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Bombardment of Algiers (1816)

The Bombardment of Algiers was an attempt by Britain and the Netherlands to end the slavery practices of Omar Agha, the Dey of Algiers. An Anglo-Dutch fleet under the command of Admiral Lord Exmouth bombarded ships and the harbour defences of Algiers. There was a continuing campaign by various European navies and the American navy to suppress the piracy against Europeans by the North African Barbary states; the specific aim of this expedition, was to free Christian slaves and to stop the practice of enslaving Europeans. To this end, it was successful, as the Dey of Algiers freed around 3,000 slaves following the bombardment and signed a treaty against the slavery of Europeans. However, this practice did not end until the French conquest of Algeria. Following the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815, the Royal Navy no longer needed the Barbary states as a source of supplies for Gibraltar and their fleet in the Mediterranean Sea; this freed Britain to exert considerable political pressure to force the Barbary states to end their piracy and practice of enslaving European Christians.

In early 1816, Exmouth undertook a diplomatic mission to Tunis and Algiers, backed by a small squadron of ships of the line, to convince the Deys to stop the practice and free the Christian slaves. The Deys of Tunis and Tripoli agreed without any resistance, but the Dey of Algiers was more recalcitrant and the negotiations were stormy. Exmouth believed that he had managed to negotiate a treaty to stop the slavery of Christians and returned to England. However, due to confused orders, Algerian troops massacred 200 Corsican and Sardinian fishermen who were under British protection just after the treaty was signed; this caused outrage in Britain and Europe, Exmouth's negotiations were seen as a failure. As a result, Exmouth was ordered to sea again to punish the Algerians, he gathered a squadron of five ships of the line, one 50-gun spar-decked frigate, four conventional frigates, five bomb ships. HMS Queen Charlotte—100 guns—was his flagship and Rear Admiral David Milne was his second in command aboard HMS Impregnable, 98 guns.

This squadron was considered by many to be an insufficient force, but Exmouth had unobtrusively surveyed the defences of Algiers. He believed that more large ships would have interfered with each other without being able to bring much more fire to bear. In addition to the main fleet, there were four sloops, eight ships' boats armed with Congreve rockets, some transports to carry the rescued slaves; when the British arrived in Gibraltar, a squadron of five Dutch frigates and the corvette Eendragt, led by Vice-Admiral Theodorus Frederik van Capellen, offered to join the expedition. Exmouth decided to assign them to cover the main force from Algerian flanking batteries, as there was insufficient space in the mole for the Dutch frigates; the day before the attack, the frigate Prometheus arrived and its captain W. B. Dashwood attempted to secretly rescue his wife and infant; some of the rescue party was arrested. The attack was described by the U. S. Consul; the plan of attack was for the larger ships to approach in a column.

They were to sail into the zone where the majority of the Algerian guns could not be brought to bear. They were to come to anchor and bombard the batteries and fortifications on the mole to destroy the defences. HMS Leander—50 guns—was to anchor off the mouth of the harbour and bombard the shipping inside the mole. To protect Leander from the shore battery, frigates HMS Severn and Glasgow were to sail inshore and bombard the battery. Troops would storm ashore on the mole with sappers of the Corps of Royal Engineers. Exmouth in Queen Charlotte anchored 80 yd off the mole, facing the Algerian guns. However, a number of the other ships anchored out of position, notably Admiral Milne aboard HMS Impregnable, 400 yards from where he should have been; this error exposed them to fiercer Algerian fire. Some of the other ships anchored in positions closer to the plan; the unfortunate gap created by the misplaced HMS Impregnable was closed by the frigate HMS Granicus and the sloop Heron. In their earlier negotiations, both Exmouth and the Dey of Algiers had stated that they would not fire the first shot.

