The Caspian tern is a species of tern, with a subcosmopolitan but scattered distribution. Despite its extensive range, it is monotypic of its genus, the genus name is from Ancient Greek hudros and Latin progne, swallow. The specific caspia is from Latin and, like the English name and it is the worlds largest tern with a length of 48–60 cm, a wingspan of 127–145 cm and a weight of 530–782 g. Adult birds have legs, and a long thick red-orange bill with a small black tip. They have a head with a black cap and white neck, belly. The upper wings and back are grey, the underwings are pale with dark primary feathers. In flight, the tail is less forked than other terns, in winter, the black cap is still present, but with some white streaking on the forehead. The call is a loud heron-like croak and their breeding habitat is large lakes and ocean coasts in North America, and locally in Europe, Asia and Australasia. North American birds migrate to southern coasts, the West Indies and Asian birds spend the non-breeding season in the Old World tropics.
African and Australasian birds are resident or disperse over short distances, in 2016, a nest of the Caspian tern was found in the Cape Krusenstern National Monument in northwestern Alaska,1,000 miles further north than any previous sighting. This development was part of a trend in Alaska of species moving to the north. The global population is about 50,000 pairs, numbers in most regions are stable, the Caspian tern is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds applies. They feed mainly on fish, which they dive for, hovering high over the water and they occasionally eat large insects, the young and eggs of other birds and rodents. They may fly up to 60 km from the colony to catch fish. Breeding is in spring and summer, with one to three pale green eggs, with heavy brown spotting, being laid. They nest either together in colonies, or singly in mixed colonies of other tern, the nest is on the ground among gravel and sand, or sometimes on vegetation, incubation lasts for 26–28 days.
The chicks are variable in pattern, from pale creamy to darker grey-brown. Caspian Tern species text in The Atlas of Southern African Birds BirdLife species factsheet for Hydroprogne caspia Hydroprogne caspia, Caspian tern photo gallery at VIREO Interactive range map of Hydroprogne caspia at IUCN Red List maps Audio recordings of Caspian tern on Xeno-canto
The red-tailed hawk is a bird of prey, one of three species colloquially known in the United States as the chickenhawk, though it rarely preys on standard sized chickens. It breeds throughout most of North America, from western Alaska and northern Canada to as far south as Panama and the West Indies, Red-tailed hawks can acclimate to all the biomes within their range. There are fourteen recognized subspecies, which vary in appearance and range and it is one of the largest members of the genus Buteo in North America, typically weighing from 690 to 1,600 g and measuring 45–65 cm in length, with a wingspan from 110–145 cm. The red-tailed hawk displays sexual dimorphism in size, with females averaging about 25% heavier than males, the bird is sometimes referred to as the red-tail for short, when the meaning is clear in context. The subspecies Harlans hawk is sometimes considered a separate species, the red-tailed hawk occupies a wide range of habitats and altitudes, including deserts, grasslands and deciduous forests, agricultural fields and urban areas.
It lives throughout the North American continent, except in areas of unbroken forest or the high arctic and it is legally protected in Canada and the United States by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act. Because they are so common and easily trained as capable hunters, falconers are permitted to take only passage hawks so as to not affect the breeding population. Adults, which may be breeding or rearing chicks, may not be taken for falconry purposes, passage red-tailed hawks are preferred by falconers because these younger birds have not yet developed the adult behaviors which would make them more difficult to train. As is the case with many raptors, the red-tailed hawk displays sexual dimorphism in size, as is typical in large raptors, frequently reported mean body mass for Red-tailed Hawks are somewhat higher than expansive research reveals. The heaviest surveyed weights came from migrants in Cape May, New Jersey, males can reportedly measure 45 to 60 cm in total length, females measuring 48 to 65 cm long.
The wingspan can range from 105 to 141 cm and, in the scientific method of measuring wing size. The tail measures 188 to 258.7 mm in length, the exposed culmen was reported to range from 21.7 to 30.2 mm and the tarsus averaged 74. 7–95.8 mm. The middle toe can range from 38.3 to 53.8 mm, Red-tailed hawk plumage can be variable, depending on the subspecies and the region. These color variations are morphs, and are not related to molting, the western North American population, B. j. calurus, is the most variable subspecies and has three color morphs, light and intermediate or rufus. The dark and intermediate morphs constitute 10–20% of the population, though the markings and hue vary across the subspecies, the basic appearance of the red-tailed hawk is consistent. Overall, this species is blocky and broad in shape, often appearing heavier than other Buteos of similar length, a whitish underbelly with a dark brown band across the belly, formed by horizontal streaks in feather patterning, is present in most color variations.
