Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Humbert III, Count of Savoy
Umberto III, surnamed the Blessed, was Count of Savoy from 1148 to 1188. His parents were Amadeus III of Mathilde d'Albon the daughter of Guigues III of Albon, he ceded rights and benefits to monasteries and played a decisive role in the organization of Hautecombe Abbey. It is said. On the death of his third wife he retired to Hautecombe, but changed his mind and, by his fourth wife had son, Thomas, he sided with the Guelph party of Pope Alexander III against the Ghibelline Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. The result was an invasion of his states twice: in 1174 Susa was set on fire, in 1187 Henry VI banished him from the empire and wrested away most of his domains, of which he was left only with the valleys of Susa and Aosta, he died at Chambéry in 1189. He was the first prince buried at Hautecombe, his memorial day is March 4. Umberto III, Count of Savoy, beatified in the Catholic Church, was born around 1136 in the castle of Avigliana, near Turin, to Count Amadeus III and Mathilde d'Albon, Countess of Albon and Vienne.
He is an important figure in medieval society in the history of House of Savoy. His life was characterized by certain key features, including mysticism, borne of a vocation and tradition of the contemplative life, which came about in the events of his time as warrior and politician, which he undertook for dynastic reasons, he inherited from his father, as well as from his grandfather, Umberto II, the dream of reconstituting the fragmented Kingdom of Burgundy, in stark opposition to the centralizing policy of the French royal family. In his efforts he was supported by Frederick I Barbarossa, found himself induced to play a shrewd political subjugation of neighboring feudal lords or settled among his domains. Like his father, Umberto II, who died young when he was still a minor, Amadeus III entrusted the education of his son, Umberto III to St. Amedeus of Lausanne, former abbot of Hautecombe, under his guidance the young Umberto made great progress in studies and spiritual formation, despising the apparent splendor of worldly things, giving himself to prayer and penance.
To better achieve his lofty goals, he withdrew Hautecombe Abbey, on the banks of Lake Bourget in Savoy, founded by his father. He always left the abbey with regret, every time the family and the Savoyard nobility called him back for occupy himself with political matters. Amadeus III was a pilgrim in the Holy Land in 1122, he went there through the offices of Pope Callixtus II, in 1146 he participated in the Second Crusade, died on the island of Cyprus in Nicosia on 1 April 1148, where he was buried, leaving the twelve-year old Umberto as heir. Although still at an early age, in 1151 Umberto was bethrothed to Faidiva, daughter of Alphonse Jourdain, Count of Toulouse, she would soon die without issue. He married Gertrude, daughter of Thierry, Count of Flanders and Sibylla of Anjou; this second marriage was annulled by reason of infertility. In 1164, Umberto married Clementia of Zähringen, by whom he had two daughters: Sofia, she died in 1173, he decided to retire to Hautecombe, but not for long. In 1177, the nobility in 1177 convinced him marry for the fourth time.
As wife, he took Beatrice of Mâcon, daughter Géraud I of Maurette de Salins. At last he had Thomas, to continue the dynasty. Beatrice bore him a daughter who died at the age of seven. Umberto's reign was long, it lasted forty years, was characterized by struggles with the Holy Roman Emperor, various lords and count-bishops. The main reason for conflict consisted in the patronage of the Bishop of Turin by Frederick Barbarossa, who dreamed of undisturbed dominance of the capital of Piedmont; this led to a gradual reduction of the possessions and authority of Umberto III on the Italian side, leaving him with the rump territories of the valleys of Susa and Aosta. In 1187, he was banished from the Holy Roman Empire by Henry VI, for supporting the emperor's opponents, he did not retire, as has been said, to his Alpine domains, devoting himself in particular to the practice of personal virtues and fraternal charity. He promoted the foundation of Precettoria of St. Anthony of Ranverso at Buttigliera Alta, not far from the town of Avigliana, entrusting it to Antoniani from Vienne, France.
