In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity. The main forms of precipitation include drizzle, sleet, snow and hail. Precipitation occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor, so that the water condenses and "precipitates", thus and mist are not precipitation but suspensions, because the water vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated: cooling the air or adding water vapor to the air. Precipitation forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud. Short, intense periods of rain in scattered locations are called "showers."Moisture, lifted or otherwise forced to rise over a layer of sub-freezing air at the surface may be condensed into clouds and rain. This process is active when freezing rain occurs. A stationary front is present near the area of freezing rain and serves as the foci for forcing and rising air.
Provided necessary and sufficient atmospheric moisture content, the moisture within the rising air will condense into clouds, namely stratus and cumulonimbus. The cloud droplets will grow large enough to form raindrops and descend toward the Earth where they will freeze on contact with exposed objects. Where warm water bodies are present, for example due to water evaporation from lakes, lake-effect snowfall becomes a concern downwind of the warm lakes within the cold cyclonic flow around the backside of extratropical cyclones. Lake-effect snowfall can be locally heavy. Thundersnow is possible within lake effect precipitation bands. In mountainous areas, heavy precipitation is possible where upslope flow is maximized within windward sides of the terrain at elevation. On the leeward side of mountains, desert climates can exist due to the dry air caused by compressional heating. Most precipitation is caused by convection; the movement of the monsoon trough, or intertropical convergence zone, brings rainy seasons to savannah climes.
Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 cubic kilometres of water falls as precipitation each year. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres, but over land it is only 715 millimetres. Climate classification systems such as the Köppen climate classification system use average annual rainfall to help differentiate between differing climate regimes. Precipitation may occur on other celestial bodies, e.g. when it gets cold, Mars has precipitation which most takes the form of frost, rather than rain or snow. Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 km3 of water falls as precipitation each year, 398,000 km3 of it over the oceans. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres. Mechanisms of producing precipitation include convective and orographic rainfall.
Convective processes involve strong vertical motions that can cause the overturning of the atmosphere in that location within an hour and cause heavy precipitation, while stratiform processes involve weaker upward motions and less intense precipitation. Precipitation can be divided into three categories, based on whether it falls as liquid water, liquid water that freezes on contact with the surface, or ice. Mixtures of different types of precipitation, including types in different categories, can fall simultaneously. Liquid forms of precipitation include drizzle. Rain or drizzle that freezes on contact within a subfreezing air mass is called "freezing rain" or "freezing drizzle". Frozen forms of precipitation include snow, ice needles, ice pellets and graupel; the dew point is the temperature to which a parcel must be cooled in order to become saturated, condenses to water. Water vapor begins to condense on condensation nuclei such as dust and salt in order to form clouds. An elevated portion of a frontal zone forces broad areas of lift, which form clouds decks such as altostratus or cirrostratus.
Stratus is a stable cloud deck which tends to form when a cool, stable air mass is trapped underneath a warm air mass. It can form due to the lifting of advection fog during breezy conditions. There are four main mechanisms for cooling the air to its dew point: adiabatic cooling, conductive cooling, radiational cooling, evaporative cooling. Adiabatic cooling occurs when air expands; the air can rise due to convection, large-scale atmospheric motions, or a physical barrier such as a mountain. Conductive cooling occurs when the air comes into contact with a colder surface by being blown from one surface to another, for example from a liquid water surface to colder land. Radiational cooling occurs due to the emission of infrared radiation, either by the air or by the surface underneath. Evaporative cooling occurs when moisture is added to the air through evaporation, which forces the air temperature to cool to its wet-bulb temperature, or until it reaches saturation; the main ways water vapor is added to the air are: wind convergence into areas of upward motion, precipitation or virga falling from above, daytime heating evaporating water from the surface of oceans, water bodies or wet lan
Timbuktu is an ancient city in Mali, situated 20 km north of the Niger River. The town is the capital of one of the eight administrative regions of Mali, it had a population of 54,453 in the 2009 census. Starting out as a seasonal settlement, Timbuktu became a permanent settlement early in the 12th century. After a shift in trading routes, Timbuktu flourished from the trade in salt, gold and slaves, it became part of the Mali Empire early in the 14th century. In the first half of the 15th century, the Tuareg tribes took control of the city for a short period until the expanding Songhai Empire absorbed the city in 1468. A Moroccan army made Timbuktu, rather than Gao, their capital; the invaders established a new ruling class, the Arma, who after 1612 became independent of Morocco. However, the golden age of the city, during which it was a major learning and cultural centre of the Mali Empire, was over, it entered a long period of decline. Different tribes governed until the French took over in 1893, a situation that lasted until it became part of the current Republic of Mali in 1960.
