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Bombing of Dresden in World War II

The bombing of Dresden was a British/American aerial bombing attack on the city of Dresden, the capital of the German state of Saxony, during World War II. In four raids between 13 and 15 February 1945, 722 heavy bombers of the British Royal Air Force and 527 of the United States Army Air Forces dropped more than 3,900 tons of high-explosive bombs and incendiary devices on the city; the bombing and the resulting firestorm destroyed more than 1,600 acres of the city centre. An estimated 22,700 to 25,000 people were killed, although larger casualty figures have been claimed. Three more USAAF air raids followed, two occurring on 2 March aimed at the city's railway marshalling yard and one smaller raid on 17 April aimed at industrial areas. Immediate German propaganda claims following the attacks and postwar discussions of whether the attacks were justified have led to the bombing becoming one of the moral causes célèbres of the war. A 1953 United States Air Force report defended the operation as the justified bombing of a strategic target, which they noted was a major rail transport and communication centre, housing 110 factories and 50,000 workers in support of the German war effort.

Several researchers claim that not all of the communications infrastructure, such as the bridges, were targeted, nor were extensive industrial areas outside the city center. Critics of the bombing have asserted that Dresden was a cultural landmark while downplaying its strategic significance, claim that the attacks were indiscriminate area bombing and not proportionate to the military gains. Although not supported by any legal standard, as Dresden was both defended and constituted a major military transportation hub, housed many war industries, some have claimed that the raid constituted a war crime; some in the German far-right, refer to the bombing as a mass murder, calling it "Dresden's Holocaust of bombs". Large variations in the claimed death toll have fuelled the controversy. In March 1945, the German government ordered its press to publish a falsified casualty figure of 200,000 for the Dresden raids, death tolls as high as 500,000 have been claimed; the city authorities at the time estimated up to 25,000 victims, a figure that subsequent investigations supported, including a 2010 study commissioned by the city council.

One of the main authors responsible for inflated figures being disseminated in the west was Holocaust denier David Irving, who subsequently announced that he had discovered that the documentation he had worked from had been forged, the real figures supported the 25,000 number. Early in 1945, the German offensive known as the Battle of the Bulge had been exhausted, as was the Luftwaffe's disastrous New Year's Day attack involving elements of 11 combat wings of its day fighter force; the Red Army had launched its Silesian Offensives into pre-war German territory. The German army was retreating on all fronts. On 8 February 1945, the Red Army crossed the Oder River, with positions just 70 kilometres from Berlin. A special British Joint Intelligence Subcommittee report, German Strategy and Capacity to Resist, prepared for Winston Churchill's eyes only, predicted that Germany might collapse as early as mid-April if the Soviets overran its eastern defences. Alternatively, the report warned that the Germans might hold out until November if they could prevent the Soviets from taking Silesia.

Hence any assistance to the Soviets on the Eastern Front could shorten the war. Plans for a large, intense aerial bombing of Berlin and the other eastern cities had been discussed under the code name Operation Thunderclap in mid-1944, but were shelved on 16 August; these were now reexamined, the decision was made to plan a more limited operation. On 22 January 1945, the RAF director of bomber operations, Air Commodore Sydney Bufton, sent Deputy Chief of the Air Staff Air Marshal Sir Norman Bottomley a memorandum suggesting that what appeared to be a coordinated RAF air attack to aid the current Soviet offensive would have a detrimental effect on German morale. On 25 January, the Joint Intelligence Committee supported the idea, as it tied in with the Ultra-based intelligence that dozens of German divisions deployed in the west were moving to reinforce the Eastern Front, that interdiction of these troop movements should be a "high priority." Air Chief Marshal Sir Arthur Harris, AOCinC Bomber Command, nicknamed "Bomber" Harris in the British press, known as an ardent supporter of area bombing, was asked for his view, proposed a simultaneous attack on Chemnitz and Dresden.

That evening Churchill asked the Secretary of State for Air, Sir Archibald Sinclair, what plans had been drawn up to carry out these proposals. He passed on the request to Marshal of the Royal Air Force Sir Charles Portal, the Chief of the Air Staff, who answered, "We should use available effort in one big attack on Berlin and attacks on Dresden and Chemnitz, or any other cities where a severe blitz will not only cause confusion in the evacuation from the East, but will hamper the movement of troops from the West." He mentioned that aircraft diverted to such raids should not be taken away from the current primary tasks of destroying oil production facilities, jet aircraft factories, submarine yards. Churchill was not satisfied with this answer and on 26 January pressed Sinclair for a plan of operations: "I asked whether Berlin, no doubt other large cities in east Germany, should not now be considered attractive targets... Pray report to me tomorrow what is going to be done". In response to Churchill's inquiry, Sinclair approached Bottomley, who asked Harris to undertake attacks on Berlin, Dresden and Chemnitz as soon as moonlight and weather permitted, "with the particular object of