Especially in younger birds, the underside may be covered with dark brown spotting. The red tail, which gives this species its name, is uniformly brick-red above, the bill is short and dark, in the hooked shape characteristic of raptors, and the head can sometimes appear small in size against the thick body frame
The least tern is a species of tern that breeds in North America and locally in northern South America. It is closely related to, and was often considered conspecific with. Other close relatives include the yellow-billed tern and Peruvian tern, both from South America and it is a small tern, 22–24 cm long, with a wingspan of 50 cm, and weighing 39–52 g. The upper parts are a uniform pale gray, and the underparts white. The bill is yellow with a black tip in summer. The wings are pale gray, but with conspicuous black markings on their outermost primaries. It flies over water with fast, jerky wingbeats and a distinctive hunchback appearance and it is migratory, wintering in Central America, the Caribbean and northern South America. Many spend their whole first year in their wintering area and it has occurred as a vagrant to Europe, with one record in Great Britain. The differences among the three subspecies may not be as much as had been thought, S. a. athalassos –, Breeds on the rivers of the Arkansas River, Mississippi River, Brazos River, Trinity River, and Rio Grande basins, winters south to northern Brazil. S. a. S. a.
browni –, California least tern, Breeds on the Pacific coast of North America, from central California south to western Mexico, winters mainly in Central America. Threats include egg and fledgling predators, high tides and recreational use of nesting beaches, the western population, the California least tern, was listed as an endangered species in 1972 with a population of about 600 pairs. The California subspecies breeds on beaches and bays of the Pacific Ocean within a limited range of southern California, in San Francisco Bay. While numbers have increased with its protected status, it is still vulnerable to predators. Recent threats include the gull-billed tern, which can decrease reproductive success in a colony to less than 10%, the least tern arrives at its breeding grounds in late April. The breeding colonies are not dense and may appear along marine or estuarine shores, or on sandbar islands in large rivers. Courtship typically takes place removed from the colony site, usually on an exposed tidal flat or beach.
Only after courtship has confirmed mate selection does nesting begin by mid-May and is complete by mid-June. Nests are situated on barren to sparsely vegetated places near water, in the southeastern United States, many breeding sites are on white gravel rooftops
Rattlesnakes are a group of venomous snakes of the genera Crotalus and Sistrurus of the subfamily Crotalinae. The 36 known species of rattlesnakes have between 65 and 70 subspecies, all native to the America, ranging from southern Alberta, Rattlesnakes are predators that live in a wide array of habitats, hunting small animals such as birds and rodents. The threat of envenomation, advertised by the shaking of the titular noisemaker at the end of their tails. However, rattlesnakes fall prey to hawks, king snakes, Rattlesnakes are heavily preyed upon as neonates, while they are still weak and mentally immature. Large numbers of rattlesnakes are killed by humans, Rattlesnake populations in many areas are severely threatened by habitat destruction and extermination campaigns. Rattlesnake are the leading contributor to snakebite injuries in North America, rattlesnakes rarely bite unless provoked or threatened, if treated promptly the bites are seldom fatal. Rattlesnakes receive their name from the rattle located at the end of their tails, the scientific name Crotalus is derived from the Greek κρόταλον, meaning castanet.
The name Sistrurus is the Latinized form of the Greek word for tail rattler and shares its root with the ancient Egyptian musical instrument the sistrum, Rattlesnakes are native to the Americas, living in diverse habitats from southwestern Canada to central Argentina. The large majority of live in the American Southwest and Mexico. Four species may be found east of the Mississippi River, in the United States, the states with the most types of rattlesnakes are Texas and Arizona. Most species live near open, rocky areas, rocks offer them cover from predators, plentiful prey, and open basking areas. However, rattlesnakes can be found in a variety of other habitats including prairies, deserts. The most probable ancestral area of rattlesnakes is the Sierra Madre Occidental region in Mexico, the most probable vegetation or habitat of the ancestral area appears to be pine-oak forests. Feeding habits play an important ecological role by limiting the size of rodent populations, Rattlesnakes consume mice, small birds, and other small animals.
