Natural rubber called India rubber or caoutchouc, as produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water. Thailand and Indonesia are two of the leading rubber producers. Forms of polyisoprene that are used as natural rubbers are classified as elastomers. Rubber is harvested in the form of the latex from the rubber tree or others; the latex is a sticky, milky colloid drawn off by making incisions in the bark and collecting the fluid in vessels in a process called "tapping". The latex is refined into rubber ready for commercial processing. In major areas, latex is allowed to coagulate in the collection cup; the coagulated lumps are processed into dry forms for marketing. Natural rubber is used extensively in many applications and products, either alone or in combination with other materials. In most of its useful forms, it has a large stretch ratio and high resilience, is waterproof; the major commercial source of natural rubber latex is the Pará rubber tree, a member of the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae.
This species is preferred. A properly managed tree responds to wounding by producing more latex for several years. Congo rubber a major source of rubber, came from vines in the genus Landolphia. Dandelion milk contains latex; the latex exhibits the same quality as the natural rubber from rubber trees. In the wild types of dandelion, latex content varies greatly. In Nazi Germany, research projects tried to use dandelions as a base for rubber production, but failed. In 2013, by inhibiting one key enzyme and using modern cultivation methods and optimization techniques, scientists in the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology in Germany developed a cultivar, suitable for commercial production of natural rubber. In collaboration with Continental Tires, IME began a pilot facility. Many other plants produce forms of latex rich in isoprene polymers, though not all produce usable forms of polymer as as the Pará; some of them require more elaborate processing to produce anything like usable rubber, most are more difficult to tap.
Some produce other desirable materials, for example chicle from Manilkara species. Others that have been commercially exploited, or at least showed promise as rubber sources, include the rubber fig, Panama rubber tree, various spurges, the related Scorzonera tau-saghyz, various Taraxacum species, including common dandelion and Russian dandelion, most for its hypoallergenic properties, guayule; the term gum rubber is sometimes applied to the tree-obtained version of natural rubber in order to distinguish it from the synthetic version. The first use of rubber was by the indigenous cultures of Mesoamerica; the earliest archeological evidence of the use of natural latex from the Hevea tree comes from the Olmec culture, in which rubber was first used for making balls for the Mesoamerican ballgame. Rubber was used by the Maya and Aztec cultures – in addition to making balls Aztecs used rubber for other purposes such as making containers and to make textiles waterproof by impregnating them with the latex sap.
The Pará rubber tree is indigenous to South America. Charles Marie de La Condamine is credited with introducing samples of rubber to the Académie Royale des Sciences of France in 1736. In 1751, he presented a paper by François Fresneau to the Académie that described many of rubber's properties; this has been referred to as the first scientific paper on rubber. In England, Joseph Priestley, in 1770, observed that a piece of the material was good for rubbing off pencil marks on paper, hence the name "rubber", it made its way around England. In 1764 François Fresnau discovered. Giovanni Fabbroni is credited with the discovery of naphtha as a rubber solvent in 1779. South America remained the main source of latex rubber used during much of the 19th century; the rubber trade was controlled by business interests but no laws expressly prohibited the export of seeds or plants. In 1876, Henry Wickham smuggled 70,000 Pará rubber tree seeds from Brazil and delivered them to Kew Gardens, England. Only 2,400 of these germinated.
Seedlings were sent to India, British Ceylon, Dutch East Indies and British Malaya. Malaya was to become the biggest producer of rubber. In the early 1900s, the Congo Free State in Africa was a significant source of natural rubber latex gathered by forced labor. King Leopold II's colonial state brutally enforced production quotas. Tactics to enforce the rubber quotas included removing the hands of victims to prove they had been killed. Soldiers came back from raids with baskets full of chopped-off hands. Villages that resisted were razed to encourage better compliance locally. See Atrocities in the Congo Free State for more information on the rubber trade in the Congo Free State in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Liberia and Nigeria started production. In India, commercial cultivation was introduced by British planters, although the experimental efforts to grow rubber on a commercial scale were initiated as early as 1873 at the Calcutta Botanical Gardens; the first commercial Hevea plantations were established at Thattekadu in Kerala in 1902.