Presently, Timbuktu suffers from desertification. In its Golden Age, the town's numerous Islamic scholars and extensive trading network made possible an important book trade: together with the campuses of the Sankore Madrasah, an Islamic university, this established Timbuktu as a scholarly centre in Africa. Several notable historic writers, such as Shabeni and Leo Africanus, have described Timbuktu; these stories fuelled speculation in Europe, where the city's reputation shifted from being rich to being mysterious. Over the centuries, the spelling of Timbuktu has varied a great deal: from Tenbuch on the Catalan Atlas, to traveller Antonio Malfante's Thambet, used in a letter he wrote in 1447 and adopted by Alvise Cadamosto in his Voyages of Cadamosto, to Heinrich Barth's Timbúktu and Timbu'ktu. French spelling appears in international reference as "Tombouctou"; as well as its spelling, Timbuktu's toponymy is still open to discussion. At least four possible origins of the name of Timbuktu have been described: Songhay origin: both Leo Africanus and Heinrich Barth believed the name was derived from two Songhay words: Leo Africanus writes the Kingdom of Tombuto was named after a town of the same name, founded in 1213 or 1214 by Mansa Suleyman.
The word itself consisted of two parts: tin and butu. Africanus did not explain the meaning of this Butu. Heinrich Barth wrote: "The town was so called, because it was built in a hollow or cavity in the sand-hills. Tùmbutu means hole or womb in the Songhay language: if it were a Temáshight word, it would be written Tinbuktu; the name is interpreted by Europeans as well of Buktu, but tin has nothing to do with well." Berber origin: Malian historian Sekene Cissoko proposes a different etymology: the Tuareg founders of the city gave it a Berber name, a word composed of two parts: tim, the feminine form of In and bouctou, a small dune. Hence, Timbuktu would mean "place covered by small dunes". Abd al-Sadi offers a third explanation in his 17th-century Tarikh al-Sudan: "The Tuareg made it a depot for their belongings and provisions, it grew into a crossroads for travellers coming and going. Looking after their belongings was a slave woman of theirs called Tinbuktu, which in their language means'lump'.
The blessed spot where she encamped was named after her." The French Orientalist René Basset forwarded another theory: the name derives from the Zenaga root b-k-t, meaning "to be distant" or "hidden", the feminine possessive particle tin. The meaning "hidden" could point to the city's location in a slight hollow; the validity of these theories depends on the identity of the original founders of the city: as as 2000, archaeological research has not found remains dating from the 11th/12th century within the limits of the modern city given the difficulty of excavating through metres of sand that have buried the remains over the past centuries. Without consensus, the etymology of Timbuktu remains unclear. Like other important Medieval West African towns such as Djenné, Dia, Iron Age settlements have been discovered near Timbuktu that predate the traditional foundation date of the town. Although the accumulation of thick layers of sand has thwarted archaeological excavations in the town itself, some of the surrounding landscape is deflating and exposing pottery shards on the surface.
A survey of the area by Susan and Roderick McIntosh in 1984 identified several Iron Age sites along the el-Ahmar, an ancient wadi system that passes a few kilometres to the east of the modern town. An Iron Age tell complex located 9 kilometres southeast of the Timbuktu near the Wadi el-Ahmar was excavated between 2008 and 2010 by archaeologists from Yale University and the Mission Culturelle de Tombouctou; the results suggest that the site was first occupied during the 5th century BC, thrived throughout the second half of the 1st millennium AD and collapsed sometime during the late 10th or early 11th century AD. Timbuktu was a regional trade centre in medieval times, where caravans met to exchange salt from the Sahara Desert for gold and slaves from the Sahel, which could be reached via the nearby Niger River; the population swelled from 10,000 in the 13th century to about 50,000 in the 16th century after the establishment of a major Islamic university, which attracted scholars from throughout the Muslim world.
