Huntington Beach, California
Huntington Beach is a seaside city in Orange County in Southern California. The city is named after American businessman Henry E. Huntington, the population was 189,992 during the 2010 census, making it the most populous beach city in Orange County and the seventh most populous city in the Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim MSA. Its estimated 2014 population was 200,809, Huntington Beach is known for its long 9. 5-mile stretch of sandy beach, mild climate, excellent surfing, and beach culture. The ocean waves are enhanced by an effect caused by the edge-diffraction of open ocean swells around Santa Catalina Island. The area was occupied by the Tongva people. The main thoroughfare of Huntington Beach, Beach Boulevard, was originally a cattle route for the industry of the Rancho. Since its time as a parcel of the enormous Spanish land grant, it became known as Fairview and Pacific City, as it developed into a tourist destination. The Huntington Beach pier was built in 1904 and was originally a 1,000 foot-long timber structure, Huntington Beach was incorporated on February 17,1909 during the tenure of its first mayor, Ed Manning.
Its original developer was Huntington Beach Company, a development firm owned by Henry Huntington. The Huntington Beach Company is still a major land-owner in the city, the company is now wholly owned by the Chevron Corporation. The lucky buyers got more than they had bargained for when oil was discovered in the area, and enormous development of the oil reserves followed. Though many of the old reserves are depleted, and the price of land for housing has pushed many of the rigs off the landscape, Huntington Beach was primarily agricultural in its early years with crops such as celery and sugar beets. Holly Sugar was an employer with a large processing plant in the city that was converted to an oil refinery. The citys first high school, Huntington Beach High School, located on Main Street, was built in 1906, the schools team, the Oilers, is named after the citys original natural resource. Meadowlark Airport, a general aviation airport, existed in Huntington Beach from the 1940s until 1989. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 31.9 square miles.
26.7 sq mi of it is land and 5.1 sq mi of it is water, the entire city of Huntington Beach lies in area codes 657 and 714, except for small parts of Huntington Harbour, which is in the 562 Area Code. Huntington Beach has a borderline semi-arid/Mediterranean climate, the climate is generally sunny and cool, although evenings can be excessively damp
Surfing is a surface water sport in which the wave rider, referred to as a surfer, rides on the forward or deep face of a moving wave, which is usually carrying the surfer towards the shore. Waves suitable for surfing are primarily found in the ocean, surfers can utilize artificial waves such as those from boat wakes and the waves created in artificial wave pools. The term surfing refers to the act of riding a wave, regardless of whether the wave is ridden with a board or without a board, and regardless of the stance used. The native peoples of the Pacific, for instance, surfed waves on alaia and other such craft, and did so on their belly and knees. The modern-day definition of surfing, most often refers to a riding a wave standing up on a surfboard. Another prominent form of surfing is body boarding, when a surfer rides a wave on a bodyboard, either lying on their belly, drop knee, other types of surfing include knee boarding, surf matting, and using foils. Body surfing, where the wave is surfed without a board, using the surfers own body to catch, recently with the use of V-drive boats, Wakesurfing, in which one surfs on the wake of a boat, has emerged.
For centuries, surfing was a part of ancient Polynesian culture. Surfing may have first been observed by British explorers at Tahiti in 1767, samuel Wallis and the crew members of the Dolphin who were the first Britons to visit the island in June of that year. Another candidate is the botanist Joseph Banks being part of the first voyage of James Cook on the HMS Endeavour, who arrived on Tahiti on 10 April 1769. Lieutenant James King was the first person to write about the art of surfing on Hawaii when he was completing the journals of Captain James Cook upon Cooks death in 1779. When Mark Twain visited Hawaii in 1866 he wrote, In one place we came upon a company of naked natives. In July 1885, three teenage Hawaiian princes took a break from their school, St. Mathew’s Hall in San Mateo. George Freeth is often credited as being the Father of Modern Surfing and he is thought to have been the first modern surfer. In 1907, the interests of the land baron Henry E. Huntington brought the ancient art of surfing to the California coast.