They lie in wait for their prey, or hunt for it in holes, the prey is killed quickly with a venomous bite as opposed to constriction. If the bitten prey moves away before dying, the rattlesnake can follow it by its scent, when it locates the fallen prey, it checks for signs of life by prodding with its snout, flicking its tongue, and using its sense of smell. Once the prey has become incapacitated, the rattlesnake locates its head by odors emitted from the mouth, the prey is ingested head-first, which allows wings and limbs to fold at the joints in a manner which minimizes the girth of the meal. The gastric fluids of rattlesnakes are extremely powerful, allowing for the digestion of flesh, optimal digestion occurs when the snake maintains a body temperature between 80 and 85 °F
Great horned owl
The great horned owl, known as the tiger owl or the hoot owl, is a large owl native to the Americas. It is an extremely adaptable bird with a vast range and is the most widely distributed owl in the Americas. The great horned owl is one of the earliest nesting birds in North America, the great horned owl is generally colored for camouflage. The underparts of the species are light with some brown horizontal barring. All subspecies are darkly barred to some extent along the sides as well, there is a variable sized white patch on the throat. South American horned owls typically have a white throat patch, often unseen unless actively displaying. The skin of the feet and legs, though almost entirely obscured by feathers, is black, even tropical great horned owls have feathered legs and feet. The feathers on the feet of the horned owl are the second longest known in any owl. The bill is dark gunmetal-gray, as are the talons, all great horned owls have a facial disc. This can be reddish, brown or gray in color and is demarked by a dark rim culminating in bold and this species horns are tufts of feathers, called plumicorns.
The purpose of plumicorns is not fully understood, but the theory that they serve as a cue in territorial and socio-sexual interactions with other owls is generally accepted. The great horned owl is the heaviest extant owl in Central and South America and is the second heaviest owl in North America, after the closely related and it is heavily built, with a barrel-shaped body, a large head and broad wings. Adult great horned owls range in length from 43 to 64 cm, with an average of 55 cm, females are somewhat larger than males. Mean body weight is 1,608 g for females and 1,224 g for males, depending on subspecies, maximum weight can reach 2,503 g. The wing chord length is 297–400 mm, the tail, being relatively short as is typical of most owls, is 175 to 252 mm long. The legs and talons are large and powerful. The average foot span of a fully spread foot, from talon to talon, is around 20 cm, Great horned owls can apply at least 300 pounds per square inch of crushing power in their talons, a PSI considerably greater than the human hand is capable of exerting.
In some big females, the power of the great horned owl may be comparable to much larger raptor species such as the golden eagle
Typically, a lens is used to focus the light reflected or emitted from objects into a real image on the light-sensitive surface inside a camera during a timed exposure. With an electronic sensor, this produces an electrical charge at each pixel. A negative image on film is used to photographically create a positive image on a paper base, known as a print. The word photography was created from the Greek roots φωτός, genitive of φῶς, light and γραφή representation by means of lines or drawing, several people may have coined the same new term from these roots independently. Johann von Maedler, a Berlin astronomer, is credited in a 1932 German history of photography as having used it in an article published on 25 February 1839 in the German newspaper Vossische Zeitung. Both of these claims are now widely reported but apparently neither has ever been confirmed as beyond reasonable doubt. Credit has traditionally given to Sir John Herschel both for coining the word and for introducing it to the public.
Photography is the result of combining several technical discoveries, Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid independently described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. Daniele Barbaro described a diaphragm in 1566, wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals in 1694. The fiction book Giphantie, published in 1760, by French author Tiphaigne de la Roche, the discovery of the camera obscura that provides an image of a scene dates back to ancient China. Leonardo da Vinci mentions natural camera obscura that are formed by dark caves on the edge of a sunlit valley, a hole in the cave wall will act as a pinhole camera and project a laterally reversed, upside down image on a piece of paper. So the birth of photography was primarily concerned with inventing means to capture, renaissance painters used the camera obscura which, in fact, gives the optical rendering in color that dominates Western Art. The camera obscura literally means dark chamber in Latin and it is a box with a hole in it which allows light to go through and create an image onto the piece of paper.