In the 1600s, a combination of a p
Ramadan is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, is observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad according to Islamic belief. This annual observance is regarded as one of the Five Pillars of Islam; the month lasts 29–30 days based on the visual sightings of the crescent moon, according to numerous biographical accounts compiled in the hadiths. The word Ramadan comes from the Arabic root ramiḍa or ar-ramaḍ, which means scorching heat or dryness. Fasting is fard for adult Muslims, except those who are suffering from an illness, are elderly, breastfeeding, chronically ill or menstruating. Fasting the month of Ramadan was made obligatory during the month of Sha'ban, in the second year after the Muslims migrated from Mecca to Medina. Fatwas have been issued declaring that Muslims who live in regions with a natural phenomenon such as the midnight sun or polar night should follow the timetable of Mecca, but the more accepted opinion is that Muslims in those areas should follow the timetable of the closest country to them in which night can be distinguished from day.
While fasting from dawn until sunset, Muslims refrain from consuming food, drinking liquids and engaging in sexual relations. Muslims are instructed to refrain from sinful behavior that may negate the reward of fasting, such as false speech and fighting except in self-defense. Pre-fast meals before dawn are referred to as Suhoor, while the post-fast breaking feasts after sunset are called Iftar. Spiritual rewards for fasting are believed to be multiplied within the month of Ramadan. Fasting for Muslims during Ramadan includes the increased offering of salat, recitation of the Quran and an increase of doing good deeds and charity. Chapter 2, Verse 185, of the Quran states: The month of Ramadan is that in, revealed the Quran, and whosoever of you is present, let him fast the month, whosoever of you is sick or on a journey, a number of other days. Allah desires for you ease, it is believed that the Quran was first revealed to Muhammad during the month of Ramadan, referred to as the "best of times".
The first revelation was sent down on Laylat al-Qadr, one of the five odd nights of the last ten days of Ramadan. According to hadith, all holy scriptures were sent down during Ramadan, it is further believed that the tablets of Ibrahim, the Torah, the Psalms, the Gospel and the Quran were sent down on 1st, 6th, 12th, 13th and 24th Ramadan, respectively. According to the Quran, fasting was obligatory for prior nations, is a way to attain taqwa, fear of God. God proclaimed to Muhammad that fasting for His sake was not a new innovation in monotheism, but rather an obligation practiced by those devoted to the oneness of God; the pagans of Mecca fasted, but only on tenth day of Muharram to expiate sins and avoid droughts. The ruling to observe fasting during Ramadan was sent down 18 months after Hijra, during the month of Sha'ban in the second year of Hijra in 624 CE. Abu Zanad, an Arabic writer from Iraq who lived after the founding of Islam, in around 747 CE, wrote that at least one Mandaean community located in al-Jazira observed Ramadan before converting to Islam.
According to historian Philip Jenkins, Ramadan comes "from the strict Lenten discipline of the Syrian Churches", a postulation corroborated by other scholars, such as the theologian Paul-Gordon Chandler. This suggestion is based on the idea that the Quran itself has Syriac Christian origins, a claim to which some Muslim academics such as M. Al-Azami, object. With professional athletes sharing their experiences of fasting during this religious period, Ramadan is more in the public eye than before - and while tradition and religion remain at the forefront and more Muslims are finding ways to fit their lifestyle around their faith; the beginning and end of Ramadan are determined by the lunar Islamic calendar. Hilāl is a day after the astronomical new moon. Since the new moon marks the beginning of the new month, Muslims can safely estimate the beginning of Ramadan. However, to many Muslims, this is not in accordance with authenticated Hadiths stating that visual confirmation per region is recommended.