While on vacation, Huntington had seen Hawaiian boys surfing the island waves, looking for a way to entice visitors to the area of Redondo Beach, where he had heavily invested in real estate, he hired a young Hawaiian to ride surfboards. George Freeth decided to revive the art of surfing, but had success with the huge 16-foot hardwood boards that were popular at that time. When he cut them in half to them more manageable, he created the original Long board
Orange County, California
Orange County is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 3,010,232 making it the third-most populous county in California, the sixth-most populous in the United States and its county seat is Santa Ana. It is the second most densely populated county in the state, the countys four largest cities, Santa Ana and Huntington Beach each have populations exceeding 200,000. Several of Orange Countys cities are on the Pacific coast, including Huntington Beach, Newport Beach, Laguna Beach, Orange County is included in the Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area. Thirty-four incorporated cities are located in the county, the newest is Aliso Viejo, Anaheim was the first city, incorporated in 1870, when the region was still part of neighboring Los Angeles County. Whereas most population centers in the United States tend to be identified by a major city and it is mostly suburban except for some traditionally urban areas at the centers of the older cities of Anaheim, Huntington Beach and Santa Ana.
There are several edge city-style developments such as Irvine Business Center, Newport Center, the county is famous for its tourism as the home of attractions like Disneyland, Knotts Berry Farm, and several beaches along its more than 40 miles of coastline. It is part of the Tech Coast, members of the Tongva, Juaneño, and Luiseño Native American groups long inhabited the area. After the 1769 expedition of Gaspar de Portolà, a Spanish expedition led by Junipero Serra named the area Valle de Santa Ana, on November 1,1776, Mission San Juan Capistrano became the areas first permanent European settlement. Among those who came with Portolá were José Manuel Nieto and José Antonio Yorba, both these men were given land grants—Rancho Los Nietos and Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana, respectively. The Nieto heirs were granted land in 1834, the Nieto ranches were known as Rancho Los Alamitos, Rancho Las Bolsas, and Rancho Los Coyotes. Yorba heirs Bernardo Yorba and Teodosio Yorba were granted Rancho Cañón de Santa Ana and Rancho Lomas de Santiago, other ranchos in Orange County were granted by the Mexican government during the Mexican period in Alta California. A severe drought in the 1860s devastated the industry, cattle ranching.
In 1887, silver was discovered in the Santa Ana Mountains, attracting settlers via the Santa Fe and this growth led the California legislature to divide Los Angeles County and create Orange County as a separate political entity on March 11,1889. The county is said to have named for the citrus fruit in an attempt to promote immigration by suggesting a semi-tropical paradise–a place where anything could grow. Other citrus crops and oil extraction were important to the early economy. Orange County benefited from the July 4,1904 completion of the Pacific Electric Railway, the link made Orange County an accessible weekend retreat for celebrities of early Hollywood. It was deemed so significant that Pacific City changed its name to Huntington Beach in honor of Henry E. Huntington, president of the Pacific Electric, Transportation further improved with the completion of the State Route and U. S. Route 101 in the 1920s
Huntington Harbour, Huntington Beach, California
Huntington Harbour is a community of about 3,500 people located in the northwestern section of Huntington Beach in Orange County, California. Huntington Harbour is a development of 680 acres which includes five man-made islands with waterways varying from 15 to 20 feet in depth used for boating. The five man-made islands in Huntington Harbour include, Davenport, Humboldt, Huntington Harbour construction began in 1963 at a cost of $200 million. The harbors and peninsulas are located on the site of the historic Sunset Bay Estuary wetlands. They were destroyed with dredging and filling to develop the land for the new community, Huntington Harbour is bracketed to the south by the 1,200 acre Bolsa Chica Ecological Reserve and to the north by the 5,256 acre Naval Weapons Station Seal Beach. The Huntington Harbour Yacht Club, with membership of about 300 people, was established in 1965, the club offers sailing lessons during the summer for disadvantaged youth. Admiralty Island, This development contains 90 single-family residences, nearly all with water frontage, access is via Pacific Coast Highway at Admiralty Drive.
Davenport Island,227 home sites are evenly split between on-water and off-water locations, the southernmost island is accessed by taking Davenport Drive which is the southern border of Huntington Harbour Mall. Gilbert Island, Bounded by Admiralty Island to the west and the Main Channel to the east, it contains 100 home sites, Humboldt Island, Two-thirds of the 335 homes are on-water locations with views of Christiana Bay. Access the Island by taking Saybrook Lane to Humboldt Drive, Trinidad Island, This is considered the most luxurious of the islands. There are five public Mothers beaches in Huntington Harbour where local families bring their children to play in the sand and paddle boarders use these beaches as access points to the wonderful harbor as well as swimmers who can enjoy long-distance swims undisturbed by waves and currents. Boat traffic is limited to a five MPH no wake, the harbor is patrolled by the Orange County Sheriffs Department Huntington Harbour Patrol and Huntington Beach Marine Fire Rescue.