The death of Umberto III, March 4, 1189 in Chambéry, at the age of fifty-two, was mourned sincerely by all the people. He was the first prince of Savoy to be buried in Hautecombe Abbey, which has since become a burial place for the dynasty; the last King of Italy, Umberto II, his wife, Marie José of Belgium, are buried here. The spirituality of Umberto undoubtedly blossomed in an environment of ancient Christian traditions, favored by the example of his father, a pilgrim and crusader in the Holy Land, of his tutor, St. Amadeus, Bishop of Lausanne. However, Umberto's life was full of contradictions: He was a lover of peace, but had frequent hostilities and wars, he was penitent, contemplative, but was forced to take the reins of government, during which time he had a life of action, found himself forced in marriage in order to have an heir. However, he let unmistakable signs of great moral balance, severity with himself and indulgence and love of neighbor, he was a benefactor to churches and charitable causes, the care of the poor.
Throughout his life, he supported Hautecombe Abbey. In 1188 he founded the Monastery of Sant'Antonio di Ranverso. Umberto was venerated by many after his death. Miracles were wrought through his intercession. In Aosta, he is depicted on the facade of the city's cathedral, he is mentioned by St. Alphonsus Ligouri as a par
Amadeus V, Count of Savoy
Amadeus V, surnamed the Great for his wisdom and success as a ruler, was the Count of Savoy from 1285 to 1323. He established Chambéry as his seat, he was the son of Thomas II of Beatrice Fieschi. Amadeus began life in the service of King Edward I of England, as a household knight, serving in the First Welsh War of 1277. During the Second Welsh War of 1282 he was in command of Edward’s forces at Chester that relieved the siege of Rhuddlan Castle, his childless paternal uncle, Count of Savoy, Philip I died in 1285. Meanwhile earlier, in 1282, his elder brother Thomas III of Piedmont, had accidentally died in 1282. Philip’s will charged his niece Eleanor of Provence and her son King Edward I of England with the inheritance of Savoy. Amadeus was awarded the County of Savoy, in order to diminish family rivalry his younger brother Louis was awarded the new Barony of Vaud becoming Louis I of Vaud. Through his marriage to Sybilla, Countess of Bugey and Bresse, he was able to incorporate these Burgundian districts into his states.
Expansion saw his dominions further increased. On 1 October 1285, Amadeus was declared protector of Geneva after negotiations with the Bishop of Geneva; the hereditary title belonged to Amadeus II, Count of Geneva, in conflict with the Bishop. In 1287 Amadeus besieged the castle of Ile in the Rhône near Geneva, captured it after fourteen weeks. In 1295, Amadeus acquired the fortress at Chambéry from its previous owner Hugh of La Rochette, he brought Georges de Aquila, a student of Giotto to his court. Georges decorated the castle with paintings, carved wood, frescoes, he worked there for the Savoyards until he died in 1348. Among his successes was the Treaty of Annemasse which the Count of Geneva and the Dauphin of Viennois accepted subservient roles to him as his vassals; the treaty was the result of military victories over the both of them. In 1301, Amadeus settled his dispute over control of Valais with the Roman Catholic Diocese of Sion, his reign, however saw friction between the County of Savoy and the Duchy of Austria.
He pursued an alliance with the Kingdom of France and received Maulévrier in Normandy as a result of initial good relations. The eventual recovery of Lyon by the Kings of France alerted Amadeus to their expansionistic tendencies towards the regions by the Alps, he sought a powerful ally against potential hostility in the German king Henry VII, married to Margaret of Brabant, the sister-in-law of Amadeus. Amadeus accompanied Henry in his Italian campaign of 1310–1313, which culminated in Henry's coronation as Holy Roman Emperor on 29 June 1312; as a reward for his service, AMadeus received the title of Imperial Count, imperial vicar of Lombardy, the lordships of Asti and Ivrea. Henry elevated Aosta and Chablais to duchies, though they remained a part of the realm of Savoy. In 1315, Amadeus assisted the Knights Hospitaller in the defense of Rhodes against the Turks, he first married Sybille de Baugé, daughter of Guy I Damas de Baugé, Baron of Couzan and Dauphine de Lavieu, had eight children by her: Bonne of Savoy, married twice: 1) John I of Viennois, Dauphin of Viennois, 2) Hugh of Burgundy, Lord of Montbauson, the son of Hugh III, Count of Burgundy.
