Newberry National Volcanic Monument
Newberry National Volcanic Monument was designated on November 5, 1990, to protect the area around the Newberry Volcano in the U. S. state of Oregon. It was created within the boundaries of the Deschutes National Forest and is managed by the U. S. Forest Service, it includes 50,000 acres of lakes, lava flows, spectacular geologic features in central Oregon. Newberry National Volcanic Monument consists of four primary visitor destinations: Lava Butte, Lava River Cave, Lava Cast Forest, Newberry Caldera; the highest point within the monument is the summit of Paulina Peak at 7,985 ft, with views of the Oregon Cascades and the high desert. Paulina Peak may be accessed by road during the summer months, as the road is both steep and rough, with hairpin turns towards the summit, trailers or long vehicles are discouraged; the summit area of Newberry Volcano holds two alpine lakes full of trout, East Lake and Paulina Lake. The Big Obsidian Flow, created 1,300 years ago, covers 700 acres; the black, shiny obsidian field is accessible from good roads within the caldera, or a trail that traverses the flow.
Lava Cast Forest is 25 miles south of Bend, accessible via a 9-mile gravel road from U. S. Highway 97. Lava Cast Forest contains a 6,000-year-old lava flow. Lava Butte is 11 miles south of Bend, Oregon. Lava Butte is a cinder cone volcano, it can hiking up a paved road. Interpretive signs, views of the surrounding lava flow and mountains, an active fire lookout are found on top. Lava River Cave is 13 miles south of Bend. Lava River Cave is open to visitors from May through September. Lava River Cave is the largest uncollapsed lava tube in Oregon, may be explored by lantern. Temperatures in the cave average 42 °F. White-nose syndrome has not yet affected resident bats in the cave. Newberry Caldera is 37 miles from Bend and 19 miles from La Pine. Newberry Caldera is the largest developed area within the national monument; the caldera was formed. Over time the caldera filled up with water that created Paulina Lake and East Lake. Newberry Caldera has many natural tourism opportunities. Visitors have access to campgrounds, water recreation, lodging and interpretive guides with Forest Service staff.
Newberry Caldera has medium use most of the year with some high usage during peak times of the year.'There are twelve trails within Newberry Caldera ranging from 0.25 miles to 21 miles. These trails offer a variety of uses from hiking only to multiuse with hiking and horse allowed. Along the trails you can find access to fishing, interpretive signs, picnic areas, hot springs. There are seven boat launches for water recreationists; the Caldera offers nine camp sites accommodating both tent and RV camper. Newberry Caldera offers a variety of winter activates such as snowmobiling, cross country skiing, rooms for rent at the resorts.' List of National Monuments of the United States Official Website Volcanic Vistas: Guide to Newberry National Volcanic Monument
State parks are parks or other protected areas managed at the sub-national level within those nations which use "state" as a political subdivision. State parks are established by a state to preserve a location on account of its natural beauty, historic interest, or recreational potential. There are state parks under the administration of the government of each U. S. state, some of the Mexican states, in Brazil. The term is used in the Australian state of Victoria; the equivalent term used in Canada, South Africa and Belgium, is provincial park. Similar systems of local government maintained parks exist in other countries, but the terminology varies. State parks are thus similar under state rather than federal administration. Local government entities below state level may maintain parks, e.g. regional parks or county parks. In general, state parks are smaller than national parks, with a few exceptions such as the Adirondack Park in New York and Anza-Borrego Desert State Park in California; as of 2014, there were 10,234 state park units in the United States, according to the National Association of State Park Directors.
There are some 739 million annual visits to the country's state parks. The NASPD further counts over 43,000 miles of trail, 217,367 campsites, 8,277 cabins and lodges across U. S. state parks. The largest state park system in the United States is Alaska State Parks, with over 100 sites encompassing 3.3 million acres. Many states include designations beyond "state park" in their state parks systems. Other designations might be state recreation areas, state beaches, state nature reserves; some state park systems include historic sites. The title of oldest state park in the United States is claimed by Niagara Falls State Park in New York, established in 1885; however several public parks or maintained at the state level pre-date it. Indian Springs State Park has been operated continuously by the state of Georgia as a public park since 1825, although it did not gain the title "State Park" until 1931. In 1864 Yosemite Valley and Mariposa Grove were ceded by the federal government to California until Yosemite National Park was proclaimed in 1890.