The consistent variations of a day have existed since the time of Muhammad. The Arabic Laylat al-Qadr, translated to English is "the night of power" or "the night of decree", is considered the holiest night of the year; this is the night in which Muslims believe the first revelation of the Quran was sent down to Muhammad stating that this night was "better than one thousand months ", as stated in Chapter 97:3 of the Qu'ran. Laylat al-Qadr is believed to have occurred on an odd-numbered night during the last ten days of Ramadan, i.e. the night of the 21st, 23rd, 25th, 27th or 29th. The Dawoodi Bohra Community believe; the holiday of Eid al-Fitr marks the end of Ramadan and the beginning of the next lunar month, Shawwal. This first day of the following month is declared after another crescent new moon has been sighted or the completion of 30 days of fasting if no visual sighting is possible due to weather conditi
Districts of Ivory Coast
The districts of Ivory Coast are the first-level administrative subdivisions of the country. The districts were created in 2011 in an effort to further decentralise the state, but in practice most of them have not yet begun to function as governmental entities. There are 14 districts, including two autonomous districts around the cities of Yamoussoukro and Abidjan; the remaining 12 districts are further subdivided into 31 regions, which are further subdivided into 108 third-level subdivisions, the departments. Departments are subdivided into 510 sub-prefectures; the lowest level of administrative organisation, which exist in limited numbers, is the commune. Although they are not divided into regions, the autonomous regions do contain departments, sub-prefectures, communes; each district is meant to be headed by a governor, appointed by the council of ministers of the national government. However, apart from governors for the two autonomous districts, no district governor has yet been nominated.
Districts have been given four primary responsibilities: to administer major development projects in the district. Precise distinctions in the jurisdiction of districts as compared to regions has yet to be established; because of the lack of district governors, the governments of the non-autonomous districts have not yet begun to function. The following is the list of districts, district capitals and each district's regions: Prior to September 2011, Ivory Coast's first-level administrative subdivisions were 19 regions. In 2011, the regions were reorganized into the 14 districts; the following is a summary of how the districts were constructed from the former regions: The largest city and the political capital and their surrounding areas were split to form autonomous districts. Abidjan was part of Lagunes Region and Yamoussoukro was part of Lacs Region. Of the 19 regions, the northern regions of Denguélé, Vallée du Bandama, Zanzan were re-designated as districts with no change in territory; the old Agnéby region and what remained of Lagunes Region were merged to form the new Lagunes District.
The old Bafing and Worodougou Regions were merged to form the new Woroba District. The Department of Fresco was transferred from the former Sud-Bandama Region to the Bas-Sassandra Region to form the new Bas-Sassandra District, while the remainder of Sud-Bandama Region merged with Fromager Region to form the new Gôh-Djiboua District; the old Dix-Huit Montagnes and Moyen-Cavally Regions merged to form the new Montagnes District. The old Haut-Sassandra and Marahoué Regions merged to form the new Sassandra-Marahoué District; the old N'Zi-Comoé Region and what remained of Lacs Region were merged to form the new Lacs District. The old Moyen-Comoé and Sud-Comoé Regions were merged to form the new Comoé District. ISO 3166-2:CI Districts of the Ivory Coast Carte du nouveau découpage administratif de la Côte-d'Ivoire
Louis-Gustave Binger was a French officer and explorer who claimed the Côte d'Ivoire for France. Binger was born at Strasbourg in the Bas-Rhin departement. In 1887 he traveled from Senegal up to the Niger River, arriving at Grand Bassam in 1889. During this expedition he discovered, he described this journey in his work Du Niger au golfe de Guinée par le pays de Kong et le Mossi. In 1892 he returned to the Guinea Coast to superintend the forming of the boundaries between the British and French colonies. In 1893 Binger was appointed governor of the Côte d'Ivoire, where he remained until 1898, he returned to France that year, to an administrative post in Paris at the French Colonial Ministry. In 1899 the Royal Geographical Society awarded him their Founder's Gold Medal for his exploratory work. Louis Gustave Binger died at L'Isle-Adam, Île-de-France and was buried in the Cimetière du Montparnasse in Paris; the city of Bingerville in the Ivory Coast is named after him. French African Committee
The Dyula are a Mande ethnic group inhabiting several West African countries, including the Mali, Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana,and Burkina Faso. Characterized as a successful merchant caste, Dyula migrants began establishing trading communities across the region in the fourteenth century. Since business was conducted under non-Muslim rulers, the Dyula developed a set of theological principles for Muslim minorities in non-Muslim societies, their unique contribution of long-distance commerce, Islamic scholarship and religious tolerance were significant factors to the peaceful expansion of Islam in West Africa. The Mandé embraced Islam during the thirteenth century following introduction to the faith through contact with the Soninké people and North African traders. By the 14th century the Malian empire had reached its apogee, acquiring a considerable reputation for the Islamic rulings of its court and the pilgrimages of several emperors who followed the tradition of Lahilatul Kalabi, the first black prince to make hajj to Mecca.