John of Savoy Beatrice of Savoy Edward of Savoy, succeeded his father, married Blanche of Burgundy, daughter of Robert II, Duke of Burgundy. Eleonor of Savoy, married three times: 1) William of Chalon, Count of Auxerre and Tonnerre, 2) Dreux IV of Mello, 3) John I, Count of Forez, her daughter Marguerite de Mello married John II of Chalon-Arlay. Margaret of Savoy, married John I of Montferrat. Agnes of Savoy, married William III of Geneva, their son was Amadeus III of Geneva. Aymon of Savoy, succeeded his brother Edward as Count of Savoy, married Yolande of Montferrat, the daughter of Theodore I, Marquess of Montferrat. In 1297, he married, Marie of Brabant, a daughter of John I, Duke of Brabant and Margaret of Flanders, her maternal grandparents were his first wife, Matilda of Bethune. They had 4 children: Maria of Savoy, married Hugh, Baron of Faucigny, the son of Humbert I of Viennois. Catherine of Savoy, married Leopold I, Duke of Austria and Styria. Anna of Savoy, married Byzantine Emperor, Andronikos III Palaiologos.
Beatrice of Savoy, married, in 1327, Henry VI, Duke of Carinthia. Cox, Eugene L.. The Green Count of Savoy. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. LCCN 67-11030. Jobson, Adrian; the First English Revolution: Simon de Montfort, Henry III and the Barons' War. Bloomsbury Academic. Taylor, A. J.. "A Letter of Lewis of Savoy to Edward I". The English Historical Review. Oxford University Press. Vol. 68, No. 266 Jan. His listing in "Medieval lands" by Charles Cawley; the project "involves extracting and analysing detailed information from primary sources, including contemporary chronicles, cartularies and testaments."
Thomas, Count of Savoy
Thomas was Count of Savoy from 1189 to 1233. He is sometimes numbered "Thomas I" to distinguish him from his son of the same name, who governed Savoy but was not count. Thomas was born in the son of Humbert III of Savoy and Beatrice of Viennois, his birth was seen as miraculous. Count Humbert sought counsel from St. Anthelm, who blessed Humbert three times, it was seen as a prophecy come true when Thomas was born shortly before Anthelm himself died on 26 June 1178, he was named in honour of Saint Thomas Becket. Thomas was still a minor when his father died on 4 March 1189, a council of regency was established, composed of his mother Beatrice, his father's cousin Boniface I of Montferrat, the Bishop of Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne, he had reached his majority by August 1191. Thomas possessed the martial abilities and brilliance that his father lacked, Savoy enjoyed a golden age under his leadership. Despite his youth he began the push northwest into new territories. In the same year he granted Aosta Valley the "Charte des Franchises", recognising the right to administrative and political autonomy.
This right was maintained until the eve of the French Revolution. He conquered Vaud and Carignano, he supported the Hohenstaufens, was known as "Thomas the Ghibelline" because of his career as Imperial Vicar of Lombardy. Thomas worked throughout his career to expand the influence of the County of Savoy. One of the key tools that he used was his large number of children, who he worked to get into positions of influence in neighboring regions. In part, this was done by getting many of his sons into episcopal offices in surrounding territories, in a time when bishops had temporal as well as spiritual authority. In addition to Guglielmo and Bonifacio, who made their careers in the clergy, their brother Thomas started out as a canon at Lausanne and became prévôt of Valence by 1226. Pietro was a canon at Lausanne and served as acting bishop there until he was replaced in 1231. In 1219 he worked to get his daughter Beatrice married to the fourteen-year-old Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence; this established a close relationship between the two adjoining counties which would help cement Savoy control over trade between Italy and France.
Thomas fought many battles to expand his control. In 1215, his troops fought in an alliance with Milan against Monferrato, destroying the town of Casale. In 1222, he captured Cavour. Thomas worked through diplomatic and economic means to expand his control; the county of Savoy long enjoyed control over critical passes through the Alps. In his quest to gain more control over Turin, Thomas made an agreement with their rival Asti to reroute their French trade around Turin through Savoyard lands in a treaty on 15 September 1224. In 1226, Emperor Frederick II named Thomas Imperial Vicar of Lombardy. In this role, he mediated in a Genoese rebellion and a dispute between the town of Marseille and their bishop. Thomas made a policy of granting franchises and charters to towns on key trade routes which enabled the merchant class to develop more wealth and built support for his rule. Thomas died at Savoy. In 1195 he ambushed the party of Count William I of Geneva, escorting the count's daughter, Margaret of Geneva, to France for her intended wedding to King Philip II of France.