Around the year 1800, British inventor Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance and he used paper or white leather treated with silver nitrate. The shadow images eventually darkened all over, the first permanent photoetching was an image produced in 1822 by the French inventor Nicéphore Niépce, but it was destroyed in a attempt to make prints from it. Niépce was successful again in 1825, in 1826 or 1827, he made the View from the Window at Le Gras, the earliest surviving photograph from nature. Because Niépces camera photographs required a long exposure, he sought to greatly improve his bitumen process or replace it with one that was more practical. With an eye to eventual commercial exploitation, the partners opted for total secrecy, Daguerres efforts culminated in what would be named the daguerreotype process
Nature reserves may be designated by government institutions in some countries, or by private landowners, such as charities and research institutions, regardless of nationality. Nature reserves fall into different IUCN categories depending on the level of protection afforded by local laws, early reservations often had a religious underpinning, such as the evil forest areas of West Africa which were forbidden to humans, who were threatened with spiritual attack if they went there. Sacred areas taboo from human entry to fishing and hunting are known by ancient cultures worldwide. The worlds first modern nature reserve was established in 1821 by the naturalist and explorer Charles Waterton around his estate in Walton Hall and he spent £9000 on the construction of a 3 mile long,9 ft tall wall to enclose his park from poachers. He tried to encourage birdlife by planting trees and hollowing out trunks for owls to nest in and he invented artificial nest boxes to house starlings and sand martins and unsuccessfully attempted to introduce little owls from Italy.
Drachenfels was protected as the first state-designated nature reserve in modern-day Germany, in Australia, a nature reserve is the title of a type of protected area used in the jurisdictions of the Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales and Western Australia. The term “nature reserve” is defined in the relevant statutes used in those states and territories rather than by a national statute. As of 2014,1767 out of a total of 10339 protected areas listed within the Australian National Reserve System used the term “nature reserve in their names, in Brazil, nature reserves are classified as ecological stations or biological reserves by the National System of Conservation Units. Their main objectives are preserving fauna and flora and other natural attributes, visits are allowed only with permission, and only for educational or scientific purposes. Changes to the ecosystems in both types of reserve are allowed to restore and preserve the balance, biological diversity. Ecological stations are allowed to change the environment within strictly defined limits for the purpose of scientific research.
A wildlife reserve in Brazil is protected, and hunting is not allowed, there are 30 nature reserves in Egypt which cover 12% of Egyptian land. Those nature reserves were built according to the laws no, 102/1983 and 4/1994 for protection of the Egyptian nature reserve. Egypt announced a plan from to build 40 nature reserves from 1997 to 2017, to protect the natural resources. The largest nature reserve in Egypt is Gebel Elba in the southeast, denmark has three national parks and several nature reserves, some of them inside the national park areas. The largest single reserve is Hanstholm Nature Reserve, which covers 40 km2 and is part of Thy National Park, in Sweden there are 29 national parks. The first of them were established in 1909, in fact, Sweden was the first European country that established 9 national parks. There are almost 4,000 nature reserves in Sweden and they comprise about 85% of the surface that is protected by the Swedish Enironmental Code
Coopers hawk is a medium-sized hawk native to the North American continent and found from Southern Canada to Northern Mexico. As in many birds of prey, the male is smaller than the female, the birds found east of the Mississippi River tend to be larger on average than the birds found to the west. Other common names for the Coopers hawk include, big blue darter, chicken hawk, flying cross, hen hawk, quail hawk, Coopers hawk was first described by French naturalist Charles Lucien Bonaparte in 1828. It is a member of the goshawk genus Accipiter and this bird was named after the naturalist William Cooper, one of the founders of the New York Lyceum of Natural History in New York. Other common names, big blue darter, chicken hawk, hen hawk, Mexican hawk, quail hawk, the average mass of an adult male ranges from 220 to 440 g with a length between 35 and 46 cm. The adult male is smaller than the average female, which weigh 330 to 700 g. As in most accipiters, the tarsus is long, measuring 5. 6–7.6 cm long.
Adults have red eyes and have a cap, with blue-gray upper parts and white underparts with fine, thin. Their tail is blue-gray on top and pale underneath, barred with black bands, immatures have yellow eyes and have a brown cap, with brown upper parts and pale underparts with thin black streaks mostly ending at the belly. Their tail is brown on top and pale underneath, barred with dark bands, the eyes of this hawk, as in most predatory birds, face forward, enabling good depth perception for hunting and catching prey while flying at top speeds. They have hooked bills that are adapted for tearing flesh of prey. Although the coloration is generally somewhat similar between sharp-shinned hawks and Coopers hawks, Coopers appear broader-chested and larger-headed, with more robust features. The crow-like size of Coopers hawks is sometimes distinctive from the sharp-shinned, the Coopers hawk appears long-necked in flight and has been described by birdwatchers as looking like a flying cross. The Coopers hawk is seen flying with quick, consecutive wing beats.