In years the plantation expanded to Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India. India today is the
An interrogation scene is a form of BDSM roleplay in which the participants act out the parts of torturer and victim. As in real life torture chambers throughout the world over, the "torturer" uses threats and physical pain to extract whatever information he/she believes the "victim" possesses; the game is over when the victim has divulged the secret. The length and severity of the scene will vary according to the temperament of the players. Dedicated players attempt to replicate the atmosphere of a real torture session and, as in real life, the "victim" can expect to be stripped naked, tied up, mocked and abused. Popular methods of play in interrogation scenes include tickle torture, where the victim will be tied up and tickled continuously without relief until the victim submits and reveals the information. One form of torture is orgasm control or erotic sexual denial, where the submissive victim is sexually stimulated to the brink of orgasm by the torturer; the torturer may reduce the stimulation and keep the victim in a state of extended arousal for a long period of time.
By varying the pace of the stimulation, the victim may be forced to undergo cycles of "up" and "down" arousal by the torturer. When satisfied with the experience, the victim may divulge the secret in order to be brought to the desired orgasm by the torturer; the interrogation may be continued past the orgasm if the victim orgasms without divulging the secret. The glans becomes sensitive after orgasm, continued stimulation may manifest more as an extreme tickling sensation; this can become quite uncomfortable for the victim, or even painful, providing them with an incentive to comply with the torturer's demands. In at least one legal case, interrogation fantasies have been raised as a defense to a civil lawsuit
Dominance and submission
Dominance and submission is a set of behaviours and rituals involving the submission of one person to another in an erotic episode or lifestyle. It is a subset of BDSM. Physical contact is not necessary, D/s can be conducted anonymously over the telephone, email, or other messaging systems. In other cases, it can be intensely physical. In D/s, both parties take erotic enjoyment from either dominating or being dominated; those who take the superior position are called "dominants"—Doms or Dommes —while those who take the subordinate position are called "submissive"—or subs. A switch is an individual. Two switches together may exchange roles several times in a session; the term dominatrix sometimes refers to a female sex worker. It is common for writers to capitalise the "D" in Dominant but leave the "s" in lowercase for the submissive. Many extend this to His/Hers, Him/Her, He/She, etc. to make it clear when they are referring to a Dominant. The inner conflict and surrender connected with dominance and submission are enduring themes in human culture and civilization.
In human sexuality, this has broadened to include mutual exploration of roles and activities that would be difficult or impossible to act out without a willing partner taking an opposing role. A 1985 study suggests. A 1995 study indicates that 89% of heterosexual females who are active in BDSM expressed a preference for the submissive-recipient role in sexual bondage, expressing a preference for a dominant male, that 71% of heterosexual males preferred a dominant-initiator role. A safeword is given to the submissive partner to prevent the dominant from overstepping physical and emotional boundaries, it is a code word, series of code words or other signal used to communicate physical or emotional state when approaching, or crossing, a boundary. Safewords can have differing levels of urgency - some may bring a scene to an outright stop, whereas others may indicate that a boundary is being approached. A safeword may be used by the Dominant as well as the Submissive if they feel things have gone too far and are uncomfortable continuing.
D/s may freeform. It is a negotiated lifestyle, with people discussing their wishes and needs in order to find commonality. A D/s relationship may be sexual or non-sexual, long- or short-term, intimate or anonymous. Most adherents search for the essential intensity and intimacy that are required to make any deep relationship possible. Based on gender, D/s can be divided into the following sub-types:- Male dominance Male submission Female dominance Female submission D/s participants refer to their activity as "play", with an individual play session being called a "scene". In addition to "dominant" and "submissive", a "switch" is a person. A scene between two switches can involve trading off the dominant and submissive roles several times. In contrast, the terms "top" and "bottom" refer to the passive roles, respectively. In a given scene, there is no requirement that the dominant be the top, or that the submissive be the bottom, although this is the case; the term "vanilla" refers to normative sex and relationships, the vanilla world being mainstream society outside of the BDSM subculture.