Satya N. Atluri

Satya Atluri is a Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Texas Tech University. His research focuses upon the areas of aerospace and mechanics, his teaching and research interests are in the disciplinary areas of: computational mathematics. He received Doctor of Science degrees from MIT, National University of Ireland, Slovak Academy of Sciences, University of Patras and University of Nova Gorica, Slovenia, he has taught at: UCLA. He is Tsing Hua Honorary Chair Professor at the National Tsing Hua University in Taiwan, an Honorary Professor at the University of Patras, a World Class University Program Distinguished Professor at Pusan National University, Korea, he was an Honorary Professor at Tsinghua University and the Korea Advanced Institute of Science & Technology, the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. He is Fellow of American Academy of Mechanics, he was elected to membership in the US National Academy of Engineering. He served on the NRC Panels of the NAS/NAE, Decadal Surveys of Aeronautics for NASA.

He is Distinguished Alumnus of the Indian Institute of Bangalore. Some notable recognitions he received include those from ASME The Nadai medal 2012 AIAA. From Sigma Xi, he has been a Midwestern Mechanics Lecturer, as well as a Southwestern Mechanics Lecturer. ICCES has established the Satya N. Atluri ICCES Medal in honor of its Founder. In 2013, he was awarded the Padma Bhushan. On 29 April 2014 he is inducted as a Corresponding Member of the Academy of Athens, the oldest organized scientific and philosophical academy in the history of the modern world. In 1986, Professor Atluri founded a scientific association, "ICCES: International Conference on Computational & Experimental Engineering & Sciences", he is the founder of FSL: A Global Forum on Structural Longevity. Atluri, S. N.. Methods of Computer Modeling in Engineering & the Sciences. Tech Science Press. ISBN 0-9657001-9-4. Atluri, S. N.. The Meshless Method for BIE Discretizations. Tech Science Press. ISBN 0-9657001-8-6. Atluri, S. N.. L.. "A New Meshless Local Petrov-Galerkin Approach in Computational Mechanics".

Computational Mechanics. 22: 117–127. PADMA BHUSHAN 2013 The NADAI Medal 2012 Excellence in Aviation Award, 1998 the Structures, Structural Dynamics, Materials Medal, 1988 the Pendray Aerospace Literature Medal, 1998 the Aerospace Structures and Materials Award, 1986 Hilbert Medal, 2003 Eringen Medal, 1995 Profile at UCI School of Engineering Distinguished Alumni of Indian Institute of Science Editor-in-Chief of the journal CMES Founding & Honorary Editor of the journal CMC Founder & Chairman of FSL: A Global Forum on Structural Longevity ISI cited researchers Satya N. Atluri's Selected Archival Publications Satya N. Atluri ICCES Medal

Bioma Pampa Quebradas del Norte

The Bioma Pampa Quebradas del Norte is a protected ecological area in Uruguay, protected by UNESCO since 2. June 2014..:. This bioslogical reserve consists out of a landscape with native grasses and subtropical rainforests; the biosphere reserve has a surface area of 110.882 hectares, consisting of a mosaic of ecosystems. The reserve serves as a corridor for the entry of species of subtropical origin to the Uruguayan territory. Inside of the reserve there are many rare species of amphibians; the are consists out of unique features of the landscape with different species of plants and animals. Within the reserve are creeks with a structure of jungle-like subtropical forest. In addition there are large forests; the biome pampa is characterized by many of species of grasses, contributes to thenesting of many species of birds. The predominant vegetation in the area corresponds to the grassland in scrub shrub. Trees and shrubs predominate on the slopes, being able to vary the composition of species in the different positions of the same.

In addition, there is a pronounced forestry. There can be found a diversity of different species in the biosfere reserve; the list of priority species is based on the list identified for the Protected Landscape Valle del Lunarejo, in which are properly represented all the species of the reserve. The most important records from the list are: 22 species of amphibians, 41 species of reptiles, 173 species of birds and 31 species of mammals. A large part of the species registered in Uruguay can be found in the reserve. Apart from this a part of the species in the reserve are recorded as a priority species for conservation. For example, the coati, the giant armadillo cerreta and the rattlesnake of South America. In addition to the wild animals, there are cattle horses and other farm animals; the three main functions of the biosphere reserve are conservation of ecosystems and landscape sustainable development from a socio-cultural and ecological point of view logistical support to projects in education, awareness and training on the environment Temperate grassland has the greatest problems of conservation and to a lesser degree of protection on a global scale.