Thomas married her himself, producing some eight sons and six daughters. Amedeo, his immediate successor Umberto, d. between March and November 1223 Tommaso and count in Piedmont and founder of a line that became the Savoy-Achaea Aimone, d. 30 August 1237, Lord of Chablais Guglielmo, Bishop of Valence and Dean of Vienne Amadeo of Savoy, Bishop of Maurienne Pietro, who resided much in England, became Earl of Richmond, in 1263 became the disputed count of Savoy Filippo, archbishop of Lyon, who resigned, through marriage became Count Palatine of Burgundy and in 1268 became the disputed count of Savoy Bonifacio who became archbishop of Canterbury Beatrice of Savoy, d. 1265 or 1266, married in December 1219 to Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence and was mother of four Queens-consort Alasia of Savoy, abbess of the monastery of St Pierre in Lyon Ágatha of Savoy, abbess of the monastery of St Pierre in Lyon following her sister's death Margherita of Savoy, d. 1273, married in 1218 to Hartmann IV of Kyburg Avita of Savoy He had illegitimate children too: Aymon, Count of Larches, married Beatrice of Grisel Thomas, "the big", count of Lioches Giulio Chevalier, J..
Quarante années de l'histoire des évêques de Valence. Paris. Cognasso, Francesco. Il Piemonte nell’Età Sveva. Turin. Cognasso, Francesco. Tommaso I ed Amedeo IV. Turin. Cox, Eugene L.. The Eagles of Savoy. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691052166. Vaillant, P.. "La Politique d'affranchisement des comtes de Savoie". Etudes historiques à la mémoire de Noël Didier. Paris
Flanders is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium and one of the communities and language areas of Belgium. However, there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language and history, sometimes involving neighbouring countries; the demonym associated with Flanders is Fleming. The official capital of Flanders is Brussels, although the Brussels Capital Region has an independent regional government, the government of Flanders only oversees the community aspects of Flanders life in Brussels such as culture and education. Flanders, despite not being the biggest part of Belgium by area, is the area with the largest population. 7,876,873 out of 11,491,346 Belgian inhabitants live in the bilingual city of Brussels. Not including Brussels, there are five modern Flemish provinces. In medieval contexts, the original "County of Flanders" stretched around AD 900 from the Strait of Dover to the Scheldt estuary and expanded from there; this county still corresponds with the modern-day Belgian provinces of West Flanders and East Flanders, along with neighbouring parts of France and the Netherlands.
Although this original meaning is still relevant, during the 19th and 20th centuries it became commonplace to use the term "Flanders" to refer to the entire Dutch-speaking part of Belgium, stretching all the way to the River Meuse, as well as cultural movements such as Flemish art. In accordance with late 20th century Belgian state reforms the Belgian part of this area was made into two political entities: the "Flemish Community" and the "Flemish Region"; these entities were merged, although geographically the Flemish Community, which has a broader cultural mandate, covers Brussels, whereas the Flemish Region does not. Flanders, by every definition, has figured prominently in European history since the Middle Ages. In this period, cities such as Ghent and Antwerp made it one of the richest and most urbanized parts of Europe and weaving the wool of neighbouring lands into cloth for both domestic use and export; as a consequence, a sophisticated culture developed, with impressive achievements in the arts and architecture, rivaling those of northern Italy.
Belgium was one of the centres of the 19th century industrial revolution but Flanders was at first overtaken by French-speaking Wallonia. In the second half of the 20th century, due to massive national investments in port infrastructures, Flanders' economy modernised and today Flanders and Brussels are more wealthy than Wallonia and in general one of the wealthiest regions in Europe and the world. Geographically, Flanders is flat, has a small section of coast on the North Sea. Much of Flanders is agriculturally fertile and densely populated, with a population density of 500 people per square kilometer, it touches France to the west near the coast, borders the Netherlands to the north and east, Wallonia to the south. The Brussels Capital Region is an bilingual enclave within the Flemish Region. Flanders has exclaves of its own: Voeren in the east is between Wallonia and the Netherlands and Baarle-Hertog in the north consists of 22 exclaves surrounded by the Netherlands; the term "Flanders" has several main modern meanings: The "Flemish community" or "Flemish nation", i.e. the social and linguistic, scientific and educational and political community of the Flemings.