It was at this time that Mali began encouraging some of its local merchants to establish colonies close to the gold fields of West Africa. This migrant trading class were known as Dyula, the Mandingo word for “merchant”; the Dyula spread throughout the former area of Mandé culture from the Atlantic coast of Senegambia to the Niger and from the southern edge of the Sahara to forest zones further south. They established decentralized townships in non-Muslim colonies that were linked to an extensive commercial network, in what was described by professor Philip D. Curtin as a “trading diaspora.” Motivated by business imperatives, they expanded into new markets, founding settlements under the auspices of various local rulers who permitted them self-governance and autonomy. Organization of dyula trading companies was based a clan-family structure known as the lu - a working unit consisting of a father and his sons and other attached males. Members of a given lu dispersed from the savanna to the forest, managed circulation of goods and information, placed orders, controlled the economic mechanisms of supply and demand.
Over time dyula colonies developed a theological rationale for their relations with non-Muslim ruling classes and subjects in what author Nehemia Levtzion dubbed “accommodationist Islam”. The man credited with formulating this rationale is Sheikh Al-Hajj Salim Suwari, a Soninke cleric from the core Mali area who lived around 1500, he made hajj to Mecca several times and devoted his intellectual career to developing an understanding of the faith that would assist Muslim minorities in “pagan” lands. He drew on North African and Middle Eastern jurists and theologians who had reflected on the problem of Muslims living among non-Muslim majorities, situations that were frequent in the centuries of Islamic expansion. Sheikh Suwari formulated the obligations of Muslim minorities in West Africa into something known as the Suwarian tradition, it stressed the need for Muslims to coexist peaceably with unbelievers and so justified a separation of religion and politics. In this understanding, Muslims must nurture their own learning and piety and thereby furnish good examples to the non-Muslims around them.
They could accept jurisdiction of non-Muslim authorities as long as they had the necessary protection and conditions to practice the faith. In this teaching, Suwari followed a strong predilection in Islamic thought for any government if non-Muslim or tyrannical as opposed to none; the military jihad was a resort. Suwari discouraged dawah, instead contending that Allah would bring non-Muslims to Islam in His own way. Since their Islamic practice was capable of accommodating traditional cults, dyula served as priests and counselors at the courts of animist rulers; as fellow Muslims, dyula merchants were able to assess the valuable trans-Saharan trade network conducted by North African Arabs and Berbers whom they met at commercial centers across the Sahel. Some important trade goods included gold, millet and kola nuts from the south and slave beads and cowrie shells from the north, it was under Mali that the great cities of the Niger bend including Gao and Djenné prospered, with Timbuktu in particular becoming known across Europe for its great wealth.
Important trading centers in Southern West Africa developed at the transitional zone between the forest and the savanna. Western trade routes continued to be important, with Ouadane and Chinguetti being the major trade centres in what is now Mauritania; the development of Dyula trade in Ghana and the adjacent Ivory Coast had important political consequences and sometimes military implications as well. The dyula spearheaded Mande penetration of the forested zones in the south by establishing caravan routes and trading posts at strategic locations throughout the region en route to cola-producing areas. By the start of the sixteenth century, dyula merchants were trading as far south as the coast of modern Ghana. On the forest's northern fringes, new states emerged, such as Banda; as the economic value of gold and kola became appreciated, forests south of these states which had hitherto been little inhabited because of limited agricultural potential became more thickly populated, the same principles of political and military mobilization began being applied there.
