Nikolay Alexandrovich Dobrolyubov was a Russian literary critic, journalist and revolutionary democrat. Dobrolyubov was born in Nizhny Novgorod, where his father was a priest and he attended school at a seminary from 1848 to 1853. He was considered a prodigy by his teachers in the seminary, by the age of thirteen he was writing poetry and translating verses from Roman poets such as Horace. In 1853 he went to St. Petersburg and entered the University, following the deaths of both of his parents, in 1854, he assumed responsibility for his brothers and sisters. He worked as a tutor and translator in order to support his family and his heavy workload and the stress of his position had a negative effect on his health. During his years at the University he organized an underground circle, issued a manuscript newspaper. His poems On the 50th Birthday of N. I, and Ode on the Death of Nicholas I, copies of which were distributed outside the University, showed his hostile attitude toward the autocracy. In 1856 he met the influential critic Nikolay Chernyshevsky, and the publisher Nikolay Nekrasov and he soon began publishing his works in Nekrasovs popular journal The Contemporary.
In 1857, after his graduation from the University, he joined the staff of The Contemporary as head of the critical department, over the next four years he produced several volumes of important critical essays. One of his best known works was his essay What is Oblomovism, based on his analysis of the novel Oblomov by Ivan Goncharov. In May 1860, at the insistence of friends, he went abroad in an effort to treat incipient tuberculosis, which had been exacerbated by overwork. He lived in Germany, Switzerland and for more than six months in Italy, the situation in Italy provided him with material for a series of articles. He returned to Russia in July 1861 and he died in November 1861, at the age of twenty five, from acute tuberculosis. He was buried next to Vissarion Belinsky at Volkovo Cemetery in St. Petersburg, from Anthology of Russian Literature, Part 2, Page 272, Leo Weiner, G. P. From Archive. org Selected Philosophical Essays, Foreign Languages Publishing House, Chernyshevsky & Dobrolyubov, Selected Criticism, Indiana University Press, Bloomington,1976.
A poem by Dobrolyubov- Deaths Jest Dobrolyubov Memorial Museum
Nizhny Novgorod, colloquially shortened to Nizhny, is a city in the administrative center of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast and Volga Federal District in Russia. From 1932 to 1990, it was known as Gorky, after the writer Maxim Gorky, the city is an important economic, scientific and cultural center in Russia and the vast Volga-Vyatka economic region, and is the main center of river tourism in Russia. In the historical part of the city there are a number of universities, museums. Nizhny Novgorod is located about 400 km east of Moscow, where the Oka empties into the Volga, the city was founded in 1221 by Prince Yuri II of Vladimir. In 1612 Kuzma Minin and Prince Dmitry Pozharsky organized an army for the liberation of Moscow from the Poles, in 1817 Nizhny Novgorod became a great trade center of the Russian Empire. In 1896 at a fair, an All-Russia Exhibition was organized, during the Soviet period, the city turned into an important industrial center. In particular, the Gorky Automobile Plant was constructed in this period, the city was given the nickname Russian Detroit.
During the World War II Gorky became the biggest provider of equipment to the front. Due to this, the Luftwaffe constantly bombed the city from the air, the majority of the German bombs fell in the area of the Gorky Automobile Plant. Although almost all the sites of plant were completely destroyed. After the war, Gorky became a city and remained one until after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1990. At that time the city was renamed Nizhny Novgorod once again, in 1985 the metro was opened. In 2016 Vladimir Putin opened the new 70th Anniversary of Victory Plant which is part of the Almaz-Antey Air, the Kremlin – the main center of the city – contains the main government agencies of the city and the Volga Federal District. Originally the name was just Novgorod, but to distinguish it from the other and well-known Novgorod to the west and this land was named lower because it is situated downstream, especially from the point of view of other Russian cities such as Moscow and Murom. Later it was transformed into the name of the city that literally means Lower Newtown.
Later a major stronghold for border protection, Nizhny Novgorod fortress took advantage of a moat formed by the two rivers. With the agreement of the Mongol Khan, Nizhny Novgorod was incorporated into the Vladimir-Suzdal Principality in 1264, after 86 years its importance further increased when the seat of the powerful Suzdal Principality was moved here from Gorodets in 1350. Grand Duke Dmitry Konstantinovich sought to make his capital a rival worthy of Moscow, he built a stone citadel, the earliest extant manuscript of the Russian Primary Chronicle, the Laurentian Codex, was written for him by the local monk Laurentius in 1377
Dissolution of the Soviet Union
The Soviet Union was dissolved on December 26,1991. It was a result of the declaration number 142-Н of the Soviet of the Republics of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union and that evening at 7,32, the Soviet flag was lowered from the Kremlin for the last time and replaced with the pre-revolutionary Russian flag. Previously, from August to December, all the individual republics, the week before the unions formal dissolution,11 republics signed the Alma-Ata Protocol formally establishing the CIS and declaring that the Soviet Union had ceased to exist. The Revolutions of 1989 and the dissolution of the USSR signalled the end of the Cold War, on the other hand, only the Baltic states have joined NATO and the European Union. Mikhail Gorbachev was elected General Secretary by the Politburo on March 11,1985, aged 54, was the youngest member of the Politburo. His initial goal as general secretary was to revive the Soviet economy, the reforms began with personnel changes of senior Brezhnev-era officials who would impede political and economic change.
On April 23,1985, Gorbachev brought two protégés, Yegor Ligachev and Nikolai Ryzhkov, into the Politburo as full members. He kept the power ministries happy by promoting KGB Head Viktor Chebrikov from candidate to full member and this liberalisation, fostered nationalist movements and ethnic disputes within the Soviet Union. Under Gorbachevs leadership, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1989 introduced limited competitive elections to a new central legislature, in May 1985, Gorbachev delivered a speech in Leningrad advocating reforms and an anti-alcohol campaign to tackle widespread alcoholism. Prices of vodka and beer were raised in order to make these drinks more expensive and a disincentive to consumers, unlike most forms of rationing intended to conserve scarce goods, this was done to restrict sales with the overt goal of curtailing drunkenness. Gorbachevs plan included billboards promoting sobriety, increased penalties for public drunkenness, Gorbachev soon faced the same adverse economic reaction to his prohibition as did the last Tsar.
The disincentivization of alcohol consumption was a blow to the state budget according to Alexander Yakovlev. Alcohol production migrated to the market, or through moonshining as some made bathtub vodka with homegrown potatoes. The purpose of these reforms, was to prop up the centrally planned economy, unlike reforms. The latter, disparaged as Mr Nyet in the West, had served for 28 years as Minister of Foreign Affairs, gromyko was relegated to the largely ceremonial position of Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, as he was considered an old thinker. In the fall of 1985, Gorbachev continued to bring younger, at the next Central Committee meeting on October 15, Tikhonov retired from the Politburo and Talyzin became a candidate. Finally, on December 23,1985, Gorbachev appointed Yeltsin First Secretary of the Moscow Communist Party replacing Viktor Grishin, Gorbachev continued to press for greater liberalization. The CTAG Helsinki-86 was founded in July 1986 in the Latvian port town of Liepāja by three workers, Linards Grantiņš, Raimonds Bitenieks, and Mārtiņš Bariss and its name refers to the human-rights statements of the Helsinki Accords
Ivan Ivanovich Shishkin was a Russian landscape painter closely associated with the Peredvizhniki movement. Shishkin was born in Yelabuga of Vyatka Governorate and graduated from the Kazan gymnasium, he studied at the Moscow School of Painting and Architecture for four years. After that, he attended the Saint Petersburg Imperial Academy of Arts from 1856 to 1860 and graduated with the highest honours and he received the imperial scholarship for his further studies in Europe. Five years Shishkin became a member of the Imperial Academy in St. Petersburg and was professor of painting from 1873 to 1898, at the same time, Shishkin headed the landscape painting class at the Highest Art School in St. Petersburg. For some time, Shishkin lived and worked in Switzerland and Germany on scholarship from the St. Petersburg Imperial Academy of Arts, on his return to Saint Petersburg, he became a member of the Circle of the Itinerants and of the Society of Russian Watercolorists. He took part in exhibitions at the Academy of Arts, the All-Russian Exhibition in Moscow, the Nizhniy Novgorod, shishkins painting method was based on analytical studies of nature.
He became famous for his forest landscapes and was an outstanding draftsman, Ivan Shishkin owned a dacha in Vyra, south from St. Petersburg. There he painted some of his finest landscapes and his works are notable for poetic depiction of seasons in the woods, wild nature and birds. In 1891, he was appointed professor-director of the class in the Academy’s Advanced Art School. In 1898, he completed his painting The Pine Grove and died on 20 March in St. Petersburg, a minor planet 3558 Shishkin, discovered by Soviet astronomer Lyudmila Zhuravlyova in 1978, is named after him. Ivan Shishkin’s paintings Ivan Shishkin at Tanais Gallery Ivan Shishkin, works Ivan Shishkin Memorial House Museum, Russia
The 18th century lasted from January 1,1701 to December 31,1800 in the Gregorian calendar. During the 18th century, the Enlightenment culminated in the French and science increased in prominence. Philosophers dreamed of a brighter age and this dream turned into a reality with the French Revolution of 1789-, though compromised by the excesses of the Reign of Terror under Maximilien Robespierre. At first, many monarchies of Europe embraced Enlightenment ideals, but with the French Revolution they feared losing their power, the Ottoman Empire experienced an unprecedented period of peace and economic expansion, taking part in no European wars from 1740 to 1768. The 18th century marked the end of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as an independent state, the once-powerful and vast kingdom, which had once conquered Moscow and defeated great Ottoman armies, collapsed under numerous invasions. European colonization of the Americas and other parts of the world intensified and associated mass migrations of people grew in size as the Age of Sail continued.
Great Britain became a major power worldwide with the defeat of France in North America in the 1760s, Britain lost many of its North American colonies after the American Revolution, which resulted in the formation of the newly independent United States of America. The Industrial Revolution started in Britain in the 1770s with the production of the steam engine. Despite its modest beginnings in the 18th century, steam-powered machinery would radically change human society, western historians have occasionally defined the 18th century otherwise for the purposes of their work. To historians who expand the century to include larger historical movements, 1700-1721, Great Northern War between Tsarist Russia and the Swedish Empire. 1701, Kingdom of Prussia declared under King Frederick I,1701, Ashanti Empire is formed under Osei Kofi Tutu I. 1701–1714, The War of the Spanish Succession is fought, involving most of continental Europe, 1701–1702, The Daily Courant and The Norwich Post become the first daily newspapers in England.
1702, Forty-seven Ronin attack Kira Yoshinaka and commit seppuku in Japan,1703, Saint Petersburg is founded by Peter the Great, it is the Russian capital until 1918. 1703–1711, The Rákóczi Uprising against the Habsburg Monarchy,1704, End of Japans Genroku period. 1704, First Javanese War of Succession,1705, George Frideric Handels first opera, premieres. 1706, War of the Spanish Succession, French troops defeated at the Battles of Ramilies,1706, The first English-language edition of the Arabian Nights is published. 1707, The Act of Union is passed, merging the Scottish and English Parliaments,1707, After Aurangzebs death, the Mughal Empire enters a long decline and the Maratha Empire slowly replaces it. 1707, Mount Fuji erupts in Japan for the first time since 1700,1707, War of 27 Years between the Marathas and Mughals ends in India
All-Russia Exhibition 1896
The All-Russia industrial and art exhibition 1896 in Nizhny Novgorod was held from May 28 till October 1,1896. The 1896 exhibition was the largest pre-revolution exhibition in the Russian Empire and was organized with the money allotted by Nicholas II, the All-Russia industrial conference was held together with the exhibition. Savva Mamontov, who at the time was interested in building a railway between Vologda and Arkhangelsk, decided to open a Far North pavilion and he asked Konstantin Korovin, one of the most notable Russian artists at the time, to design the pavilion. In addition, he sponsored a number of trips for Korovin and other Russian artists, Korovin designed the pavilion and in addition painted ten big canvasses for the pavilion as well, depicting various aspects of Northern and Arctic lifestyle. After the closure of the Exhibition, the canvasses were eventually placed in the Yaroslavsky Rail Terminal in Moscow, in the 1960s, they were restored and transferred to the Tretyakov Gallery.
The suburb of Kanavino, on the bank of Oka River, was chosen as the place for the exhibition. It occupied the territory of around 84 hectares within a few hundreds meters southwest of the Nizhny Novgorod Fair, nearly 70 buildings and constructions were built in Nizhny Novgorod and at the exhibition with the money allotted by the Nicholas II Emperor of Russia. Also, more than 120 pavilions of private companies were built on the territory of the exhibition.3.1897, P. 292-294, william Craft Brumfield, The Origins of Modernism in Russian Architecture, University of California Press,1991, ISBN 0-520-06929-3. Rainer Graefe, Jos Tomlow, “Vladimir G. Suchov 1853-1939, die Kunst der sparsamen Konstruktion. ”,192 S. Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart,1990, ISBN 3-421-02984-9, media related to All-Russia Exhibition 1896 at Wikimedia Commons
Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.8 million within the urban area. Moscow has the status of a Russian federal city, Moscow is a major political, economic and scientific center of Russia and Eastern Europe, as well as the largest city entirely on the European continent. Moscow is the northernmost and coldest megacity and metropolis on Earth and it is home to the Ostankino Tower, the tallest free standing structure in Europe, the Federation Tower, the tallest skyscraper in Europe, and the Moscow International Business Center. Moscow is situated on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District of European Russia, the city is well known for its architecture, particularly its historic buildings such as Saint Basils Cathedral with its brightly colored domes. Moscow is the seat of power of the Government of Russia, being the site of the Moscow Kremlin, the Moscow Kremlin and Red Square are one of several World Heritage Sites in the city.