It comprises 6.5 million Belgians. The political subdivisions of Belgium: the Flemish Region and the Flemish Community; the first does not comprise Brussels, whereas the latter does comprise the Dutch-speaking inhabitants of Brussels. The political institutions that govern both subdivisions: the operative body "Flemish Government" and the legislative organ "Flemish Parliament"; the two westernmost provinces of the Flemish Region, West Flanders and East Flanders, forming the central portion of the historic County of Flanders. An ancien régime territory that existed from the 8th century until its absorption by the French First Republic; until the 1600s, this county extended over parts of what are now France and the Netherlands. One of the Flemish regions which are now part of France, in the Nord department; this is referred to as French Flanders, can be divided into two smaller regions: Walloon Flanders and Maritime Flanders. The first region was predominantly French-speaking in the 1600s, the latter became so in the 20th century.
The city of Lille identifies itself as "Flemish", this is reflected, for instance, in the name of its local railway station TGV Lille Flandres. The Flemish region which became part of the Dutch Republic, now part of the Dutch province of Zeeland; the significance of the County of Flanders and its counts eroded through time, but the designation remained in a broad sense. In the Early modern period, the term Flanders was associated with the southern part of the Low Countries: the Southern Netherlands. During the 19th and 20th centuries, it became commonplace to refer to the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium as "Flanders"; the linguistic limit between French and Dutch was recorded in the early'60's, from Kortrijk to Maastricht. Now, Flanders extends over the northern part of Belgium, including Belgian Limburg (corresponding to t
Amadeus III, Count of Savoy
Amadeus III of Savoy was Count of Savoy and Maurienne from 1103 until his death. He was known as a Crusader, he was born in Carignano, the son of Humbert II of Savoy and Gisela of Burgundy, the daughter of William I of Burgundy. He succeeded as count of Savoy upon the death of his father. Amadeus had a tendency to exaggerate his titles, claimed to be Duke of Lombardy, Duke of Burgundy, Duke of Chablais, vicar of the Holy Roman Empire, the latter of, given to his father by Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor, he helped restore the Abbey of St. Maurice of Agaune, in which the former kings of Burgundy had been crowned, of which he himself was abbot until 1147, he founded the Abbey of St. Sulpicius in Bugey, Tamié Abbey in the Bauges, Hautecombe Abbey on the Lac du Bourget. In 1128, Amadeus extended his realm, known as the "Old Chablais", by adding to it the region extending from the Arve to the Dranse d'Abondance, which came to be called the "New Chablais" with its capital at Saint-Maurice. Despite his marriage to Mahaut, he still fought against his brother-in-law Guy, killed at the Battle of Montmélian.
Following this, King Louis VI of France, married to Amadeus' sister Adélaide de Maurienne, attempted to confiscate Savoy. Amadeus was saved by the intercession of Peter the Hermit, by his promise to participate in Louis' planned crusade. In 1147, he accompanied his nephew Louis VII of France and his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine on the Second Crusade, he financed his expedition with help from a loan from the Abbey of St. Maurice. In his retinue were many barons from Savoy, including the lords of Faucigny, Seyssel, La Chambre, Montbel, Montmayeur, Viry, La Palude, Chevron-Villette, Châtillon. Amadeus travelled south through Italy to Brindisi, where he crossed over to Durazzo, marched east along the Via Egnatia to meet Louis at Constantinople in late 1147. After crossing into Anatolia, leading the vanguard, became separated from Louis near Laodicea, Louis' forces were entirely destroyed. Marching on to Adalia, Louis and other barons decided to continue to Antioch by ship. On the journey, Amadeus fell ill on Cyprus, died at Nicosia in April 1148.
He was buried in the Church of St. Croix in Nicosia. In Savoy, his son Humbert III succeeded him, under the regency of bishop Amadeus of Lausanne. With his first wife Adelaide, he had. W.. The Early History of the House of Savoy: 1000-1233. Cambridge University Press. Cawley, Medieval Lands Project on Amadeus III of Savoy, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy