The Amish are a group of traditionalist Christian church fellowships with Swiss German Anabaptist origins. They are related to, but distinct from, Mennonite churches; the Amish are known for simple living, plain dress, reluctance to adopt many conveniences of modern technology. The history of the Amish church began with a schism in Switzerland within a group of Swiss and Alsatian Anabaptists in 1693 led by Jakob Ammann; those who followed Ammann became known as Amish. In the second half of the 19th century, the Amish divided into Amish Mennonites; the latter drive cars as does the main society during the 20th century, whereas the Old Order Amish retained much of their traditional culture. When it is spoken of Amish today only the Old Order Amish are meant. In the early 18th century many Amish, Mennonites, immigrated to Pennsylvania for a variety of reasons. Today the Old Order Amish, the New Order Amish, the Old Beachy Amish continue to speak Pennsylvania German known as "Pennsylvania Dutch", although two different Alemannic dialects are used by Old Order Amish in Adams and Allen counties in Indiana.
As of 2000, over 165,000 Old Order Amish lived in the United States and about 1,500 lived in Canada. A 2008 study suggested their numbers had increased to 227,000, in 2010, a study suggested their population had grown by 10 percent in the past two years to 249,000, with increasing movement to the West. Most of the Amish continue to have six or seven children, while benefitting from the major decrease in infant and maternal mortality in the 20th century. Between 1992 and 2017, the Amish population increased by 149 percent, while the U. S. population increased by 23 percent. Amish church membership begins with baptism between the ages of 16 and 23, it is a requirement for marriage within the Amish church. Once a person is baptized within the church, he or she may marry only within the faith. Church districts average between 20 and 40 families and worship services are held every other Sunday in a member's home; the district is led by several ministers and deacons. The rules of the church, the Ordnung, must be observed by every member and cover many aspects of day-to-day living, including prohibitions or limitations on the use of power-line electricity and automobiles, as well as regulations on clothing.
Most Amish do not participate in Social Security. As present-day Anabaptists, Amish church members practice nonresistance and will not perform any type of military service; the Amish value rural life, manual labor, humility, all under the auspices of living what they interpret to be God's word. Members who do not conform to these community expectations and who cannot be convinced to repent are excommunicated. In addition to excommunication, members may be shunned, a practice that limits social contacts to shame the wayward member into returning to the church. 90 percent of Amish teenagers choose to be baptized and join the church. During an adolescent period of rumspringa in some communities, nonconforming behavior that would result in the shunning of an adult who had made the permanent commitment of baptism, may be met with a degree of forbearance. Amish church groups seek to maintain a degree of separation from the non-Amish world, i.e. American and Canadian society. Non-Amish people are referred to as'English'.
A heavy emphasis is placed on church and family relationships. They operate their own one-room schools and discontinue formal education after grade eight, at age 13/14; until the children turn 16, they have vocational training under the tutelage of their parents and the school teacher. Higher education is discouraged, as it can lead to social segregation and the unraveling of the community. However, some Amish women have used higher education to obtain a nursing certificate so that they may provide midwifery services to the community; the Anabaptist movement, from which the Amish emerged, started in circles around Huldrych Zwingli who led the early Reformation in Switzerland. In Zurich on January 21, 1525, Conrad Grebel and George Blaurock practiced adult baptism to each other and to others; this Swiss movement, part of the Radical Reformation became known as Swiss Brethren. The term Amish was first used as a Schandename in 1710 by opponents of Jakob Amman; the first informal division between Swiss Brethren was recorded in the 17th century between Oberländers and Emmentaler.