The term comes from vanilla ice cream being considered the "default" flavor. Some people in the D/s world capitalize words and names that refer to dominants, do not capitalize those that refer to submissives, hence the capitalization of D/s, it was popularized in internet chatrooms, to make it easier to identify the orientation of the writer or the person being written about. Some submissives eschew personal pronouns, instead referring to themselves as "this slave" or "Master Bob's girl"; this is sometimes considered an expression of modesty, but it is an optional method of depersonalizing a submissive during "play". It may have roots in the military, where new recruits are required to refer to themselves as "this recruit", rather than "I" or "me". There can be any number of partners in a D/s relationship: one dominant may have several submissives, who may in turn dominate others, or a submissive may have multiple dominants. Relationships may be polyamorous. Romantic love is not a feature in D/s: partners might be much in love or have no romantic relationship at all.
Some D/s relationships are sexual, others chaste. Fantasy role play can be an element, with partners taking classic dominant or submissive roles, or classic authority-figure roles such as teacher and student, police officer and suspect, or parent and child. Animal play, where one partner takes the role of owner or caretaker and the other takes the part of a pet or animal, can be D/s play. A classic example of a D/s role is the "sissy" maid, where an adult male dresses in cartoonish female clothing and performs stereotypical female chores such as housecleaning or serving tea, it should be noted that cross-dressing in D/s does not always involve a desire to be sissified or made into caricatures of women or to serve: for example, others may desire to be made as beautiful as possible and interact on a "girlfriend-to-girlfriend" non-sexual basis. Variation in D/s is limitless and the activities take many forms, may be combined with other forms of BDSM; these variations may include: domestic servitude or consensual slavery enforced chastity of the submissive erotic humiliation sexual slavery verb
A zentai suit is a skin-tight garment that covers the entire body. The word is a portmanteau of zenshin taitsu. Zentai is most made using nylon/spandex blends; the costumes are seen at major sporting events in the United Kingdom. They created internationally recognized personalities out of The Green Men, two fans of the Vancouver Canucks NHL team. Various professional street dance/hip hop dance groups use the outfits, such as The Body Poets in the United States, Remix Monkeys in the United Kingdom. Full-body suits are used by animators: the original colors offered allowed the person wearing the chroma key suit to be lifted from a video image. Other applications have included music videos, breast cancer awareness, fashion modeling on an episode of America's Next Top Model, social anxiety workshops, television, a participant in public art project "One & Other", social experiments. A British theme park offered free admission for those in zentai in the colours of their park logo. Since zentai cover one's face, a fine of up to €150 is issued to those who wear them publicly in France.
Furthermore, some sports leagues, such as Major League Baseball, ban the use of the costume hoods. Companies have created brands of the suits including RootSuit or Superfan Suit in the United States, Bodysocks or Second Skins by Smiffy's and Morphsuits in the United Kingdom, Jyhmiskin in Finland. Morphsuits has achieved relative commercial success internationally. Between January and late October 2010, the company shipped 10,000 to Canada alone. Morphsuits brand has tried to disassociate themselves from the existing zentai community being listed as the product's co-inventor. Superfan Suits acknowledges in interviews; the term "morphsuit" has become a generic term in the process. Jaskins company founder Josh Gaskin says their origins are unclear, pegging the first usage with It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia. Will Doig, "Men Who Love Lycra", The Daily Beast, 3 March 2010; the Zentai Project Site dedicated to people wearing zentai in public
Quentin Jerome Tarantino is an American filmmaker and actor. His films are characterized by nonlinear storylines, satirical subject matter, an aestheticization of violence, extended scenes of dialogue, ensemble casts consisting of established and lesser-known performers, references to popular culture and a wide variety of other films, soundtracks containing songs and score pieces from the 1960s to the 1980s, features of neo-noir film, his career began in the late 1980s when he wrote and directed My Best Friend's Birthday, the screenplay of which formed the basis for True Romance. In the early 1990s, he began his career as an independent filmmaker with the release of Reservoir Dogs in 1992, funded by money from the sale of his script Natural Born Killers to Oliver Stone. Empire deemed Reservoir Dogs the "Greatest Independent Film of All Time", its popularity was boosted by his second film, Pulp Fiction, a black comedy crime film, a major success both among critics and audiences. For his next effort, Tarantino paid homage to the blaxploitation films of the 1970s with Jackie Brown, an adaptation of Elmore Leonard's novel Rum Punch.