So the conservation of this type in the reserve not only plays an important role in the conservation of regional but at a global level. The protected landscape Valle del Lunarejo, a national park since 2009 within the reserve is important for the Uruguayan nature; the biosphere reserve has a great potential of economic development, based on the vision of responsible use and sustainable of resources existing in the territory. In this sense been implementing a series of projects within the area with the aim of developing the potential of income generation to the local population; these include a strong emphasis on the participation of women in the economic development of the rural family. These projects have succeeded in revitalizing the use of local resources such as wool, native bush and ecotourism; the socio-cultural development of the Reserves is driven by the local gaucho traditions. Farming and forestry will continue to be those that represent the main income in the region; the development of techniques for sustainable use of natural pastures and the breeding of sheep and cattle in the same serve as a model for the conservation of the characteristics of the biome pampa.

The forestry is carried out with various species of eucalyptus. They have encouraged and important to the development of beekeeping, being today the department of Rivera, the main producer of honey of Uruguay; the existence of a large area of natural bush, mountain streams and riverside mountains, to the obtaining of firewood without the proper care of the process of exploitation. This function supports projects in education, awareness-raising and training on the environment, as well as research for the conservation and sustainable developmentThere are environmental education programs that are provided for the completion of talks with schools and locals within the area and to support the teachers in the subject of the reserves and of the environment; the research and surveillance programmes of the last 15 years are focused in the core area and are of different kinds: biological and economic. These processes of research are to generate greater knowledge about the environment as well as those related to the conservation of these resources.

The revitalization of green areas and close to the city of Rivera, such as the Park, Great Britain, Saw Sauzal contribute to the environmental education of citizens

Sextus Julius Major

Sextus Julius Major was a Roman senator active during the first half of the second century, who held several positions in the service of the emperor. Major was suffect consul around 126. Major's origins were with the "high aristocracy" of Asia Minor. Ronald Syme notes his ancestors included Polemon I the king of Pontus and Antonia Pythodoris. No cursus honorum for Julius Major has yet been recovered, but evidence for a number of offices he held have been recovered; the earliest office he held was legatus or commander of Legio III Augusta stationed at Lambaesis in Numidia in 125 and 126. Following his consulship, Major was appointed governor of the imperial province of Moesia Inferior between 131 and 135 governor of the important imperial province of Syria from 137 to 139. Julius Major concluded his career by holding a proconsulate in 141/142, but opinion is divided whether he was proconsul of Africa or Asia: Syme notes the evidence supports either province, although he believes it is Julius was proconsul of Asia, an opinion Géza Alföldy concurs with.

He was married to Julia Antonia Eurydice, a wealthy aristocratic woman known from seven inscriptions at Nysa on the Maeander relating to a series of statues of the imperial family of Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, which were erected per the directions in her will. These statues have been dated between the years 148 and 150, because they omit his name suggest Julius Major was dead by then; these inscriptions provide information about their three children: Sextus Julius Major Antonius Pythodorus.

Harold Burrough

Admiral Sir Harold Martin Burrough was a senior Royal Navy officer and Assistant Chief of Naval Staff to the Royal Navy during World War II. Born the tenth son of Rev. Charles Burrough and his wife Georgina Long, Burrough began his career as a naval cadet in 1903 after being educated at St Edward's School, Oxford, he first saw action during World War I as a gunnery officer aboard HMS Southampton taking part in the Battle of Jutland in 1916. In 1930 he was given command of HMS London, he was made Commander of the 5th Destroyer Flotilla in 1935 and of HMS Excellent in 1937. He was made Assistant Chief of the Naval Staff in 1939. In September 1940 he was appointed Rear-Admiral Commanding 10th Cruiser Squadron. During World War II he was awarded the DSO after a successful raid on the Norwegian islands of Vågsøy and Måløy on 27 December 1941 in which nine enemy ships were sunk by the Navy and Royal Air Force and the garrisons were wiped out by the military forces. Burrough would serve on the Naval Staff for two years until 1942.

In July of that year he was given command of the close escort force for Operation Pedestal, subsequently placed in command of Allied naval forces in the assault on Algiers during Operation Torch, as well as directing the Northwest Africa landings. After becoming Flag Officer Commanding Gibraltar and Mediterranean Approaches in September 1943, Burrough succeeded Admiral Sir Bertram Ramsay as Allied Naval Commander-in-Chief, Expeditionary Force, following Ramsay’s death after an aircraft accident in January 1945. Planning the Allied naval strategy and operations, working with U. S. General Dwight D. Eisenhower during the final years of the war, Burrough was one of the signatories to the German Surrender Documents on 7 May 1945 at Rheims, France, he remained as naval commander occupying post-war Germany, where among his duties he authorised the formation of the German Mine Sweeping Administration. He became Commander-in-Chief, The Nore in 1946, he retired in 1949. He died on 22 October 1977 from pneumonia at the Moorhouse Nursing Home, Surrey.

Burrough married in 1914, Nellie Wills, daughter of C. W Outhit of Halifax, Nova Scotia, had two sons and three daughters, his wife died in 1972. Parrish, Thomas and S. L. A. Marshall, ed; the Simon and Schuster Encyclopedia of World War II, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1978. King's College London: Liddell Hart Centre for Military Archives - Survey of the Papers of Senior UK Defence Personnel, 1900-1975 German Surrender Documents of World War II Royal Navy Officers 1939-1945

Hurricane Adolph

Hurricane Adolph of the 2001 Pacific hurricane season was the first and one of only two East Pacific hurricanes in May to reach Category 4 strength on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale since record keeping began in the East Pacific. Adolph was the first depression of the season, forming on May 25. After intensifying, Adolph became the most powerful storm in terms of maximum sustained winds this season, along with Hurricane Juliette; the storm threatened land before dissipating on June 1, after moving over colder waters. On May 7, a tropical wave left the coast of Africa; the wave moved across the Atlantic Ocean showing little signs of development until May 18, when a low pressure center began organizing along the wave over Costa Rica and Panama. The low entered the Pacific Ocean on May 22, Dvorak classifications—satellite-based intensity estimates—began two days later. At first the system was disorganized, but convection concentrated near the center, on May 25 the disturbance developed into Tropical Depression One-E while located about 250 miles south-southwest of Acapulco, Mexico.

The newly formed depression moved slowly due to weak steering currents aloft. Moving towards the east-northeast over weak steering currents, the computer models used to predict the movement of the depression varied with one predicting an eventual Mexican landfall. Located in conditions ideal for tropical development, the developing cyclone formed a central dense overcast, a large area of deep convection; the depression intensified to become Tropical Storm Adolph on May 26 about 225 mi south-southwest of Acapulco. Adolph was in a low wind shear environment with warm sea surface temperatures and as such, the NHC forecasted intensification to hurricane status within two days. Adolph turned northward on May 27, a turn influenced by a mid-level ridge building to the east and southeast, thus causing the tropical storm to approach Mexico. A banding eye feature, a type of eye common in minor hurricanes, became apparent on satellite imagery. Convection around the eye deepened while the eye became more pronounced, Adolph was upgraded to hurricane strength on May 27.

On May 28, the hurricane passed within 165 mi of the Mexican coastline the next day, its closest approach to land. Shortly thereafter, Adolph turned westward under the influence of a mid-tropospheric ridge; the high upper-oceanic heat content, good outflow, lack of vertical shear allowed the hurricane to begin a burst of rapid intensification, dropping 1.46 mbars per hour. While reducing in size, Adolph reached its peak strength of 145 mph on May 29. Dvorak classifications reported a T-number of 7.0 for Adolph, equivalent to a low-end Category 5 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. However, because of a lack of data from the storm via Hurricane Hunters, these strength measurements may be disputed. After peaking in intensity, Adolph weakened while decelerating westward due to an eyewall replacement cycle; the trend of weakening continued as the eye convection oscillated in presentation. On June 1 Adolph deteriorated into a tropical storm as convection became exposed from the elongated center.

As the storm passed over colder waters and into an area of stable air, the system weakened more and dissipated on June 1, while located about 460 miles south-southwest of Baja California. The remaining clouds persisted for a few days before dissipating entirely. Though Adolph never moved ashore, its close approach to land as well as its slow, unpredictable movement resulted in the issuance of a tropical storm warning and a hurricane watch for southern Mexico around the time when the cyclone attained major hurricane strength; the threat for heavy rainfall was mentioned for areas from Puerto Ángel to Zihuatanejo when Adolph was a depression and from Acapulco to Lázaro Cárdenas. The government of Mexico expressed concern that rain and 13-foot waves from Adolph would affect Oaxaca, Jalisco, Michoacán, Guerrero; the hurricane was responsible for the closure of ports in Acapulco to small vessels. Despite the tropical storm warning and forecasts of minor impacts, no tropical storm force winds from Adolph were reported on land.

Outside of some reports of rain and heavy surf, no reports of casualties or damages were received in connection with the storm. When Adolph reached Category 4 strength on May 29, it became the strongest hurricane to form in the East Pacific basin in May, a record not surpassed until 2014's Hurricane Amanda attained peak winds of 155 mph. At that time, Adolph became first recorded May hurricane to reach Category 4 strength; the name Adolph has subsequently been retired by the World Meteorological Organization, amid concern that future use of the name would be politically insensitive, due to former Nazi leader Adolf Hitler. It was replaced with Alvin for the 2007 season. List of Pacific hurricanes Other storms of the same name List of Category 4 Pacific hurricanes Hurricane Amanda National Hurricane Center National Hurricane Center's advisory archive on Hurricane Adolph National Hurricane Center's graphic archive on Hurricane Adolph Tropical Cyclone Report for Adolph