In 1878 Wisconsin set aside a vast swath of its northern forests as "The State Park" but, needing money, sold most of it to lumber companies within 20 years. The first state park with the designation of "state park" was Mackinac Island State Park in 1895, first a national park before being transferred to the state of Michigan. Many state park systems date to the 1930s, when around 800 state parks across the country were developed with assistance from federal job creation programs like the Civilian Conservation Corps and Works Progress Administration. List of U. S. state parks Wilderness preservation systems in Carol. "The Civilian Conservation Corps and Wisconsin State Park Development." Wisconsin Magazine of History: 184-204. In JSTOR Landrum, Ney C; the State Park Movement in America: A Critical Review excerpt and text search Larson, Zeb. "Silver Falls State Park and the Early Environmental Movement." Oregon Historical Quarterly 112#1 pp: 34-57 in JSTOR Newton, Norman T. "The State Park Movement: 1864-1933.
"When Forests Trumped Parks: The Maryland Experience, 1906-1950." Maryland Historical Magazine 101#2 pp: 203-224
Ankeny National Wildlife Refuge
Ankeny National Wildlife Refuge is located in the fertile Willamette Valley of northwestern Oregon, 12 miles south of Salem. The valley was once a rich mix of wildlife habitats. Valley wetlands were once extensive, with meandering vast seasonal marshes. Today, the valley is a mix of farmland and growing cities, with few areas remaining for wildlife; the refuge is situated in open farmland near the confluence of the Santiam and Willamette rivers in the middle of the broad Willamette Valley. Elevations range between 180 and 290 feet MSL; the Willamette Valley, with its mild, rainy winter climate, is an ideal environment for wintering waterfowl. The refuge consists of 1,765 acres of cropland, which provide forage for wintering geese, 600 acres of riparian zone forests, 500 acres of shallow water seasonal wetlands; as with the other refuges within the Willamette Valley National Wildlife Complex, the primary management goal of Ankeny National Wildlife Refuge is to provide high quality wintering habitat for geese the dusky Canada goose, to ensure healthy, viable goose populations while minimizing goose browse damage to crops on private agricultural lands.
Unlike most other Canada geese, dusky Canada geese have limited winter ranges. They nest on Alaska's Copper River Delta and winter exclusively in the Willamette Valley. Habitat loss and hunting caused a decrease in their population; the Willamette Valley refuges incorporate an intensive cooperative farming program in order to provide high protein browse for seven subspecies of wintering Canada geese, with primary emphasis on the dusky subspecies. Under cooperative agreements, area farmers plant refuge fields; some fields are planted annually and others are mowed or burned to produce the tender, nutritious grasses preferred by geese. The geese need water for resting and foraging habitat. Many refuge wetlands occur naturally. In some low-lying areas of the refuge, wetlands that were drained or channelized by previous owners have been restored to increase diversity and desirability of habitat for wildlife; the majority of wetlands are being managed as moist soil units, to promote growth of wetland food plants used as food by waterfowl and other wildlife.
By resting in undisturbed areas on the refuges, wintering geese regain energy reserves required for migration and nesting. This sanctuary reduces depredation problems on neighboring private lands by encouraging waterfowl to use refuge resources; because of their need for a quiet resting area, waterfowl habitat is closed to public entry while the geese are in residence in order to minimize human disturbance. The refuge has increased efforts to restore and expand riparian forest and wet prairie habitats. Ankeny NWR provides habitat for a wide variety of other bird species, as well as mammals and amphibians. Wildlife and wild-lands observation, photography and environmental education and interpretation are the major public use activities allowed on the refuge. Visitor facilities include Ankeny Hill Overlook on Ankeny Hill Road and Eagle Marsh Kiosk on Buena Vista Road. Trails include the Rail Trail, both on Wintel Road. Provide winter habitat for the dusky Canada goose and other migratory waterfowl protect and enhance populations of threatened and endangered species maintain habitats for indigenous species and perpetuate natural diversity provide for environmental education and wildlife oriented recreation Hiking Wildlife observation Environmental education Photography List of National Wildlife Refuges "Welcome".