The Oberländers were a more extreme congregation. Swiss Anabaptism developed, from this point, in two parallel streams, most marked by disagreement over the preferred treatment of "fallen" believers; the Emmentalers argued that fallen believers should only be withheld from communion, not regular meals. The Amish argued that those, banned should be avoided in common meals; the Reistian side formed the basis of the Swiss Mennonite Conference. Because of this common heritage and Mennonites from southern Germany and Switzerland retain many similarities; those who leave the Amish fold tend to join various congregations of Conservative Mennonites. Amish began migrating to Pennsylvania known for its religious toleration, in the 18th century as part of a larger migration from the Palatinate and neighboring areas; this migration was a reaction to religious wars and religious persecution in Europe. The firs
A straw hat is a brimmed hat, woven out of straw or straw-like materials from different plants or synthetics. The hat is designed to protect the head from the sun and against heatstroke, but straw hats are used in fashion as a decorative element or a uniform. Used fibers are: Wheat straw:, Rye straw: used for the traditional bryl straw hats popular among the peasants of Belarus, southwestern Russia and Ukraine. Toquilla straw: flexible and durable fiber, made into hats in Ecuador, but popularly known as Panama hats. Buntal/ Parabuntal straw: from unopened Palm leaves or stems of the Buri Palm, Baku straw: 1x1 woven, made from the young stalks of the Talipot palm from Malabar and Ceylon, Braided hemp, Shantung straw: made from high performance paper, rolled into a yarn to imitate straw it was made of buntal Toyo straw: cellophane coated Washi, Bangora straw: made from a lower grade of Washi, Paperbraids: made from different paper strands from Viscose from different Plants, Sisal/ Parasisal, Visca straw: an artificial straw made by spinning viscose in a flat filament capable of being braided, woven, or knitted and used for women's hats, Rush straw: a thick, stiff straw, used to manufacture inexpensive casual sun hats, made from rush grass, from the bulrushtypes sedge grass (Schoenoplectus lacustris, Cyperus papyrus, Typha } and other types seashore rushgrass or reed Jute, Abacá: Ramie, synthetic straw, PP straw: made from Polypropylene, Polyethylene or from different blends from Acrylic, PP, PE, Polyester and Paper other straw fibers that are used in Asian conical hats are made from different palms, grasses Cane and rice straw Chip straw: from White pine, Lombardy poplar, or English willow, has been used, but has become less common.
There are several styles of straw hats. Many of these hats are formed in a similar way to felt hats. Finer and more expensive straw hats have a more consistent weave. Since it takes much more time to weave a larger hat than a smaller one, larger hats are more expensive. Straw hats have been worn in Europe and Asia since after the Middle Ages during the summer months, have changed little between the medieval times and today. Many are to be seen in the famous calendar miniatures of the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry, worn by all classes,but by men; the mokorotlo, a local design of a straw hat, is the national symbol of the Basotho and Lesotho peoples, of the nation of Lesotho. It is displayed on the license plates of that country. President Theodore Roosevelt helped popularize the straw Panama hat during his visit to the Panama Canal. Roosevelt used his natural ability to drum up publicity by posing for a series of photos at the Panama Canal construction site in 1906. Photos of his visit showed a strong, rugged leader dressed crisply in light-colored suits and stylish straw fedoras.
Boater hat — a formal straw hat with a flat top and brim. Conical hat — the distinctive hat worn by farmers in Southeast Asia. Panama hat — a fine and expensive hat made in Ecuador. Artwork produced during the Middle Ages shows, among the more fashionably dressed the most spectacular straw hats seen on men in the West, notably those worn in the Arnolfini Portrait of 1434 by Jan van Eyck and by Saint George in a painting by Pisanello of around the same date. In the middle of the 18th century, it was fashionable for rich ladies to dress as country girls with a low crowned and wide brimmed straw hat to complete the look. Straw Hat Riot
Salvation Army bonnet
The Salvation Army bonnet was a millinery design worn by female members of the Salvation Army. It was introduced in 1880 in the UK and was worn as headgear by most female officers in western countries, it began to be phased out from the late 1970s. The Salvation Army bonnet was first seen on Wednesday 16 June 1880 at William and Catherine Booth's silver wedding anniversary celebration in Whitechapel, London, its design was due, in part, to the fact that one of the cadets training at the Salvation Army's Hackney college in 1880 was a milliner from Barnsley called Annie E. Lockwood, she trimmed a bonnet chosen from straw designs supplied by local companies – the ribbon chosen was blue, but this would become black. In design, it was similar to the poke bonnet, popularly worn by women earlier in the century. In 1881, the Salvation Army published some general rules prohibiting alteration of the distinctive bonnet; this was among the more identifiable parts of the uniform as the guidance at this time was to wear modest clothing suitable for a military organisation.
The design became popularly known as the'hallelujah bonnet' and came to symbolise the Army's work. The bonnet's purpose was not only to identify the wearer, but to protect the head from cold and – in the early days – objects hurled at the head by people unsympathetic to the Army's work. An early example of the design is part of the Museum of London collection. In the 1920s and'30s, a hat sometimes referred to as the Salvation Army bonnet became a fashion accessory; this had a similar basic silhouette to the original poke bonnet design but could be made in other hat materials and colours. A Guardian fashion feature of 1926 on the latest Paris hat fashions noted the parallels between new derivations of the cloche and Victorian bonnets: "Paris is growing tired of wearing saucepans, paper-bags and sugar-loaves on its head, it remembers that it once had a cap of liberty, becoming if a little drastic, that Salvation Army pokes were worn as well during the Directoire period...the hat with the rather high crown and the brim varying from nothing to the Salvation Army shape will be far more in favour".