Their breeding range extends from southern Canada to northern Mexico and they are generally distributed more to the south than the other North American accipiters, the sharp-shinned hawk and the northern goshawk. Birds from most of the Canadian and northern U. S. range migrate in winter and they were once thought to be averse to cities and towns, but are now fairly common urban and suburban birds. The cities provide plenty of rock pigeon and mourning dove for the Coopers hawk to prey on and these birds capture prey from cover or while flying quickly through dense vegetation, relying almost totally on surprise. One study showed that this is a dangerous hunting style
Annas hummingbird, a medium-sized hummingbird native to the west coast of North America, was named after Anna Masséna, Duchess of Rivoli. In the early 20th century, Annas hummingbirds bred only in northern Baja California, Annas hummingbird is 3.9 to 4.3 in long. It has an iridescent bronze-green back, a grey chest and belly. Its bill is long and slender, the adult male has an iridescent crimson-red derived from magenta to a reddish-pink crown and gorget, which can look dull brown or gray without direct sunlight and a dark, slightly forked tail. Females have iridescent red gorgets, though they are usually smaller, Annas is the only North American hummingbird species with a red crown. Females and juvenile males have a green crown, a grey throat with or without some red iridescence, a grey chest and belly. These birds feed on nectar from flowers using an extendable tongue. They consume insects and other arthropods caught in flight or gleaned from vegetation. A PBS documentary shows how Annas hummingbirds eat flying insects and they aim for the flying insect, open their beaks to capture the prey.
While collecting nectar, they assist in plant pollination and this species sometimes consumes tree sap. The males call is scratchy and metallic, and it perches above head-level in trees and they are frequently seen in backyards and parks, and commonly found at feeders and flowering plants. Annas hummingbirds can shake their bodies 55 times per second to shed rain while in flight, or in dry weather, open-wooded or shrubby areas and mountain meadows along the Pacific coast from British Columbia to Arizona make up C. annas breeding habitat. The female raises the young without the assistance of the male, the female bird builds a nest in a shrub or tree, in vines, or attached to wires or other artificial substrates. The nest materials are bound together with spider silk and they are known to nest as early as mid-December and as late as June, depending on geographic location and climatic conditions. Unlike most northern temperate hummingbirds, the male Annas hummingbird sings during courtship, the song is thin and squeaky, interspersed with buzzes and chirps, and is drawn to over 10 seconds in duration.
During the breeding season, males can be observed performing an aerial display dive over their territories, the males use the dive display to drive away rivals or intruders of other species. When a female flies onto a territory, he rises up about 130 ft before diving over the recipient. As he approaches the bottom of the dive, the male reaches a speed of 27 m/s
California least tern
This migratory bird is a U. S. federally listed endangered subspecies. The total population of the subspecies amounted to 582 breeding pairs in 1974, while numbers have gradually increased with its protected status, the species is still vulnerable to natural disasters or further disturbance by man. Wintering locations are unknown, but suspected to include the South American Pacific Coast. The California least tern arrives at its grounds in late April. Courtship typically takes place removed from the colony site, usually on an exposed tidal flat or beach. Only after courtship has confirmed mate selection does nesting begin by mid-May and is complete by mid-June. Nests are situated on barren to sparsely vegetated places near water, in the San Francisco Bay region, breeding typically takes place on abandoned salt flats. Where the surface is hard, this species may use an artificial indentation to form the nest basin, the breeding colonies are not dense and may appear along marine or estuarine shores in areas free from humans or predators.
The nest density may be as low as several per acre, most commonly the clutch size is two or three, but it is not rare to consist of either one or four eggs. Both female and male incubate the eggs for a period of three weeks, and both parents tend the semi-precocial young. Young birds can fly at age four weeks, after formation of the new families, groupings of birds may appear at lacustrine settings in proximity to the coast. Late season nesting may be renests or late season arrival activity, in any case, the bulk of the population has left California by the end of August. The California least tern hunts primarily in estuaries and lagoons, or beyond the breakers, even beyond 24 km offshore in areas of upwelling. They hover until spotting prey, and plunge into the water without full submersion to extract prey, in the bays and lagoons of Southern California and northern Mexico, the favored prey include anchovy, silversides, shiner surfperch and small crustaceans. The terns often feed near shore in the ocean, especially in proximity to lagoons or bay mouths.