Rowers, ranging from middle-schoolers to Olympic gold medalists, from the Southern California Scullers Club train daily on the channel of Huntington Harbour. During December, a parade takes place through the waterways. Also during this time the Cruise of Lights occurs in which tour boats go around the channels viewing the decorated homes as a fundraiser. The majority of the homes were built in the 1960s to late 1970s, a Trader Joes grocery store opened there in 2009
National Park Service
It was created on August 25,1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior. As of 2014, the NPS employs 21,651 employees who oversee 417 units, the National Park Service celebrated its centennial in 2016. National parks and national monuments in the United States were originally individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior, the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior and they wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service, Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS.
On March 3,1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933, the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasnt until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President Roosevelt agreed and issued two Executive orders to make it happen. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service, the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery, Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States national parks, Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States.
In 1872, there was no government to manage it. Yosemite National Park began as a park, the land for the park was donated by the federal government to the state of California in 1864 for perpetual conservation. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership, at first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. Later, the agency was given authority over other protected areas, the National Park System includes all properties managed by the National Park Service
The shovelnose guitarfish, Rhinobatos productus, is a skate in the family Rhinobatidae. It becomes mature at a seven to eight years old. Males are between 90 and 100 cm long, while females are around 99 cm at that age, the ray can live up to 11 years, and full-grown sizes are around 120 cm for males, and females reach 137 cm. They range from central California south to the Gulf of California and genetic variations occur in the mitochondrial DNA in those found in the Gulf of California, evidencing their isolation from the rest. Because of this, the conservation of species must be carefully managed to preserve the biological diversity. The shovelnose is considered to be a primitively developed ray, with features of both sharks and rays. Rhinobatos productus has magnetic particles in its vestibular receptors, and the magnetic particles believed to be exogenous in origin, the magnetic particles spatial arrangement may aid in the sensitivity of the receptors to movements. The visual system of the shovelnose is more extensive and developed than other Elasmobranchii, almost the entire dorsal and ventral hypothalamus is connected to the visual system, but still maintains a similar lack of differentiation as with sharks.
This species has had one documented case of an attack on a diver when a male guitarfish was interrupted during mating, because of the tooth structure of the guitarfish, this attack could have resulted in a gumming at worst. The shovelnose guitarfish was first considered to be a shark because of its dorsal fins shape
The California corbina is a saltwater fish and member of the croaker family. California corbina occur from the Gulf of California, Mexico, to Point Conception and it is a bottom fish found along sandy beaches and in shallow bays. This species travels in groups along the surf zone in a few inches of water to depths of 45 feet. The largest recorded specimen was 28 inches and 8.5 pounds, other names include California kingcroaker, California whiting, and sucker. California corbina should not be confused with corvina in the genus Cynoscion, the body of the California corbina is elongate and slightly compressed. The head is long and the mouth is small, the upper jaw scarcely reaching a point below the front of the eye, the color is uniform grey with iridescent reflections, and with wavy diagonal lines on the sides. This croaker and the yellowfin croaker are the two of the eight coastal croakers present in California waters to have a single fleshy projection, or barbel. The California corbina usually has only one spine at the front of the anal fin.
The caudal fin is unusual in that the upper half has a trailing edge. Adults have been feeding in the surf, at times in water so shallow that their backs were exposed. They scoop up mouthsful of sand and separate the food by expelling the sand through the gills and they are very particular feeders, apparently spitting out bits of clam shells and other foreign matter. About 90 percent of the food they eat is sand crabs – Emerita analoga, other crustaceans and clams are of lesser importance. Males mature when 2 years old at a length of about 10 inches and females at age 3 when about 13 inches long, spawning extends from June to September, but is heaviest during July and August. Spawning apparently takes place offshore as running ripe fish are not often found in the surf zone, young corbina,1 inch long, have been observed outside the surf in 4–8 feet of water in August. They travel in groups, commonly known as the fish of the sea. California corbina are caught throughout the year along southern Californias sandy beaches and they are very wary and difficult to hook as many an avid surf fisherman can affirm.