Another article in The Guardian that year commented on the prevalence of Salvation Army-style straw hats, minus the strings: "In straws – and there are a good many of these – the brim forms a huge peak in front, from this it is a short step to a sort of Salvation Army hat – for there are no strings. The hair shows not at all at the back of the neck. A century ago this effect was achieved by doing the hair high. Today the hair is cut off, but the effect is the same"; the Times reported a new modified poke bonnet style in pale pink created by the studio of Caroline Reboux for spring 1938. This was part of a Victorian and Edwardian revival in fashion that the newspaper described as dominating fashion during winter 1938. Bonnet Poke bonnet Cloche hat
The glengarry bonnet is a traditional Scots cap made of thick-milled woollen material, decorated with a toorie on top a rosette cockade on the left side, with ribbons hanging down behind. It is worn as part of Scottish military or civilian Highland dress, either formal or informal, as an alternative to the Balmoral bonnet or tam o' shanter; the Royal Regiment of Scotland wears the glengarry with diced band and black cock feathers as its ceremonial headdress. Traditionally, the Glengarry bonnet is said to have first appeared as the head dress of the Glengarry Fencibles when they were formed in 1794 by Alexander Ranaldson MacDonell of Glengarry, of Clan MacDonell of Glengarry. MacDonell, therefore, is sometimes said to have invented the glengarry - but it is not clear whether early pictures of civilians or fencible infantry show a true glengarry, capable of being folded flat, or the standard military bonnet of the period merely'cocked' into a more'fore-and-aft' shape; the first use of the classic, military glengarry may not have been until 1841, when it is said to have been introduced for the pipers of the 79th Foot by the commanding officer, Lieutenant Colonel Lauderdale Maule.
It was only in the 1850s that the glengarry became characteristic undress headgear of the Scottish regiments of the British Army. By 1860, the glengarry without a diced border and with a feather had been adopted by pipers in all regiments except the 42nd, whose pipers wore the full dress feather bonnet. In 1914, all Scottish infantry regiments were wearing dark blue glengarries in non-ceremonial orders of dress, except for the Cameronians who wore them in rifle green, the Scots Guards, who wore peaked forage caps or khaki service dress caps; the diced bands on glengarries were either in red and blue for royal regiments or red and green for others. The toories on top could be royal blue or black, according to regiment; the Black Watch and Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders, wore glengarries without dicing and The 93rd Highlanders were unique in wearing a simple red and white chequer pattern. This was said to commemorate the stand of the 93rd Sutherland Highlanders at the Battle of Balaclava immortalized as The Thin Red Line.
Between 1868 and 1897, the glengarry was worn as an undress cap for most British soldiers until replaced by the short-lived field service cap. When this was revived in 1937, the Dress Regulations for the Army, described the Universal Pattern Field Service Cap as "similar in shape to the Glengarry." The glengarry continued to be worn in dark blue by all regiments of the Scottish Division up to their final amalgamation into the Royal Regiment of Scotland in 2006. In parade dress, it was worn by all regiments except the Black Watch, who wore the blue balmoral bonnet, musicians of some regiments, who wore feather bonnets in full dress; the Cameronians wore a plain rifle green glengarry up until their disbandment in 1968. The blue glengarry worn by the Royal Regiment of Scotland has red and white dicing, a red toorie, black silk cockade and the regimental cap badge surmounted by a cock feather; this last is a tradition taken from the Royal King's Own Scottish Borderers. Other Commonwealth military forces that have Scottish and Highland regiments make use of the glengarry.
The headdress worn by Irish Army's Cavalry Corps is called a Glengarry but is more similar to the caubeen in appearance, than to the Scottish headdress of the same name. It was designed in 1934 for the Cavalry Corps as a more practical headdress than the standard peaked cap in the confines of their armoured cars and tanks; the Glengarry is the same colour as the army's service dress uniform with a black band and two black swallow-tail ribbons at the rear. The cap badge is worn over the left eye. Officers in the RDF wear a similar Glengarry but with green band and ribbons as part of their service dress uniform. Army pipers and drummers wear a black Glengarry with a saffron band and ribbons and a dark green feather hackle; the glengarry is worn by male members of staff at the Palace of Holyroodhouse, the Queen's Official residence in Scotland. The glengarry is commonly worn by civilians, notably civilian pipe bands, but can be considered an appropriate hat worn by any man with Highland casual dress or day wear.
