring Naseeruddin Shah, Shabana Azmi and a young Jugal Hansraj&. The plot followed the story of an illegitimate boy who struggles to find acceptance from his stepmother, he directed the 1987 science-fiction film Mr. India, starring Anil Kapoor and Amrish Puri in his most famous role as the villain Mogambo. Puri's most famous dialogue in this film "Mogambo Khush Hua" is still remembered. In 1994 he directed the critically acclaimed Bandit Queen and played a cameo in the film as a truck driver. Kapur was infamous for abandoning several films he was the director of, he was the director of the 1989 film Joshilaay, which starred Sunny Deol, Anil Kapoor and Meenakshi Sheshadri before leaving the production halfway, its producer Sibti Hassan Rizvi stepped in to complete the film. In 1992, he had shot some scenes for Barsaat, titled Champion and was going to be the debut film of Bobby Deol, but he left the production and was replaced by Rajkumar Santoshi.
In 1992, he was set to direct the science-fiction film titled Time Machine, to star Aamir Khan, Raveena Tandon, Naseeruddin Shah and Rekha, but he abandoned the project halfway through due to financial problems. The film was left incomplete, although there were talks many years that Kapur would revive the project with a new cast, which never happened. In 1995, he directed Dushmani, starring Sunny Deol, Jackie Shroff and Manisha Koirala before its producer Bunty Soorma stepped in to complete the film. In an unusual role for him, Kapur provided the voice of Mohandas Gandhi in the Charkha Audiobooks title of The Story of My Experiments with Truth, alongside Nandita Das as narrator. In 2013, Shekhar Kapur hosted. On the show, which aims to bring never-seen-before facets of Indian history, he was the narrator, he served as judge on the reality TV series India's Got Talent, aired on Colors. In 2016, Shekhar Kapur delivers an autobiographical film and documentary about Amma, well known as Mata Amritanandamayi Devi, called "The Science of Compassion".
In 1998, he received international recognition for the second time after Bandit Queen, when he directed the Academy Award-winning period film Elizabeth, a fictional account of the reign of British Queen Elizabeth I nominated for seven Oscars. The 2007 sequel, Elizabeth: The Golden Age, was nominated for two Oscars, he was accused of being anti-British by British tabloids for his portrayal of the British A