Kill Bill, a stylized "revenge flick" in the cinematic traditions of Kung fu films, Japanese martial arts, Spaghetti Westerns and Italian horror, followed six years and was released as two films: Volume 1 in 2003 and Volume 2 in 2004. Tarantino next directed Death Proof in 2007, as part of a double feature with Robert Rodriguez, under the collective title Grindhouse, his long-postponed Inglourious Basterds, which tells an alternate history of Nazi Germany, was released in 2009 to positive reviews. After that came critically acclaimed Django Unchained, a Western film set in the Antebellum South, his eighth film, The Hateful Eight, was released in its roadshow version in 70 mm film format, with opening "overture" and halfway-point intermission. His ninth film, Once Upon a Time in Hollywood, is scheduled to be released in 2019; the film, set in Los Angeles in 1969, is his first based on true events. Tarantino's films have garnered both commercial success, he has received many industry awards, including two Academy Awards, two Golden Globe Awards, two BAFTA Awards and the Palme d'Or, has been nominated for an Emmy and a Grammy.
In 2005, he was included on the annual Time 100 list of the most influential people in the world. Filmmaker and historian Peter Bogdanovich has called him "the single most influential director of his generation". In December 2015, Tarantino received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for his contributions to the film industry. Tarantino was born on March 27, 1963, in Knoxville, the only child of Connie McHugh and Tony Tarantino, an actor and producer, his father is of Italian descent, his mother has Irish and Cherokee ancestry. Quentin was named for Burt Reynolds' character in the CBS series Gunsmoke. Tarantino's mother met his father during a trip to Los Angeles, where Tony was a law student and would-be entertainer, she married him soon after, to gain independence from her parents. After the divorce, Connie Tarantino left Los Angeles and moved to Knoxville, where her parents lived. In 1966, Tarantino and his mother moved back to Los Angeles. Tarantino's mother married musician Curtis Zastoupil soon after arriving in Los Angeles, the family moved to Torrance, a city in Los Angeles County's South Bay area.
Zastoupil encouraged Tarantino's love of movies, accompanied him to numerous film screenings. Tarantino's mother allowed him to see movies with adult content, such as Carnal Knowledge and Deliverance. After his mother divorced Zastoupil in 1973, received a misdiagnosis of Hodgkin's lymphoma, Tarantino was sent to live with his grandparents in Tennessee, he remained there less than a year before returning to California. At 14 years old, Tarantino wrote one of his earliest works, a screenplay called Captain Peachfuzz and the Anchovy Bandit, based on Hal Needham's 1977 film Smokey and the Bandit starring Burt Reynolds; the summer after his 15th birthday, Tarantino was grounded by his mother for shoplifting Elmore Leonard's novel The Switch from Kmart. He was allowed to leave only to attend the Torrance Community Theater, where he participated in such plays as Two Plus Two Makes Sex and Romeo and Juliet. At about 15, Tarantino dropped out of Narbonne High School in Los Angeles, he worked as an usher at a porn theater in Torrance, called the Pussycat Theatre.
Tarantino attended acting classes at the James Best Theatre Company, where he met several of his eventual collaborators. While at James Best, Tarantino met Craig Hamann, with whom he collaborated to produce My Best Friend's Birthday. Throughout the 1980s, Tarantino worked a number of jobs, he spent time as a recruiter in the aerospace industry, for five years, he worked at Video Archives, a video store in Manhattan Beach, California. Former Buffy the Vampire Slayer actor Danny Strong described Tarantino as "such a movie buff, he had so much knowledge of films that he would try to get people to watch cool movies."After Tarantino met Lawrence Bender at a Hollywood party, Bender encouraged him to write a screenplay. His first attempted script, which he described as a "straight 70s exploitation action movie" was never published and was abandoned soon after. Tarantino co-wrote and directed his first movie, My Best Friend's Birthday, in 1987; the final reel of the film was completely destroyed in a lab fire that occurred during editing, but its screenplay formed the basis for True Romance.