Village communities became tributaries of ruling groups, with some members becoming the clients and slaves needed to support royal households and trading enterprises. Som
First Ivorian Civil War
The First Ivorian Civil War was a conflict in the Ivory Coast that began in 2002. Although most of the fighting ended by late 2004, the country remained split in two, with a rebel-held north and a government-held south. Hostility increased and raids on foreign troops and civilians rose; as of 2006, the region was tense, many said the UN and the French military failed to calm the civil war. The Ivory Coast national football team was credited with helping to secure a temporary truce when it qualified for the 2006 FIFA World Cup and brought warring parties together; the United Nations Operation in Côte d'Ivoire began after the civil war calmed, but peacekeepers have faced a complicated situation and are outnumbered by civilians and rebels. A peace agreement to end the conflict was signed on 4 March 2007; the Ivorian elections took place in October 2010 after being delayed six times. Fighting resumed on 24 February 2011 over the impasse on the election results, with the New Force rebels capturing Zouan-Hounien, clashes in Abobo and around Anyama The civil war revolves around a number of issues.
First, the end of the 33-year presidency of Félix Houphouët-Boigny forced the nation to grapple with the democratic process for the first time. Houphouët-Boigny had been president since the country's independence, so the nation's political system was bound to his personal charisma, political and economic competence; the political system was forced to deal with open, competitive elections without Houphouët-Boigny from 1993 onward. The large number of foreigners in Ivory Coast, Ivorians of somewhat recent foreign descent, created an important issue of voting rights. Twenty-six percent of the population was of foreign origin from Burkina Faso, a poorer country to the north. Many of these had been Ivorian citizens for two generations or more, some of them, of Mandinka heritage, can be considered native to the northern part of what is now known as Ivory Coast; these ethnic tensions had been suppressed under the strong leadership of Houphouët-Boigny, but surfaced after his death. The term Ivoirity coined by Henri Konan Bédié to denote the common cultural identity of all those living in Ivory Coast came to be used by nationalist and xenophobic politics and press to represent the population of the southeastern portion of the country Abidjan.
Discrimination toward people of Burkinabé origin made neighbor countries Burkina Faso, fear a massive migration of refugees. An economic downturn due to a deterioration of the terms of trade between Third World and developed countries worsened conditions, exacerbating the underlying cultural and political issues. Unemployment forced a part of the urban population to return to the fields, which they discovered had been exploited. Violence was turned against African foreigners; the prosperity of Ivory Coast had attracted many Africans from West Africa, by 1998 they constituted 26% of the population, 56% of whom were Burkinabés. In this atmosphere of increasing racial tension, Houphouët-Boigny's policy of granting nationality to Burkinabés resident in Ivory Coast was criticized as being to gain their political support. In 1995, the tensions turned violent when Burkinabés were killed in plantations at Tabou, during ethnic riots. Ethnic violence had existed between owners of lands and their hosts in the west side of the country, between Bete and Baoule and Lobi.
Since independence, people from the center of the country, have been encouraged to move to fertile lands of the west and south-west of the country where they have been granted superficialities to grow cocoa and comestibles. Years some Bete have come to resent these successful farmers. Voting became difficult for these immigrants; the catalyst for the conflict was the law drafted by the government and approved in a referendum before the elections of 2000 which required both parents of a presidential candidate to be born within Ivory Coast. This excluded the northern presidential candidate Alassane Ouattara from the race. Ouattara represented the predominantly Muslim north the poor immigrant workers from Mali and Burkina Faso working on coffee and cocoa plantations. Forces involved in the conflict include: Official government forces, the National Army called loyalists and equipped since 2003 The Young Patriots: nationalist groups aligned with President Laurent Gbagbo Mercenaries recruited by president Gbagbo: Belarusian pilots Former combatants of Liberia, including under-17 youths, forming the so-called "Lima militia" New Forces, ex-northern rebels, who held 60% of the country Mercenaries Liberian militiamen and ex-RUF fighters from Sierra Leone Liberian government forces, including the Anti-Terrorist Unit, under the command of Benjamin Yeaten, Sam Bockarie, Gilbert Williams, Kuku Dennis.
The involvement of the Liberians on the side of the Ivorian rebels was motivated by desire for loot, most Liberian soldiers who volunteered to fight in Ivory Coast did not know who they fighting against. French military forces: troops sent within the framework of Operation Unicorn and under UN mandate, 3000 men in February 2003 and 4600 in November 2004. Troops, many of whom originated from the north of the country, mutinied in the early hours of 19 September 2002, they launched attacks including Abidjan. By midday they had control of the north of the country, their principal claim relates to the definition of