In this context, it most has a red toorie. In pipe bands, women also wear the glengarry; the Glengarry is the headress. In 1932 Percy Sillitoe, the Chief Constable of the City of Glasgow Police, abolished the traditional custodian helmet and added a new feature to the peaked caps worn by his police officers; this new feature was a black and white chequered cap band based on the dicings seen on the glengarry headress of the Scottish regiments. The diced band, popularly known as the Sillitoe Tartan spread to police forces in Australia, New Zealand, the rest of the United Kingdom, as well as to some other parts of the world, notably Chicago; the correct method of wearing the glengarry has changed since the end of the Second World War. Prior to 1945, glengarries were worn steeply angled, with the right side of the cap worn low touching the ear, the side with the capbadge higher on the head; the trend since the end of the war has been to wear the glengarry level on the head, with the point directly over the right eye
Second French Empire
The Second French Empire the French Empire, was the regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France. Many historians disparaged the Second Empire as a precursor of fascism. By the late 20th century some were celebrating it as leading example of a modernizing regime. Historians have given the Empire negative evaluations on its foreign-policy, somewhat more positive evaluations of domestic policies after Napoleon liberalized his rule after 1858, he promoted French business, exports. The greatest achievements came in material improvements, in the form of a grand railway network that facilitated commerce and tied the nation together and centered it on Paris, it had the effect of stimulating economic growth, bringing prosperity to most regions of the country. The Second Empire is given high credit for the rebuilding of Paris with broad boulevards, striking public buildings, attractive residential districts for upscale Parisians. In international policy, Napoleon III tried to emulate his uncle, engaging in numerous imperial ventures around the world as well as several wars in Europe.
Using harsh methods, he built up the French Empire in North Africa and in Southeast Asia. Napoleon III sought to modernize the Mexican economy and bring it into the French orbit, but this ended in a fiasco, he badly mishandled the threat from Prussia, by the end of his reign, Napoleon III found himself without allies in the face of overwhelming German force. On 2 December 1851, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, elected President of the Republic, staged a coup d'état by dissolving the National Assembly without having the constitutional right to do so, he thus became sole ruler of France, re-established universal suffrage abolished by the Assembly. His decisions were popularly endorsed by a referendum that month that attracted an implausible 92 percent support. At that same referendum, a new constitution was approved. Formally enacted in January 1852, the new document made Louis-Napoléon president for 10 years, with no restrictions on reelection, it concentrated all governing power in his hands. However, Louis-Napoléon was not content with being an authoritarian president.
As soon as he signed the new document into law, he set about restoring the empire. In response to inspired requests for the return of the empire, the Senate scheduled a second referendum in November, which passed with 97 percent support; as with the December 1851 referendum, most of the "yes" votes were manufactured out of thin air. The empire was formally re-established on 2 December 1852, the Prince-President became "Napoléon III, Emperor of the French"; the constitution had concentrated so much power in his hands that the only substantive changes were to replace the word "president" with the word "emperor" and to make the post hereditary. The popular referendum became a distinct sign of Bonapartism, which Charles de Gaulle would use. With dictatorial powers, Napoleon III made building a good railway system a high priority, he consolidated three dozen incomplete lines into six major companies using Paris as a hub. Paris grew in terms of population, finance, commercial activity, tourism. Working with Georges-Eugène Haussmann, Napoleon III spent lavishly to rebuild the city into a world-class showpiece.
The financial soundness for all six companies was solidified by government guarantees. Although France had started late, by 1870 it had an excellent railway system, supported as well by good roads and ports. Napoleon, in order to restore the prestige of the Empire before the newly awakened hostility of public opinion, tried to gain the support from the Left that he had lost from the Right. After the return from Italy, the general amnesty of August 16, 1859 had marked the evolution of the absolutist or authoritarian empire towards the liberal, parliamentary empire, to last for ten years; the idea of Italian unification – based on the exclusion of the temporal power of the popes – outraged French Catholics, the leading supporters of the Empire. A keen Catholic opposition sprang up, voiced in Louis Veuillot's paper the Univers, was not silenced by the Syrian expedition in favour of the Catholic Maronite side of the Druze–Maronite conflict. Ultramontane Catholicism, emphasizing the necessity for close links to the Pope at the Vatican played a pivotal role in the democratization of culture.