Ankeny National Wildlife Refuge. FWS. "Ankeny National Wildlife Refuge Overview". U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service
National monument (United States)
In the United States, a national monument is a protected area, similar to a national park, but can be created from any land owned or controlled by the federal government by proclamation of the President of the United States. National monuments can be managed by one of several federal agencies: the National Park Service, United States Forest Service, United States Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Land Management, or the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; some national monuments were managed by the War Department. National monuments can be so designated through the power of the Antiquities Act of 1906. President Theodore Roosevelt used the act to declare Devils Tower in Wyoming as the first U. S. national monument. The Antiquities Act of 1906 resulted from concerns about protecting prehistoric Native American ruins and artifacts on federal lands in the American West; the Act authorized permits for legitimate archaeological investigations and penalties for taking or destroying antiquities without permission.
Additionally, it authorized the president to proclaim "historic landmarks and prehistoric structures, other objects of historic or scientific interest" on federal lands as national monuments, "the limits of which in all cases shall be confined to the smallest area compatible with the proper care and management of the objects to be protected."The reference in the act to "objects of...scientific interest" enabled President Theodore Roosevelt to make a natural geological feature, Devils Tower in Wyoming, the first national monument three months later. Among the next three monuments he proclaimed in 1906 was Petrified Forest in Arizona, another natural feature. In 1908, Roosevelt used the act to proclaim more than 800,000 acres of the Grand Canyon as a national monument. In 1918, President Woodrow Wilson proclaimed Katmai National Monument in Alaska, comprising more than 1,000,000 acres. Katmai was enlarged to nearly 2,800,000 acres by subsequent Antiquities Act proclamations and for many years was the largest national park system unit.
Petrified Forest, Grand Canyon, Great Sand Dunes were originally proclaimed as national monuments and designated as national parks by Congress. In response to Roosevelt's declaration of the Grand Canyon monument, a putative mining claimant sued in federal court, claiming that Roosevelt had overstepped the Antiquities Act authority by protecting an entire canyon. In 1920, the United States Supreme Court ruled unanimously that the Grand Canyon was indeed "an object of historic or scientific interest" and could be protected by proclamation, setting a precedent for the use of the Antiquities Act to preserve large areas. Federal courts have since rejected every challenge to the president's use of Antiquities Act preservation authority, ruling that the law gives the president exclusive discretion over the determination of the size and nature of the objects protected. Substantial opposition did not materialize until 1943, when President Franklin D. Roosevelt proclaimed Jackson Hole National Monument in Wyoming.
He did this to accept a donation of lands acquired by John D. Rockefeller, Jr. for addition to Grand Teton National Park after Congress had declined to authorize this park expansion. Roosevelt's proclamation unleashed a storm of criticism about use of the Antiquities Act to circumvent Congress. A bill abolishing Jackson Hole National Monument passed Congress but was vetoed by Roosevelt, Congressional and court challenges to the proclamation authority were mounted. In 1950, Congress incorporated most of the monument into Grand Teton National Park, but the act doing so barred further use of the proclamation authority in Wyoming except for areas of 5,000 acres or less; the most substantial use of the proclamation authority came in 1978, when President Jimmy Carter proclaimed 15 new national monuments in Alaska after Congress had adjourned without passing a major Alaska lands bill opposed in that state. Congress passed a revised version of the bill in 1980 incorporating most of these national monuments into national parks and preserves, but the act curtailed further use of the proclamation authority in Alaska.
The proclamation authority was not used again anywhere until 1996, when President Bill Clinton proclaimed the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument in Utah. This action was unpopular in Utah, bills were introduced to further restrict the president's authority. None of which have been enacted. Most of the 16 national monuments created by President Clinton are managed not by the National Park Service, but by the Bureau of Land Management as part of the National Landscape Conservation System. Presidents have used the Antiquities Act's proclamation authority not only to create new national monuments but to enlarge existing ones. For example, Franklin D. Roosevelt enlarged Dinosaur National Monument in 1938. Lyndon B. Johnson added Ellis Island to Statue of Liberty National Monument in 1965, Jimmy Carter made major additions to Glacier Bay and Katmai National Monuments in 1978. On June 24, 2016, President Barack Obama designated the Stonewall Inn and surrounding areas in Greenwich Village, New York as the Stonewall National Monument, the first national monument commemorating the struggle for LGBT rights in the United States.
List of U. S. National Forests List of areas in the United States National Park System List of U. S. wilderness areas Protected areas of the United States List of proposed national monuments of the United States National monument proclamations under the Antiquities Act Congressional Research Service reports regar
Jedediah Strong Smith, was a clerk, hunter, author and explorer of the Rocky Mountains, the North American West, the Southwest during the early 19th century. After 75 years of obscurity following his death, Smith was rediscovered as the American whose explorations led to the use of the 20-mile -wide South Pass as the dominant point of crossing the Continental Divide for pioneers on the Oregon Trail. Coming from a modest family background, Smith traveled to St. Louis and joined William H. Ashley and Andrew Henry's fur trading company in 1822. Smith led the first documented exploration from the Salt Lake frontier to the Colorado River. From there, Smith's party became the first United States citizens to cross the Mojave Desert into what is now the state of California but which at that time was part of Mexico. On the return journey and his companions were the first U. S. citizens to explore and cross the Sierra Nevada and the treacherous Great Basin Desert. In the following year and his companions were the first U. S. explorers to travel north from California to reach the Oregon Country.
Surviving three Native American massacres and one bear mauling, Jedediah Smith's explorations and documented travels were important resources to American westward expansion. In March 1831, while in St. Louis, Smith requested of Secretary of War John H. Eaton a federally funded exploration of the West, but to no avail. Smith informed Eaton. In May and his partners launched a planned para-military trading party to Santa Fe. On May 27, while searching for water in present-day southwest Kansas, Smith went missing, it was learned some weeks that he had been killed during an encounter with the Comanche – his body was never recovered. After his death, Smith's memory and his accomplishments were forgotten by Americans. At the beginning of the 20th century and historians made efforts to recognize and study his achievements. In 1918, a book by Harrison Clifford Dale was published covering Ashley-Smith western explorations. In 1935, Smith's summary autobiography was listed in a biographical dictionary. Smith's first comprehensive biography by Maurice S. Sullivan was published in 1936.
A popular Smith biography by Dale Morgan, published in 1953, established Smith as an authentic national hero. Smith's map of the West in 1831 was used by the U. S. Army, including western explorer John C. Frémont during the early 1840s. Smith was born in Jericho, now Bainbridge, Chenango County, New York, on January 6, 1799, to Jedediah, 1st and Sally Strong, both of whom were descended from families that came to New England from England during the Puritan emigration between 1620 and 1640. Smith received an adequate English instruction, learned some Latin, was taught how to write decently. Around 1810, Smith's father, who owned a general store, was caught up in a legal issue involving counterfeit currency after which the elder Smith moved his family west to Erie County, Pennsylvania. At the age of 13, Smith worked as a clerk on a Lake Erie freighter, where he learned business practices and met traders returning from the far west to Montreal; this work gave Smith an ambition for adventurous wilderness trade.
According to Dale L. Morgan, Smith's love of nature and adventure came from his mentor, Dr. Titus G. V. Simons, a pioneer medical doctor, on close terms with the Smith family. Morgan speculated that Simons gave the young Smith a copy of Meriwether Lewis's and William Clark's 1814 book of their 1804–1806 expedition to the Pacific, according to legend Smith carried this journal on all of his travels throughout the American West. Smith would provide Clark, who had become Superintendant of Indian Affairs, much information from his own expeditions into the West. In 1817, the Smith family moved westward again to Ohio and settled in Green Township in what is present-day Ashland County. Coming from a family of modest means, Smith struck out to make his own way, he may have left his family in search of a trade or employment a year prior to their settlement in Green Township. In 1822, Smith was living in St. Louis; the same year Smith responded to an advertisement in the Missouri Gazette placed by Gen. William H. Ashley.
General Ashley and Major Andrew Henry, veterans of the War of 1812, had established a partnership to engage in the fur trade and were looking for "One Hundred" "Enterprising Young Men" to explore and trap in the Rocky Mountains. Superintendent of Indian Affairs William Clark had granted Ashley-Henry license to trade with Native Americans in the Upper Missouri and he encouraged them to compete with the powerful British fur trade in the Pacific Northwest. Smith, now a 6-foot-tall, blue-eyed 23-year-old with a commanding presence, impressed General Ashley to hire him. In late spring, Smith started up the Missouri River on the keel boat Enterprize, which sank three weeks into the journey. Smith and the other men waited at the site of the wreck for a replacement boat and foraging for food. Ashley brought up another boat with an additional 46 men and upon proceeding upriver, Smith got his first glimpse of the western frontier, coming into contact with the Sioux and Arikara. On October 1, Smith reached Fort Henry at the mouth of the Yellowstone River, which had just been built by Major Henry and the men that he had led up earlier.
Smith and some other men continued up the Missouri to the mouth of the Musselshell River in central Montana, where they built a camp from which to trap through the winter. The next spring, Major Henry ordered Smith to go back down the Missouri to the Grand River to take a message to Ashley to buy horses f
United States National Forest
National Forest is a classification of protected and managed federal lands in the United States. National Forests are forest and woodland areas owned collectively by the American people through the federal government, managed by the United States Forest Service, a division of the United States Department of Agriculture; the National Forest System was created by the Land Revision Act of 1891, signed under the presidency of Benjamin Harrison. It was the result of concerted action by Los Angeles-area businessmen and property owners who were concerned by the harm being done to the watershed of the San Gabriel Mountains by ranchers and miners. Abbot Kinney and forester Theodore Lukens were key spokesmen for the effort. In the United States there are 155 National Forests containing 190 million acres of land; these lands comprise 8.5 percent of the total land area of the United States, an area about the size of Texas. Some 87 percent of National Forest land lies west of the Mississippi River in the mountain ranges of the Western United States.
Alaska has 12 percent of all National Forest lands. The U. S. Forest Service manages all of the United States National Grasslands, around half of the United States National Recreation Areas. There are two distinctly different types of forests within the National Forest system; those east of the Great Plains in the Midwestern and Eastern United States were acquired by the federal government since 1891, may be second growth forests. The land had long been in the private domain and sometimes logged since colonial times, but was purchased by the United States government in order to create new National Forests; those west of the Great Plains in the Western United States, though established since 1891, are on lands with ownership maintained by the federal government since the U. S. acquisition and settling of the American West. These are lands that were kept in the public domain, with the exception of inholdings and donated or exchanged private forest lands. Land management of these areas focuses on conservation, timber harvesting, livestock grazing, watershed protection and recreation.
Unlike national parks and other federal lands managed by the National Park Service, extraction of natural resources from national forests is permitted, in many cases encouraged. However, the first-designated wilderness areas, some of the largest, are on National Forest lands. There are management decision conflicts between conservationists and environmentalists, natural resource extraction companies and lobbies, over the protection and/or use of National Forest lands; these conflicts center on endangered species protection, logging of old-growth forests, intensive clear cut logging, undervalued stumpage fees, mining operations and mining claim laws, logging/mining access road-building within National Forests. Additional conflicts arise from concerns that the grasslands and forest understory are grazed by sheep, and, more rising numbers of elk and mule deer due to loss of predators. Many ski resorts and summer resorts operate on leased land in National Forests. List of U. S. National Forests United States National Grassland National Forests of the United States topics State forest National Forest Management Act of 1976 Protected areas of the United States USDA Forest Service USDA Forest Service - The First Century 100 Years of Federal Forestry
Malheur National Forest
The Malheur National Forest is a National Forest in the U. S. state of Oregon. It contains more than 1.4 million acres in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon. The forest consists of high desert grasslands, juniper, pine and other tree species. Elevations vary from about 4,000 feet to the 9,038-foot peak of Strawberry Mountain; the Strawberry Mountains extend east to west through the center of the forest. U. S. Route 395 runs south to north through the forest, while U. S. Route 26 runs east to west; the forest was established by President Theodore Roosevelt on June 13, 1908, is named after the Malheur River, from the French, meaning "misfortune". It is managed by the United States Forest Service for timber extraction, cattle grazing, gold mining and wilderness use. A 1993 Forest Service study estimated. In descending order of land area, the forest is located in parts of Grant, Harney and Malheur counties. There are three ranger districts in the forest, with offices in John Day, Prairie City, Hines.
The Malheur National Forest contains the largest known organism in the world: an Armillaria solidipes that spans 2,200 acres. There are two wilderness areas in the Malheur National Forest. Strawberry Mountain Wilderness at 68,700 acres Monument Rock Wilderness at 19,620 acres, located within the Wallowa–Whitman National Forest Vinegar Hill-Indian Rock Scenic Area, a high-elevation scenic area in the northeast portion of the forest Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, a federally protected refuge to the south of the forest Malheur National Forest home page Cedar Grove Botanical Area