In 1986, Tarantino got his first Hollywood job, working with Roger Avary as production assistants on Dolph Lundgren's exercise video, Maximum Potentia
In the context of consensual BDSM, a forced orgasm is a form of orgasm control, whereby the active partner sexually stimulates the consenting partner until involuntary orgasm is achieved, with the consenting partner being unable to control the onset and intensity of orgasm. The consenting partner would be put in physical restraints to increase the feeling of helplessness, deprive him or her of the ability to control their orgasm. Forced orgasms may be induced with manual stimulation of the genitals, or the use of a vibrator a wand vibrator. Medical research shows that the genital reflex is regulated by the spinal cord, is not under conscious control; the practice of forced orgasm may be combined with orgasm denial, edging, or ruined orgasms. Erotic sexual denial Involuntary orgasm
A catsuit is a one-piece form-fitting garment that covers the torso and the legs, the arms. They are made from stretchable material, such as lycra, spandex, latex, or velour, but may use less elastic materials, such as leather or PVC. Catsuits close using a zipper at the front or back, or are pulled on over the neck opening. Catsuits are most worn by women, but are worn by men. A catsuit is regarded as outerwear, but not street wear. Catsuits first made an appearance around the 1940s, were worn as a fashion item at various times from the 1960s to the 1990s. During the 1970s and 1980s, they were worn for disco dancing. Around 1980, disco dance catsuits became a street fashion item in the United Kingdom. Athletes in sports such as speed skating, winter triathlon, ski-racing, cycling and gymnastics wear garments similar to catsuits, called unitards, which are geared to the needs of the sport involved. Similar in appearance are wetsuits and drysuits used by scuba divers, the speedsuits used by competitive swimmers before the more extreme forms of the suit were banned.
In tennis Serena Williams would sometimes wear catsuits, two examples are the 2002 US Open and the 2018 French Open. Some people consider catsuits to be a fetish item. Catsuits for fetish use are made of latex or PVC where such a catsuit is highly shiny, tight fitting and may be worn with a corset over the top of the suit. Other materials such as lycra, shiny wet look, or velvet are options for fetish wear too, with some lycra materials having animal print designs. Catsuits can have zippers on the front or rear for access, with some having zippers on the shoulders. Additional zippers can be placed in specific areas for access. A fetish catsuit will not have gloves or feet. Feet, if present, are form fitting like socks and the gloves will have individual fingers. Gloves and socks can be worn as additional accessories to a catsuit to give a whole body look, with some opting to add a hood as an option too. Hoods can be incorporated into the catsuit. Will a catsuit incorporate boots or shoes, although it is possible.
An option instead of gloves might be bondage mittens, which might have a D-ring at the top, such catsuits can be used as straitjackets in the context of bondage. More extreme options for catsuits have incorporated monoglove instead of sleeves and they can be used for bondage. Catsuits may have incorporated corset and/or neck corset, although these are added as accessories to complete a look. A zentai is a garment made of spandex, being a catsuit with both feet gloves and a hood which encloses the wearer; the name zentai comes from the Japanese word for "whole body". The catsuit is worn in movies, music videos, computer games. In comics and their spin-off movies, catsuits are worn by superheroes of both sexes. One well-known icon is Catwoman, the villainess/anti-heroine of the Batman series, a heroine in the Batman series, Batgirl wore catsuits; the Black Panther of Marvel Comics, counts as a male example. Scarlett Johansson wears a catsuit playing Natasha Romanoff, a fictional Marvel Comics superhero, the Black Widow, in a number of films, beginning with Iron Man 2 Marvel's The Avengers, Captain America: The Winter Soldier, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Captain America: Civil War, Avengers: Infinity War And Avengers: Endgame.
The lead female characters of the Underworld film series and The Matrix wore catsuits. Female villains and heroines in spy films may wear catsuits, such as the Baroness and Scarlett in G. I. Joe: The Rise of Cobra. An iconic use of catsuits in popular media was on the British television show The Avengers, where Cathy Gale and Emma Peel wore tight leather catsuits. Shirley Bassey wore a sleeveless chiffon catsuit for a gatefold album photograph, in concert. Cher has worn catsuits in concert. In popular culture, catsuits have become the stereotypical costume of dominatrixes. Media related to Catsuits at Wikimedia Commons