Perhaps one reason is that they tend to mouth and chew their food, sand crabs are the preferred bait, though some anglers swear by blood worms, clams and ghost shrimp. Corbina are sometimes referred to as Beans, and for the fisherman is one of the most prized catches
Bolsa Chica Ecological Reserve
Bolsa Chica Ecological Reserve is a nature reserve in the city of Huntington Beach, California. It is designated by the California Department of Fish and Game to protect a coastal wetland, Bolsa Chica means little bag in Spanish, as the area was part of a historic Mexican land grant named Rancho La Bolsa Chica. The Reserve is called many names, including Bolsa Chica Lowlands, Bolsa Chica Wetlands. The Bolsa Chica Ecological Reserve boundaries are Warner Avenue to the north, Seapoint Avenue to the south, Pacific Coast Highway to the west, and residential development to the east. There are two parking lots, the north lot southeast of the intersection of Warner and PCH. The north lot contains the Bolsa Chica Interpretive Center and it is the starting point for the Mesa Trail, which leads to the overlook and rest stop at Mesa Point. The south lot is the point for the 1. 5-mile Loop Trail. The East Garden Grove Wintersburg Channel runs through the Reserve, beginning in December 2007, flood control improvements were made by the County of Orange to reinforce the levees damaged in the rains of 2005 and protect the wetlands.
In addition, the Newport–Inglewood Fault goes through the reserve, a second exhibit room includes live reptiles such as California kingsnakes, San Diego gopher snake, coastal rosy boa, two-striped garter snakes, and alligator lizards. Approximately 30,000 people visit the Reserve each year, hiking and birdwatching are popular activities at the Reserve. There are special regulations in force for the Bolsa Chica Ecological Reserve, pets are prohibited from entering the reserve except when they remain inside a motor vehicle. Third Sunday at 10 a. m. is conducted by the Bolsa Chica Land Trust from the parking lot. Bolsa Chica Conservancy hosts numerous after school and volunteer programs to encourage participation, awareness. In order to focus on this research specifically with the endangered California least tern, Trash cleanup and environment restoration are important components in Bolsa Chica’s volunteering opportunities. Among the wildlife in the Reserve are the shovelnose guitarfish, grey smooth-hound sharks, California halibut, other wildlife include western fence lizard, cottontail rabbit, Beechey ground squirrel, and coyotes.
In spring and fall, the Reserve is home to migratory birds. As many as 321 out of Orange Countys 420 bird species have been sighted at the Reserve in the past decade, the history of Bolsa Chica is a long and varied one. The earliest peoples were the native Indians of California, archaeologists have found cog stones which date back 8,000 years and are the only surviving relic of the Indian lifestyle
Grunion are two fish species of the genus Leuresthes, the California grunion, L. tenuis, and the Gulf grunion, L. sardinas. Many people enjoy catching grunion at events called grunion runs, Grunion are known for their unusual mating ritual wherein at very high tides, the females come up on to sandy beaches where they dig their tails into the sand to lay their eggs. The male wraps himself around the female to deposit his sperm, at the next set of high tides, the eggs hatch and the young grunion are washed out to sea. A related species, the grunion, lives in the Gulf of California. Although the fish looks and acts similarly, it not have the same breeding method. The California grunion, L. tenuis, is found along the Pacific Coast from Point Conception, California, to Punta Abreojos and they are rarely found between San Francisco in the north and San Juanico Bay, Baja California Sur, in the south. The Gulf grunion, L. sardina, is found along the coast of Baja California in the Gulf of California, inhabiting the nearshore waters from the surf to a depth of 60 ft, marking experiments indicate they are not migratory.
They are small, slender fish with bluish-green backs and silvery sides and bellies and their snouts are bluntly rounded and slippery. Silversides differ from true smelts of the family Osmeridae in that lack the trout-like adipose fin. Young grunion grow rapidly and are five inches long by the time they reach one year old and are ready to spawn. Adult fish normally range in size from 6 to 7 in with a maximum recorded size of 8.5 in. Average body lengths for males and females are 4.5 and 5 in, the normal lifespan of the grunion is three to four years, although individuals up to five years old have been found. Their growth rate slows after the first spawning and stops completely during the spawning season, adult fish grow only during the fall and winter. This growth rate variation causes annuli to form on the scales, California grunion spawn on beaches from two to six nights after the full and new moon beginning soon after high tide and continuing for several hours. As a wave breaks on the beach, the grunion swim as far up the slope as possible, the female arches her body while keeping her head up and excavates the semifluid sand with her tail.
