South West England
South West England is one of nine official regions of England. It is the largest in area, covering 9,200 square miles, consists of the counties of Gloucestershire, Wiltshire, Dorset and Cornwall, as well as the Isles of Scilly. Five million people live in South West England; the region includes much of the ancient kingdom of Wessex. The largest city is Bristol. Other major urban centres include Plymouth, Gloucester, Exeter, Bath and the South East Dorset conurbation which includes Bournemouth and Christchurch. There are eight cities: Salisbury, Wells, Gloucester, Exeter and Truro, it includes two entire national parks and Exmoor. The northern part of Gloucestershire, near Chipping Campden, is as close to the Scottish border as it is to the tip of Cornwall; the region has by far the longest coastline of any English region. The region is at the first level of NUTS for Eurostat purposes. Key data and facts about the region are produced by the South West Observatory. Following the abolition of the South West Regional Assembly and Government Office, local government co-ordination across the region is now undertaken by South West Councils.
The region is known for its rich folklore, including the legend of King Arthur and Glastonbury Tor, as well as its traditions and customs. Cornwall has its own language and some regard it as a Celtic nation; the South West is known for Cheddar cheese. It is home to the Eden Project, Aardman Animations, the Glastonbury Festival, the Bristol International Balloon Fiesta, trip hop music and Cornwall's surfing beaches; the region has been home to some of Britain's most renowned writers, including Daphne du Maurier and Agatha Christie, both of whom set many of their works here, the South West is the location of Thomas Hardy's Wessex, the setting for many of his best-known novels. Most of the region is located on the South West Peninsula, between the English Channel and Bristol Channel, it has the longest coastline of all the English regions, totalling over 700 miles. Much of the coast is now protected from further substantial development because of its environmental importance, which contributes to the region's attractiveness to tourists and residents.
Geologically the region is divided into the igneous and metamorphic west and sedimentary east, the dividing line to the west of the River Exe. Cornwall and West Devon's landscape is of rocky coastline and high moorland, notably at Bodmin Moor and Dartmoor; these are due to the slate that underlie the area. The highest point of the region is High Willhays, at 2,038 feet, on Dartmoor. In North Devon the slates of the west and limestones of the east meet at Exmoor National Park; the variety of rocks of similar ages seen here have led to the county's name being lent to that of the Devonian period. The east of the region is characterised by limestone downland; the vales, with good irrigation, are home to the region's dairy agriculture. The Blackmore Vale was Thomas Hardy's "Vale of the Little Dairies"; the Southern England Chalk Formation extends into the region, creating a series of high, sparsely populated and archaeologically rich downs, most famously Salisbury Plain, but Cranborne Chase, the Dorset Downs and the Purbeck Hills.
These downs are the principal area of arable agriculture in the region. Limestone is found in the region, at the Cotswolds, Quantock Hills and Mendip Hills, where they support sheep farming. All of the principal rock types can be seen on the Jurassic Coast of Dorset and East Devon, where they document the entire Mesozoic era from west to east; the climate of South West England is classed as oceanic according to the Köppen climate classification. The oceanic climate experiences cool winters with warmer summers and precipitation all year round, with more experienced in winter. Annual rainfall is up to 2,000 millimetres on higher ground. Summer maxima averages range from 18 °C to 22 °C and winter minimum averages range from 1 °C to 4 °C across the south-west, it is the second windiest area of the United Kingdom, the majority of winds coming from the south-west and north-east. Government organisations predict the region to rise in temperature and become the hottest region in the United Kingdom. Inland areas of low altitude experience the least amount of precipitation.
They experience the highest summer maxima temperatures. Snowfalls are less so in comparison to higher ground, it experiences the lowest wind speeds and sunshine total in between that of the moors. The climate of inland areas is more noticeable the further north-east into the region. In comparison to inland areas, the coast experiences high minimum temperatures in winter, it experiences lower maximum temperatures during the summer. Rainfall is the lowest at the coast and snowfall is rarer than the rest of the region. Coastal areas are the windiest parts of the peninsula and they receive the most sunshine; the general coastal climate is more typical the further south-west into the region. Areas of moorland inland such as: Bodmin Moor and Exmoor experience lower temperatures and more precipitation than the rest of the south west (approxima
Bodmin is a civil parish and historic town in Cornwall, United Kingdom. It is situated south-west of Bodmin Moor; the extent of the civil parish corresponds closely to that of the town so is urban in character. It is bordered to the east by Cardinham parish, to the southeast by Lanhydrock parish, to the southwest and west by Lanivet parish, to the north by Helland parish. Bodmin had a population of 14,736 as of the 2011 Census, it was the county town of Cornwall until the Crown Courts moved to Truro, the administrative centre. Bodmin was in the administrative North Cornwall District until local government reorganisation in 2009 abolished the District; the town is part of the North Cornwall parliamentary constituency, represented by Scott Mann MP. Bodmin Town Council is made up of sixteen councillors; each year, the Council elects one of its number as Mayor to serve as the town's civic leader and to chair council meetings. Bodmin lies in the east of south-west of Bodmin Moor, it has been suggested that the town's name comes from an archaic word in the Cornish language "bod" and a contraction of "menegh".
The "monks' dwelling" may refer to an early monastic settlement instituted by St. Guron, which St. Petroc took as his site. Guron is said to have departed to St Goran on the arrival of Petroc; the hamlets of Cooksland and Turfdown are in the parish. St. Petroc founded a monastery in Bodmin in the 6th century and gave the town its alternative name of Petrockstow; the monastery was deprived of some of its lands at the Norman conquest but at the time of Domesday still held eighteen manors, including Bodmin and Rialton. Bodmin is one of the oldest towns in Cornwall, the only large Cornish settlement recorded in the Domesday Book in 1086. In the 15th century the Norman church of St Petroc was rebuilt and stands as one of the largest churches in Cornwall. Built at that time was an abbey of canons regular, now ruined. For most of Bodmin's history, the tin industry was a mainstay of the economy; the name of the town derives from the Cornish "Bod-meneghy", meaning "dwelling of or by the sanctuary of monks".
Variant spellings recorded include Botmenei in 1100, Bodmen in 1253, Bodman in 1377 and Bodmyn in 1522. The Bodman spelling appears in sources and maps from the 16th and 17th centuries, most notably in the celebrated map of Cornwall produced by John Speed but engraved by the Dutch cartographer Jodocus Hondius the Elder in Amsterdam in 1610, it is unclear whether the Bodman spelling signifies any historical or monastic connection with the ancient settlement of Bodman at the western end of the Bodensee in the German province of Baden. An inscription on a stone built into the wall of a summer house in Lancarffe furnishes proof of a settlement in Bodmin in the early Middle Ages, it has been dated from the 6th to 8th centuries. Arthur Langdon records three Cornish crosses at Bodmin. There is Carminow Cross at a road junction southeast of the town; the Black Death killed half of Bodmin's population in the mid 14th century. Bodmin was the centre of three Cornish uprisings; the first was the Cornish Rebellion of 1497 when a Cornish army, led by Michael An Gof, a blacksmith from St. Keverne and Thomas Flamank, a lawyer from Bodmin, marched to Blackheath in London where they were defeated by 10,000 men of the King's army under Baron Daubeny.
In the autumn of 1497, Perkin Warbeck tried to usurp the throne from Henry VII. Warbeck was proclaimed King Richard IV in Bodmin but Henry had little difficulty crushing the uprising. In 1549, allied with other rebels in neighbouring Devon, rose once again in rebellion when the staunchly Protestant Edward VI tried to impose a new Prayer Book; the lower classes of Cornwall and Devon were still attached to the Roman Catholic religion and again a Cornish army was formed in Bodmin which marched across the border into Devon to lay siege to Exeter. This became known as the Prayer Book Rebellion. Proposals to translate the Prayer Book into Cornish were suppressed and in total 4,000 people were killed in the rebellion; the Borough of Bodmin was one of the 178 municipal boroughs which under the auspices of the Municipal Corporations Act 1835 was mandated to create an electable council and a Police Watch Committee responsible for overseeing a police force in the town. The new system directly replaced the Parish Constables that had policed the borough since time immemorial and brought paid and accountable law enforcement for the first time.
Bodmin Borough Police was the municipal police force for the Borough of Bodmin from 1836 to 1866. The creation of the Cornwall Constabulary in 1857 put pressure on smaller municipal police forces to merge with the county; the two-man force of Bodmin came under threat immediately, but it would take until 1866 for the Mayor of Bodmin and the Chairman of the Police Watch Committee to agree on the terms of amalgamation. After a public enquiry, the force was disbanded in January 1866 and policing of the borough was deferred to the county from thereon; the song "Bodmin Town" was collected from the Cornishman William Nichols at Whitchurch, Devon, in 1891 by Sabine Baring-Gould who published a version in his A Garland of Country Song. The existing church building is
Jamaica Inn (novel)
Jamaica Inn is a novel by the English writer Daphne du Maurier, first published in 1936. It was made into a film called Jamaica Inn, directed by Alfred Hitchcock, it is a period piece set in Cornwall in 1820. It was inspired by du Maurier's 1930 stay at the real Jamaica Inn, which still exists and is a pub in the middle of Bodmin Moor; the plot follows a group of murderous wreckers who run ships aground, kill the sailors and steal the cargo. Mary Yellan, twenty three years old, was brought up on a farm in Helford. After her mother's death, Mary goes to live with her only surviving relative, her mother's sister, Patience Merlyn, in a coaching inn called Jamaica Inn. Patience's husband, Joss Merlyn, is a local bully, stands seven feet tall and is a drunk. On arriving at the gloomy and threatening inn, Mary finds her aunt in a ghost-like state under the thumb of the vicious Joss, soon realises that something unusual is afoot at the inn, which has no guests and is never open to the public, she tries to squeeze the truth out of her uncle during one of his benders, but he tells her, "I'm not drunk enough to tell you why I live in this God-forgotten spot, why I'm the landlord of Jamaica Inn."
Against her better judgement, Mary becomes attracted to Joss's younger brother, Jem, a petty thief, but less brutal than his elder brother. After Mary realises that Joss is the leader of a band of wreckers and overhears Joss ordering the murder of one of their members, she is unsure whether to trust Jem or not, she turns to Francis Davey, the albino vicar of the neighbouring village of Altarnun, who happened to find Mary when she got lost one day on the moor. Mary and Jem leave the moors for Christmas Eve and spend a day together in the town of Launceston, during which Jem sells a horse he stole from Squire Bassat back to the squire's unwitting wife; when it comes time to return to Jamaica Inn, Jem leaves Mary to get the jingle, but never returns. Mary has no way to get home except by walking, but when she attempts this realises the weather and distance make it impossible. At this point Francis Davey offers her a lift home, he leaves the coach at the crossroads to walk to Altarnun. The coach is waylaid by her uncle's band of wreckers, the coach driver is killed.
Mary is forced to go along with the wreckers and has to watch as they'wreck' - tricking a ship into steering itself on to the rocks and murdering the survivors of the shipwreck as they swim ashore. A few days Jem comes to speak with Mary, locked in her room at the inn. With Jem's help, Mary escapes and goes to Altarnun to tell the vicar about Joss's misdeeds, but he isn't at home, she goes to the squire's home and tells his wife her story, but Mrs Bassat tells Mary that her husband has the evidence to arrest Joss and has gone to do so. Mrs Bassat has her driver take Mary to Jamaica Inn. Mary finds her uncle stabbed to death; the vicar arrives at the inn, having received a note Mary left for him that afternoon, offers her refuge for the night. The next day, Mary finds a drawing by the vicar; the vicar tells Mary that Jem was the one who informed on Joss. However, when he realizes that she has seen the drawing, the vicar reveals that he was the true head of the wrecker gang and responsible for the murders of Joss and Patience.
He flees the vicarage, taking Mary as his hostage. The vicar explains that he sought enlightenment in the Christian Church but did not find it, instead found it in the practices of the ancient Druids; as they flee across the moor to try to reach a ship to sail to Spain, Squire Bassat and Jem lead a search party that closes the gap coming close enough for Jem to shoot the vicar and rescue Mary. Mary has an offer to work as a servant for the Bassats, but instead plans to return to Helford. One day as she walks on the moor, she comes across Jem, leading a cart with all of his possessions, headed in the opposite direction of Helford. After some discussion, Mary decides to abandon her plans to return to Helford to go with Jem. A film adaptation of the novel was produced in 1939, directed by Alfred Hitchcock, starring Charles Laughton and Maureen O'Hara; the film differs from the book in some respects, with Francis Davey being replaced by Sir Humphrey Pengallan. Du Maurier was not enamoured of the production.
The BBC's Home Service broadcast a five-part adaptation starring Patrick Troughton in 1966. BBC Radio 4 made a four-part dramatisation adapted by Brian Gear in 1975. An ITV television series Jamaica Inn aired in 1983. Starring Jane Seymour, Trevor Eve, Billie Whitelaw and Patrick McGoohan, this adaptation was nearer the original story than was the Hitchcock film; the first known stage adaptation of Jamaica Inn was scripted by David Horlock and performed at Salisbury Playhouse in 1990. BBC Radio 4 broadcast a four-part adaptation by Michael Bakewell in 1991. An adaptation by John King was performed at the Regent Centre in 1993 and was to be performed again in February 2009. There is a 2004 stage adaptation of Jamaica Inn by Lisa Evans, performed as as 26 May 2007 at Newcastle-Under-Lyme's New Vic theatre, with the critically acclaimed Juliette Goodman starring in the lead role of Mary Yellan; the track "Jamaica Inn" on singer Tori Amos's 2005 album The Beekeeper is a song about "a man and a woman falling out".
In a 12 June 2012 interview with Rolling Stone Neil Peart of the rock band Rush described how the theme
Daphne du Maurier
Dame Daphne du Maurier, Lady Browning, was an English author and playwright. Although she is classed as a romantic novelist, her stories have been described as "moody and resonant" with overtones of the paranormal, her bestselling works were not at first taken by critics, but have since earned an enduring reputation for narrative craft. Many have been adapted into films, including the novels Rebecca, My Cousin Rachel, Jamaica Inn, the short stories "The Birds" and "Don't Look Now/Not After Midnight". Du Maurier spent much of her life in Cornwall; as her fame increased, she became more reclusive. Her parents were the actor/manager Sir Gerald du Maurier and stage actress Muriel Beaumont, her grandfather was the cartoonist and writer George du Maurier. Daphne du Maurier was born in London, the middle of three daughters of prominent actor-manager Sir Gerald du Maurier and actress Muriel Beaumont, her mother was a maternal niece of journalist and lecturer William Comyns Beaumont. Her grandfather was author and Punch cartoonist George du Maurier, who created the character of Svengali in the novel Trilby.
Her elder sister, Angela du Maurier became a writer, her younger sister Jeanne was a painter. Du Maurier's family connections helped her establish her literary career, she published some of her early work in Beaumont's Bystander magazine, her first novel, The Loving Spirit, was published in 1931. Du Maurier was a cousin of the Llewelyn Davies boys, who served as J. M. Barrie's inspiration for the characters in the play Peter Pan, or The Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up; as a young child, Du Maurier met many prominent theatre actors, thanks to the celebrity of her father. On meeting Tallulah Bankhead, Du Maurier was quoted as saying that Bankhead was the most beautiful creature she had seen; the novel Rebecca was one of du Maurier's most successful works. It was an immediate hit, selling nearly 3 million copies between 1938 and 1965; the novel has never gone out of print, has been adapted for both stage and screen several times. In the U. S. Du Maurier won the National Book Award for favourite novel of 1938, voted by members of the American Booksellers Association.
In the UK, it was listed at number 14 of the "nation's best-loved novel" on the BBC's 2003 survey The Big Read. Other significant works include The Scapegoat, The House on the Strand, The King's General; the last is set in the middle of the first and second English Civil Wars, written from the Royalist perspective of Du Maurier's adopted Cornwall. Unusually for du Maurier it has a female narrator. Several of Du Maurier's other novels have been adapted for the screen, including Jamaica Inn, Frenchman's Creek, Hungry Hill, My Cousin Rachel; the Hitchcock film The Birds is based on a treatment of one of her short stories, as is the film Don't Look Now. Of the films, du Maurier complained that the only ones she liked were Hitchcock's Rebecca and Nicolas Roeg's Don't Look Now. Hitchcock's treatment of Jamaica Inn was disavowed by both director and author, due to a complete re-write of the ending to accommodate the ego of its star, Charles Laughton. Du Maurier felt that Olivia de Havilland was wrongly cast as the anti-heroine of My Cousin Rachel.
Frenchman's Creek fared better in a lavish Technicolor version released in 1944. Du Maurier regretted her choice of Alec Guinness as the lead in the film of The Scapegoat, which she financed. Du Maurier was categorised as a "romantic novelist", a term that she deplored, given her novels have a happy ending, have sinister overtones and shadows of the paranormal. In this light, she has more in common with the "sensation novels" of Wilkie Collins and others, which she admired; the obituarist Kate Kellaway wrote: "Du Maurier was mistress of calculated irresolution. She did not want to put her readers' minds at rest, she wanted her riddles to persist. She wanted the novels to continue to haunt us beyond their endings."Du Maurier's novel Mary Anne is a fictionalised account of her great-great-grandmother, Mary Anne Clarke née Thompson, from 1803–08, was mistress of Frederick Augustus, Duke of York and Albany. He was the "Grand Old Duke of York" of the nursery rhyme, a son of King George III, brother of King George IV and King William IV.
The central character of her last novel, Rule Britannia, is an aging actress, thought to be based on Gladys Cooper. Du Maurier's short stories are darker: "The Birds", "Don't Look Now", "The Apple Tree", "The Blue Lenses" are finely crafted tales of terror that shocked and surprised her audience in equal measure; as her biographer Margaret Forster wrote, "She satisfied all the questionable criteria of popular fiction, yet satisfied too the exacting requirements of'real literature'." The discovery, in 2011, of a collection of du Maurier's forgotten short stories, written when the author was 21, provides some insight into her mature style. One of them, The Doll, concerns a young woman's obsession with a mechanical male sex doll. In life, she wrote non-fiction, including several biographies such as Gerald, her father's biography; the Glass-Blowers vividly depicts the French Revolution. The du Mauriers traces the family's move from France to England in the 19th century; the House on the Strand combines elements of "mental time-travel", a tragic love affair in 14th-century Cornwall, the dangers of using mind-altering drugs.
Her final novel, Rule Britannia, satirises resentment of British people in general and Cornish people in particular at the increas
Bude is a small seaside resort town in north Cornwall, England, UK, in the civil parish of Bude-Stratton and at the mouth of the River Neet. It was sometimes known as Bude Haven, it lies southwest of Stratton, south of Flexbury and Poughill, north of Widemouth Bay and is located along the A3073 road off the A39. Bude is twinned with Ergué-Gabéric in France. Bude's coast faces Bude Bay in the Celtic Sea, part of the Atlantic Ocean; the population of the civil parish can be found under Bude-Stratton. Its earlier importance was as a harbour, a source of sea sand useful for improving the moorland soil; the Victorians favoured it as a watering place, it was a popular seaside destination in the 20th century. It lies just west of Stratton and north of Widemouth Bay and is located along the A3073 road off the A39 road. A section of Bude's coast, located between Compass Cove to the south and Furzey Cove to the north, is a SSSI noted for its geological and biological interest. Carboniferous sandstone cliffs surround Bude.
During the Variscan Orogeny the strata were faulted and folded. As the sands and cliffs around Bude contain calcium carbonate, farmers used to take sand from the beach, for spreading on their fields; the cliffs around Bude are the only ones in Cornwall that are made of Carboniferous sandstone, as most of the Cornish coast is formed of Devonian slate and Precambrian metamorphic rocks. The stratified cliffs of Bude give their name to a sequence of rocks called the Bude Formation. Many formations can be viewed from the South West Coast Path. Many ships have been wrecked on the jagged reefs; the figurehead of one of these, the Bencoolen, a barque whose wrecking in 1862 resulted in the drowning of most of the crew, was preserved in the churchyard but was transferred to the town museum to save it from further decay. The aftermath of the wreck of the Bencoolen was described by Robert Stephen Hawker in letters which were published in Hawker's Poetical Works. Like the rest of the British Isles and South West England, Bude experiences a maritime climate with cool summers and mild winters.
Temperature extremes at the Met Office weather station at Bude range from −11.1 °C during February 1969 to 32.2 °C in June 1976. The Met Office recorded Bude as the sunniest place in the United Kingdom during the summer of 2013 with 783 hours of sunlight. In the Middle Ages the only dwelling here was Efford Manor, the seat of the Arundells of Trerice, which had a chapel of St Leonard. Another chapel existed at Chapel Rock, dedicated to Holy Trinity and St Michael. Bude Canal, which once ran to Launceston, now runs only a few miles inland. Several historic wharf buildings were demolished in the 1980s, but since the canal has undergone restoration; until the start of the 20th century, the neighbouring town of Stratton was dominant, a local saying is "Stratton was a market town when Bude was just a furzy down", meaning Stratton was long established when Bude was just gorse-covered downland. On 10 October 1844, during an exercise, the unnamed Bude Lifeboat capsized when the steering oar broke followed by four on the port side, two of the crew were drowned.
The local senior school Budehaven Community School suffered a major fire in October 1999, destroying most of the older parts of the school. The school was forced to close for several weeks; the damaged part of the school was rebuilt with interactive classrooms. Present-day Bude has two beaches with broad sands close to the town, is a good centre for adjacent beaches, its sea front faces west and the Atlantic rollers make for good surfing when conditions are right. The main access road into and out of Bude is the Atlantic Highway. Stagecoach South West operates numerous bus services in and around Bude, with direct services to local towns, such as Holsworthy, Wadebridge Bideford, Barnstaple. In the latter part of Queen Victoria's reign, the middle classes were discovering the attractions of sea bathing, the romantic movement encouraged an appreciation of wild scenery and the Arthurian Legend. To serve this desire, a railway line was extended to Bude in 1898; this encouraged the holiday trade, but Bude never rivalled Newquay or the resorts in south Cornwall and Devon.
There are a number of good beaches in the Bude area. Bude was the founder club in British Surf Life Saving. Summerleaze, Crooklets and'middle' beach, are all within the town. There are a number of other coves and beaches to be found and explored in the local area. In the 18th century there was a small unprotected tidal harbour at Bude, but it was difficult whenever the sea was up; the Bude Canal Company improved the harbour. Around twenty small boats use the tidal moorings of the original harbour during the summer months. Most are sport fishermen, but there is some small-scale, semi-commercial, fishing for crab and lobster. There is a wharf on the Bude Canal about half a mile from the sea lock that links the canal to the tidal haven; this can be opened only at or near high tide, only when sea conditions allow. North Cornwall District Council administered the canal and lock gates until its abolition in March 2009; these gates were renewed after the or
Smuggling is the illegal transportation of objects, information or people, such as out of a house or buildings, into a prison, or across an international border, in violation of applicable laws or other regulations. There are various motivations to smuggle; these include the participation in illegal trade, such as in the drug trade, illegal weapons trade, exotic wildlife trade, illegal immigration or illegal emigration, tax evasion, providing contraband to a prison inmate, or the theft of the items being smuggled. Smuggling is a common theme in literature, from Bizet's opera Carmen to the James Bond spy books Diamonds are Forever and Goldfinger; the verb smuggle, from Low German smuggeln or Dutch smokkelen a frequentative formation of a word meaning "to sneak", most entered the English language during the 1600s–1700s. Smuggling has a long and controversial history dating back to the first time at which duties were imposed in any form, or any attempt was made to prohibit a form of traffic. Smuggling is associated with efforts by authorities to prevent the importation of certain contraband items or non-taxed goods.
In England smuggling first became a recognised problem in the 13th century, following the creation of a national customs collection system by Edward I in 1275. Medieval smuggling tended to focus on the export of taxed export goods — notably wool and hides. Merchants however, sometimes smuggled other goods to circumvent prohibitions or embargoes on particular trades. Grain, for instance, was prohibited from export, unless prices were low, because of fears that grain exports would raise the price of food in England and thus cause food shortages and / or civil unrest. Following the loss of Gascony to the French in 1453, imports of wine were sometimes embargoed during wars to try and deprive the French of the revenues that could be earned from their main export. Most studies of historical smuggling have been based on official sources — such as court records, or the letters of Revenue Officers. According to Dr Evan Jones, the trouble with these is that'they only detail the activities of those dumb enough to get caught'.
This has led him and others, such as Prof Huw Bowen to use commercial records to reconstruct smuggling businesses. Jones' study focuses on smuggling in Bristol in the mid-16th century, arguing that the illicit export of goods like grain and leather represented a significant part of the city's business, with many members of the civic elite engaging in it. Grain smuggling by members of the civic elite working with corrupt customs officers, has been shown to have been prevalent in East Anglia during the 16th century. In England wool was smuggled to the continent in the 17th century, under the pressure of high excise taxes. In 1724 Daniel Defoe wrote of Lymington, Hampshire, on the south coast of England "I do not find they have any foreign commerce, except it be what we call smuggling and roguing; the high rates of duty levied on tea and wine and spirits, other luxury goods coming in from mainland Europe at this time made the clandestine import of such goods and the evasion of the duty a profitable venture for impoverished fishermen and seafarers.
In certain parts of the country such as the Romney Marsh, East Kent and East Cleveland, the smuggling industry was for many communities more economically significant than legal activities such as farming and fishing. The principal reason for the high duty was the need for the government to finance a number of expensive wars with France and the United States. Before the era of drug smuggling and human trafficking, smuggling had acquired a kind of nostalgic romanticism, in the vein of Robert Louis Stevenson's Kidnapped: "Few places on the British coast did not claim to be the haunts of wreckers or mooncussers; the thievery was romanticized until it seemed a kind of heroism. It did not have any taint of criminality and the whole of the south coast had pockets vying with one another over whose smugglers were the darkest or most daring; the Smugglers Inn was one of the commonest names for a bar on the coast". In Henley Road, smuggling in colonial times was a reaction to the heavy taxes and regulations imposed by mercantilist trade policies.
After American independence in 1783, smuggling developed at the edges of the United States at places like Passamaquoddy Bay, St. Mary's in Georgia, Lake Champlain, Louisiana. During Thomas Jefferson's embargo of 1807-1809, these same places became the primary places where goods were smuggled out of the nation in defiance of the law. Like Britain, a gradual liberalization of trade laws as part of the free trade movement meant less smuggling. In 1907 President Theodore Roosevelt tried to cut down on smuggling by establishing the Roosevelt Reservation along the United States-Mexico Border. Smuggling revived in the 1920s during Prohibition, drug smuggling became a major problem after 1970. In the 1990s, when economic sanctions were imposed on Serbia, a large percent of the population lived off smuggling petrol and consumer goods from neighboring countries; the state unofficially allowed this to continue or otherwise the entire economy would have collapsed. In modern times, as many first-world countries have struggled to contain a rising influx of immigrants, the smuggling of people across national borders has become a lucrative extra-legal activity, as well as the dark side, people-trafficking of women who m
Devon and Cornwall Police
Devon and Cornwall Police is the territorial police force responsible for policing the counties of Devon and Cornwall, including the unitary authority areas of Plymouth and the Isles of Scilly. The geographical area covered is the largest for any police force in England, the fifth largest in the United Kingdom; the total resident population of the force area is 1.5 million, with around 11 million visitors annually. The force was formed on 1 April 1967 by the amalgamation of the Devon and Exeter Police, Cornwall County Constabulary and Plymouth City Police, these three constabularies were an amalgamation of 23 city and borough police forces that were absorbed between 1856 and 1947. Bodmin Borough Police 1836 to 1865: Three constables were appointed on 1 January 1836 under the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, they acted as firemen. In 1865 a public inquiry was held on the matter of amalgamating Bodmin Borough Police with the Cornwall Constabulary. Although the proposal was unpopular, amalgamation took place on 21 October 1865.