Adults do not require cover, so they commonly roost on the open ground, after young chicks are three days old, they are brooded less frequently by parents and require wind blocks and shade. Notable disruption of colonies can occur from predation by burrowing owls, depredation by domestic cats has been observed in at least one colony. The California least tern is a subspecies of the least tern that breeds on the United States Atlantic coast from Maine to Florida, sternula antillarum is found in breeding grounds along rivers in the midwest and Great Plains of the United States
The red-shouldered hawk is a medium-sized hawk. Its breeding range spans eastern North America and along the coast of California, Red-shouldered hawks are permanent residents throughout most of their range, though northern birds do migrate, mostly to central Mexico. The main conservation threat to the species is deforestation. Males are 38 to 58 cm long and weigh on average 550 g, females are slightly larger at 47 to 61 cm in length and a mean weight of 700 g. The wingspan can range from 90 to 127 cm, adult birds can vary in mass from 460 to 930 g. Among standard measurements, the bone is 28–35 cm long, the tail is 16–24 cm long. Adults have brownish heads, reddish chests, and pale bellies with reddish bars and their tails, which are quite long by Buteo standards, are marked with narrow white bars. Red shoulders are visible when the birds are perched and these hawks upper parts are dark with pale spots and they have long yellow legs. Western birds may appear red, while Florida birds are generally paler.
The wings of adults are heavily barred on the upper side. In direct comparison, it is larger and longer proportioned than the Broad-wing, though is slightly smaller. This bird is confused with the widespread red-tailed hawk. That species is larger and bulkier, with more even-sized, broad wings and is paler underneath, with a reddish tail often apparent, the Red-tail is more likely to soar steadily, with wings in a slight dihedral. The red-shouldered hawk is a member of the genus Buteo, a group of medium-sized raptors with robust bodies, members of this genus are known as buzzards in Europe, but hawks in North America. New Brunswick and w. Ontario to eastern edge of U. S, great Plains, south to Florida, Gulf Coast, and e. A western population breeds west of Sierra Nevada from North California to North Baja California, and has expanded into Oregon and Arizona. New England south to Gulf Coast, occasionally throughout breeding range, in winter, reported south to Jalisco, state of México, and Veracruz, Mexico.
Throughout its winter range, this species avoids higher elevations, eastern birds occasionally wander west in migration, Western birds have strayed east to Arizona, Nevada and Utah, and north to Washington
A Pineapple Express is an example of an atmospheric river, which is a more general term for such narrow corridors of enhanced water vapor transport at mid-latitudes around the world. Each of these low-pressure systems brings enhanced rainfall, the conditions are often created by the Madden–Julian oscillation, an equatorial rainfall pattern which feeds its moisture into this pattern. They are present during an El Niño episode, Pineapple Express systems typically generate heavy snowfall in the mountains and Interior Plateau, which often melts rapidly because of the warming effect of the system. Examples of this are the Christmas flood of 1964, Willamette Valley Flood of 1996, early in 1862, extreme storms riding the Pineapple Express battered the west coast for 45 days. Both the Sacramento and San Joaquin valleys flooded, and there was extensive flooding, the San Francisco Bay Area is another locale along the Pacific Coast which is occasionally affected by a Pineapple Express. When it visits, the heavy, persistent rainfall causes flooding of local streams as well as urban flooding.
In the decades before about 1980, the term for a Pineapple Express was Hawaiian Storm. During the second week of January,1952, a series of Hawaiian storms swept into Northern California, the same storms brought a blizzard of heavy, wet snow to the Sierra Nevada Mountains, notoriously stranding the train City of San Francisco on January 13. The greatest flooding in Northern California since the 1800s occurred in 1955 as a result of a series of Hawaiian storms, a Pineapple Express battered Southern California from January 7 through January 11,2005. In some areas the storm was followed by over a month of near-continuous rain, the unusually intense rainstorms that hit south-central Alaska in October 2006 were termed Pineapple Express rains locally. These storms included heavy winds which are not usually associated with the phenomenon, regional dams opened their spillways to 100% as they had reached capacity because of rain and snowmelt. Officials referred to the system as the worst in a decade on November 8,2006.
In December 2014, a winter storm fueled by a Pineapple Express hit Northern California, resulting in snow, wind. A blizzard warning was issued by the National Weather Service for the Northern Sierra Nevada for the first time in California since 2008, the storm caused power outage for more than 50,000 people. It was expected to be the most powerful storm to impact California since the January 2010 California winter storms, a rare tornado touched down in Los Angeles on December 12