The Dey's plan was to allow the fleet to anchor and to sortie from the harbour and board the ships with large numbers of men in small boats. But Algerian discipline was less effective and one Algerian gun fired a shot at 15:15. Exmouth began the bombardment; the Algerian flotilla of 40 gunboats made an attempt to board Queen Charlotte while the sailors were aloft setting sail, but twenty-eight of their boats were sunk by broadsides, the remaining ran themselves on shore. After an hour, the cannon on the mole were silenced, Exmouth turned his attention to the shipping in the harbour, destroyed by 19:30. One unmanned Algerine frigate was destroyed after being boarded by the crew of Queen Charlotte's barge, who set it on fire. Three other Algerine frigates and five corvettes were destroyed by the fire of rockets; the burning shipping drifting in the harbour forced some bombarding ships to manoeuvre out of their way. Impregnable was isolated from the other ships and made a large and tempting target, attracting attention from the Algerian gunners who raked he

List of SNCF stations in Languedoc-Roussillon

This page contains a list of current SNCF railway stations in the Languedoc-Roussillon region of France. Alet-les-Bains Bram Campagne Carcassonne Castelnaudary Couffoulens-Leuc Couiza-Montazels Coursan Espéraza Leucate-la-Franqui Lézignan-Corbières Limoux Limoux-Flassian Narbonne Pexiora Pomas Port-la-Nouvelle Quillan Ségala Verzeille Aigues-Mortes Aigues-Vives Aimargues Alès Beaucaire Beauvoisin Bessèges Boucoiran Chamborigaud Concoules-Ponteils Fons-Saint-Mamert Gallargues Gammal Générac Génolhac Grand-Combe-la-Pise Jonquières-Saint-Vincent La-Cailar Le-Grau-du-Roi Le-Lavade Les-Tavernes Manduel-Redessan Milhaud Molières-sur-Ceze Nîmes Nozières-Brignon Robiac Saint-Ambroix Saint-Cécile-d'Andorage Saint-Césaire Saint-Geniès-de-Malgoirès Saint-Julien-les-Fumades Saint-Laurent-d'Aigouze Salindres Uchaud Vauvert Vergèze-Codognan Agde Baillargues Bédarieux Béziers Ceihes-Roqueredonde Colombiers Frontignan Le-Bousquet-d'Orb Les-Cabrils Les-Mazes-le-Crès Lunas Lunel Lunel-Viel Magalas Marseillan-Plage Montpellier Nissan Saint-Aunès Saint-Bres-Mudaison Sète Valergues-Lansargues Vias Vic-Mireval Villeneuve-lès-Maguelone Allenc Aumont-Aubrac Bagnols-Chadenet Balsièges-Bourg Banassac-la-Canourgue Barjac Belvezet Chanac Chapeauroux Chasseradès Chirac La-Bastide-Saint-Laurent Langogne Le-Bruel Le-Monastier Les-Salelles Luc Marvejols Mende Saint-Chély-d'Apcher Villefort Argelès-sur-Mer Banyuls-sur-Mer Bena-Fanes Bolquère-Eyne Bourg-Madame Cerbère Collioure Elne Err Estavar Fontpédrouse-Saint-Thomas Font-Romeu-Odeillo-Via Ille-sur-Têt Joncet Le-Soler Latour-de-Carol-Enveitg Millas Mont-Louis-la-Cabanasse Nyer Olette-Canaveilles-les-Bains Osséja Perpignan Planès Porta Porté-Puymorens Port-Vendres-Ville Prades-Molitg-les-Bains Ria Rivesaltes Saillagouse Saint-Féliu-d'Avall Saint-Léocadie Salses Sauto Serdinya Thuès Thuès-les-Bains Ur-les-Escaldes Villefranche-Vernet-les-Bains Vinça SNCF List of SNCF stations for SNCF stations in other regions

Woodmont Terrace Apartments

The Woodmont Terrace Apartments is a historic apartment complex in Nashville, Tennessee, USA. The buildings are located at 920 Woodmont Boulevard in Nashville, the county seat of Davidson County, Tennessee. Construction of the eleven apartment buildings began in 1938, it was completed within a year, in 1939. A year in 1940, an office building was built adjacent to the residential buildings. Two decades in 1965, five more apartments were added to the office building. By 1983, a gym and a swimming-pool were added to the office building; the seven two-storey buildings were designed in the Colonial Revival architectural style. The original seven residential buildings have been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since April 21, 2003