Falmouth Borough Police 1836 to 1889: Six officers were appointed in 1836 comprising two serjeants-at-mace and three constables. In 1857, the force was led by an officer with the rank of superintendent with two constables in his charge. On 1 April 1889, the Falmouth Borough Police was amalgamated with the Cornwall Constabulary by virtue of section 35 of the Local Government Act 1888; the Act made it mandatory for all police forces covering a populace of less than 10,000 to merge with the county police. Helston Borough Police 1851 to 1889: Although Helston was mandated to create an organised police force, it continued to appoint parish officers until the 1850s when the increase in population and crime rate demanded the appointment of a full-time head constable and a handful of part-time constables. A popular pastime among drunken miners in Helston was the attempted strangulation of Head Constable Bishop, who found himself being throttled on many occasions while attempting to make arrests; the force was amalgamated with the Cornwall Constabulary in 1889.
Launceston Borough Police 1846 to 1883: Edward Barrett, for many years the only constable in Launceston, garnered a menacing reputation thanks to the gratuitous use of his ‘black book’ and for the ravenous dog that accompanied him on his patrols. In 1883, the loss of a government grant to the Launceston authorities forced them to reconsider Barratt's position, from that year the Borough of Launceston was policed by the Cornwall Constabulary. Liskeard Borough Police 1853 to 1877: A police force for the cash-strapped Borough of Liskeard did not materialise until 1853 when they resolved to appoint Inspector Humphreys and Constable Spry as the first and only members of the Liskeard Borough Police. In 1877, after repeated condemnation of the force by the HMI, it was amalgamated with the Cornwall Constabulary. Penryn Borough Police 1836 to 1889: The Penryn Borough Police numbered more than two full-time constables, supported by special constables at times of disorder. Along with the Falmouth, Helston and St Ives constabularies, Penryn's lawmen amalgamated with the Cornwall Constabulary by Act of Parliament in 1889.
Penzance Borough Police 1836 to 1947: Formed on 1 January 1836 and consisting of three constables paid from the borough rate. The first chief constable carried the title of ‘Le Yeoman,’ an archaic term taken from Penzance's second charter of 1614. In 1852 the Great Western Railway arrived in Penzance, increasing tourism and the general population considerably; the increase in population brought with it an increase in crime and the Penzance force grew accordingly. During the First World War many constables resigned to join the colours and hundreds of ordinary citizens enrolled as special constables. During the Second World War a large war reserve constabulary was built and formed part of Penzance's civil defence response to air raids, it was a efficient and organised force, ordered to merge with the Cornwall Constabulary on 1 April 1947. St. Ives Borough Police 1836 to 1889: The St Ives authorities could only afford to appoint one constable and this remained the case for the force's 53-year history.
A few years before the St Ives Borough Police amalgamated with the county police, the elderly head constable Mr Bennett had become frail and eccentric. Said to have spent much of his time sat on a stool watching the ships sail into St Ives Bay, Bennett's final and most inauspicious act was the transfer of a prisoner by train to Bodmin. During a stop, the head constable decided to get off and stretch his legs, an activity he became so preoccupied with that the train, his prisoner, left without him. Truro Borough Police 1836 to 1921: An ad hoc force for Truro existed between 1836 and 1838 when it was resolved to appoint a superintendent and constables proper. "I’ll have you under the clock!" was on oft uttered warning to miscreants by the borough constables – a reference to the police cells situated under the town hall clock on Boscawen Street. In 1877 Truro was granted city status and the police force was renamed accordingly to Truro City Police; the long and varied history of the Truro City Police concluded on 28 February 1921 when the constables were forcibly merged with the Cornwall Constabulary.
Cornwall County Constabulary 1856 to 1967: Esteemed members of the Cornish judiciary met at Bodmin in November 1856 to discuss the formation of the Cornwall Constabulary and decided on a force numbering 178 constables under Colonel Walter Raleigh Gilbert. The building of the force, conducted by Gilbert, two superintendents and a sergeant major, was a troubled process. Gilbert set impossibly high standards for recruits and many did not meet the requirements. By the summer of 1857, the force was only at half-strength, drawing criticism from the Bo