Both chambers of the Russian parliament sit in the city and it is recognized as one of the citys landmarks due to the rich architecture of its 200 stations. In old Russian the word meant a church administrative district. The demonym for a Moscow resident is москвич for male or москвичка for female, the name of the city is thought to be derived from the name of the Moskva River. There have been proposed several theories of the origin of the name of the river and its cognates include Russian, музга, muzga pool, Lithuanian and Latvian, mazgāt to wash, majjati to drown, mergō to dip, immerse. There exist as well similar place names in Poland like Mozgawa, the original Old Russian form of the name is reconstructed as *Москы, *Mosky, hence it was one of a few Slavic ū-stem nouns. From the latter forms came the modern Russian name Москва, Moskva, in a similar manner the Latin name Moscovia has been formed, it became a colloquial name for Russia used in Western Europe in the 16th–17th centuries. From it as well came English Muscovy, various other theories, having little or no scientific ground, are now largely rejected by contemporary linguists.
The surface similarity of the name Russia with Rosh, an obscure biblical tribe or country, the oldest evidence of humans on the territory of Moscow dates from the Neolithic. Within the modern bounds of the city other late evidence was discovered, on the territory of the Kremlin, Sparrow Hills, Setun River and Kuntsevskiy forest park, etc. The earliest East Slavic tribes recorded as having expanded to the upper Volga in the 9th to 10th centuries are the Vyatichi and Krivichi, the Moskva River was incorporated as part of Rostov-Suzdal into the Kievan Rus in the 11th century. By AD1100, a settlement had appeared on the mouth of the Neglinnaya River. The first known reference to Moscow dates from 1147 as a place of Yuri Dolgoruky. At the time it was a town on the western border of Vladimir-Suzdal Principality
The Bogolyubovs relocated to the village of Velikaya Krucha in the Poltava Governorate in 1919, where the young Nikolay Bogolyubov began to study physics and mathematics. The family soon moved to Kiev in 1921, where continued to live in poverty as the elder Nikolay Bogolyubov only found a position as a priest in 1923. He attended research seminars in Kiev University and soon started to work under the supervision of the well-known contemporary mathematician Nikolay Krylov, in 1924, at the age of 15, Nikolay Bogolyubov wrote his first published scientific paper On the behavior of solutions of linear differential equations at infinity. This earlier research had already earned him recognition, One of his essays was awarded the Bologna Academy of Sciences Prize in 1930, and the author was awarded the erudite degree of doctor of mathematics. This was the period when the career of the young Nikolai Bogolyubov began, producing new scientific trends in modern mathematics, physics. Since 1931, Krylov and Bogolyubov worked together on the problems of nonlinear mechanics and he lectured at Kiev University in the period 1936—1959.
After the German attack against the Soviet Union on 22 June 1941, in autumn 1943, Bogolyubov came from evacuation to Moscow and on 1 November 1943 he accepted a position in the Department of Theoretical Physics at the Moscow State University. At that time the Head of the Department was Anatoly Vlasov, Theoretical physicists working in the department in that period included Dmitry Ivanenko, Arsenij Sokolov, and other physicists. In the period 1943–1946, Bogolyubovs resesarch was essentially concerned with the theory of stochastic processes, in 1945, Bogolyubov proved a fundamental theorem on the existence and basic properties of a one-parameter integral manifold for a system of non-linear differential equations. He investigated periodic and quasi-periodic solutions lying on a manifold, thus forming the foundation for a new method of non-linear mechanics. On 26 January 1953, Nikolay Bogolyubov became the Head of the Department of Theoretical Physics at MSU, in 1947, Nikolay Bogolyubov organized and became the Head of the Department of Theoretical Physics at the Steklov Mathematical Institute.
In 1969, the Department of Theoretical Physics was separated into the Departments of Mathematical Physics, of Statistical Mechanics, in the 1960s his attention turned to the quark model of hadrons, in 1965 he was among the first scientists to study the new quantum number color charge. In 1946, Nikolay Bogoliubow was elected as a Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and he was elected a full member of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR and in full member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in 1953. Since 1956, he worked in the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Russia, where he was a founder, Nikolay Bogolyubov was Director of the JINR in the period 1966—1988. His son Nikolay Boglyubov is a theoretical physicist working in the fields of mathematical physics and his method of teaching, based on creation of a warm atmosphere and kindness, is famous in Russia and is known as the Bogoliubov approach. Nikolay Bogolyubov received various high USSR honors and international awards.
N, Bogolyubov Kyiv Conference, Modern Problems of Theoretical and Mathematical Physics 15–18 September, Ukraine. He suggested a new synthesis of the Bohr theory of quasiperiodic functions and he applied these methods to problems of statistical mechanics. In 1937, jointly with Nikolay Krylov he proved the Krylov-Bogoliubov theorems, in 1956, at the International Conference on Theoretical Physics in Seattle, USA, he presented the formulation and the first proof of the edge-of-the-wedge theorem