As her tail sinks, the female twists her body and digs tail first until she is buried up to her pectoral fins. After the female is in the nest, up to eight males attempt to mate with her by curving around the female, after spawning, the males immediately retreat toward the ocean. The milt flows down the body until it reaches the eggs
Pinnacles National Park
Pinnacles is managed by the National Park Service and the majority of the park is protected as wilderness. The national park is divided by the formations into East and West Divisions, connected by foot trails. The east side has shade and water, the west has high walls, the rock formations provide for spectacular pinnacles that attract rock climbers. The park features unusual talus caves that house at least thirteen species of bat, Pinnacles is most often visited in spring or fall because of the intense heat during the summer months. Park lands are prime habitat for prairie falcons, and are a site for California condors that have been hatched in captivity. Pinnacles National Monument was established in 1908 by U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt, Pinnacles National Park was created from the former Pinnacles National Monument by legislation passed by Congress in late 2012 and signed into law by President Barack Obama on January 10,2013. Native Americans in the Pinnacles region comprised the Chalon and Mutsun groups of the Ohlone people and these native people declined with the arrival of the Spanish in the 18th century, who brought novel diseases and changes to the natives way of life.
The last Chalon had died or departed from the area by 1810, from 1810 to 1865, when the first Anglo-American settlers arrived, the Pinnacles region was a wilderness without human use or habitation. The establishment of a Spanish mission at Soledad hastened the areas native depopulation through disease, archaeological surveys have found thirteen sites inhabited by Native Americans, twelve of which post-date the establishment of the missions. One site is believed to be about 2000 years old, by the 1880s the Pinnacles, known as the Palisades, were visited by picnickers from the surrounding communities who would explore the caves and camp. The first account of the Pinnacles region appeared in print in 1881, between 1889 and 1891, newspaper articles shifted from describing excursions to the Palisades to calling them the Pinnacles. Interest in the rose to the point that the Hollister Free Lance sent a reporter to the Pinnacles. Investors came from San Francisco to consider placing a hotel there. In 1894 a post office was established in Bear Valley, since there was at least one other Bear Valley in California, the post office was named Cook after Mrs.
Hains maiden name. In 1924 the post office was renamed Pinnacles, Schuyler Hain was a homesteader who arrived in the Pinnacles area in 1891 from Michigan, following his parents and eight siblings to Bear Valley. White, was a student at Stanford University, and White brought one of his professors to see the Pinnacles in 1893, dr. Gilbert was impressed by the scenery, and his comments inspired Hain to publicize the region. Hain led tours to Bear Valley and through the caves, advocating the preservation of the Pinnacles, Hains efforts resulted in a 1904 visit by Stanford president David Starr Jordan, who contacted Fresno Congressman James C. Jordan and Needham in turn influenced Gifford Pinchot to advocate the establishment of the Pinnacles Forest Reserve to President Theodore Roosevelt, Roosevelt proclaimed the establishment on July 8,1906
California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
Protected areas of the United States
The protected areas of the United States are managed by an array of different federal, state and local level authorities and receive widely varying levels of protection. Some areas are managed as wilderness, while others are operated with acceptable commercial exploitation, as of 2015, the 25,800 protected areas covered 1,294,476 km2, or 14 percent of the land area of the United States. This is one-tenth of the land area of the world. The U. S. had a total of 787 National Marine Protected Areas, covering an additional 1,271,408 km2, some areas are managed in concert between levels of government. The Father Marquette National Memorial is an example of a park operated by a state park system. As of 2007, according to the United Nations Environment Programme, federal level protected areas are managed by a variety of agencies, most of which are a part of the National Park Service, a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. They are often considered the jewels of the protected areas.
Other areas are managed by the United States Forest Service, the Bureau of Land Management, the United States Army Corps of Engineers is claimed to provide 30 percent of the recreational opportunities on federal lands, mainly through lakes and waterways that they manage. The highest levels of protection, as described by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, are Level I, the United States maintains 12 percent of the Level I and II lands in the world. These lands had an area of 210,000 sq mi. A confusing system for naming protected areas results in some types being used by more than one agency, for instance, both the National Park Service and the U. S. Forest Service operate areas designated National Preserves and National Recreation Areas. The National Park Service, the U. S. Forest Service, National Wilderness Areas are designated within other protected areas, managed by various agencies and sometimes wilderness areas span areas managed by multiple agencies. States and local zoning bodies may or may not choose to protect these, the state of Colorado, for example, is very clear that it does not set any limits on owners of NRHP properties.
State parks vary widely from urban parks to large parks that are on a par with national parks. Some state parks, like Adirondack Park, are similar to the National parks of England and Wales, about half the area of the park, some 3,000,000 acres, is state-owned and preserved as forever wild by the Forest Preserve of New York. Wood-Tikchik State Park in Alaska claims to be the largest state park by the amount of protected land, it is larger than many U. S. National Parks. Many states operate game and recreation areas. S, State and tribal wilderness areas Various counties, metropolitan authorities, regional parks, soil conservation districts and other units manage a variety of local level parks. Some of these are more than picnic areas or playgrounds, however