The pamphlet campaign led by Mgr Gaston de Ségur at the height of the Italian question in February 1860 made the most of the freedom of expression enjoyed by the Catholic Church in France. The goal was to mobilize Catholic opinion, encourage the government to be more favorable to the Pope. A major result of the ultramontane campaign was to trigger reforms to the cultural sphere, the granting of freedoms to their political enemies: the Republicans and freethinkers; the Second Empire favored Catholicism, the official state religion. However, it tolerated Protestants and Jews, there were no persecutions or pogroms; the state dealt with the small Protestant community of Calvinist and Lutheran churches, whose members included many prominent businessmen who supported the regime. The emperor's Decree Law of 26 March 1852 led to greater government interference in Protestant church affairs, thus reducing self-regulation. Catholic bureaucrats both were biased against it; the administration of their policies affected not only church-state relations but the internal lives of Protestant communities.
Napoleon III manipulated a range of politicized poli
Jean-François Millet was a French painter and one of the founders of the Barbizon school in rural France. Millet is noted for his scenes of peasant farmers. Millet was the first child of Jean-Louis-Nicolas and Aimée-Henriette-Adélaïde Henry Millet, members of the farming community in the village of Gruchy, in Gréville-Hague, close to the coast. Under the guidance of two village priests—one of them was vicar Jean Lebrisseux—Millet acquired a knowledge of Latin and modern authors, but soon he had to help his father with the farm-work. So all the farmer's work was familiar to him: to mow, make hay, bind the sheaves, winnow, spread manure, sow, etc. All these motifs would return in his art; this stopped when he was 18 and sent by his father to Cherbourg in 1833, to study with a portrait painter named Paul Dumouchel. By 1835 he was studying full-time with Lucien-Théophile Langlois, a pupil of Baron Gros, in Cherbourg. A stipend provided by Langlois and others enabled Millet to move to Paris in 1837, where he studied at the École des Beaux-Arts with Paul Delaroche.
In 1839 his scholarship was terminated, his first submission to the Salon was rejected. After his first painting, a portrait, was accepted at the Salon of 1840, Millet returned to Cherbourg to begin a career as a portrait painter. However, the following year he married Pauline-Virginie Ono, they moved to Paris. After rejections at the Salon of 1843 and Pauline's death by consumption, Millet returned again to Cherbourg. In 1845 Millet moved to Le Havre with Catherine Lemaire, whom he would marry in a civil ceremony in 1853. In Le Havre he painted portraits and small genre pieces for several months, before moving back to Paris, it was in Paris in the middle 1840s that Millet befriended Constant Troyon, Narcisse Diaz, Charles Jacque, Théodore Rousseau, artists who, like Millet, would become associated with the Barbizon school. In 1847 his first Salon success came with the exhibition of a painting Oedipus Taken down from the Tree, in 1848 his Winnower was bought by the government; the Captivity of the Jews in Babylon, Millet's most ambitious work at the time, was unveiled at the Salon of 1848, but was scorned by art critics and the public alike.
The painting disappeared shortly thereafter, leading historians to believe that Millet destroyed it. In 1984, scientists at the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston x-rayed Millet's 1870 painting The Young Shepherdess looking for minor changes, discovered that it was painted over Captivity, it is now believed that Millet reused the canvas when materials were in short supply during the Franco-Prussian War. In 1849, Millet painted a commission for the state. In the Salon of that year, he exhibited Shepherdess Sitting at the Edge of the Forest, a small oil painting which marked a turning away from previous idealized pastoral subjects, in favor of a more realistic and personal approach. In June of that year, he settled in Barbizon with their children. In 1850 Millet entered into an arrangement with Sensier, who provided the artist with materials and money in return for drawings and paintings, while Millet was free to continue selling work to other buyers as well. At that year's Salon, he exhibited Haymakers and The Sower, his first major masterpiece and the earliest of the iconic trio of paintings that would include The Gleaners and The Angelus.
From 1850 to 1853, Millet worked on Harvesters Resting, a painting he would consider his most important, on which he worked the longest. Conceived to rival his heroes Michelangelo and Poussin, it was the painting that marked his transition from the depiction of symbolic imagery of peasant life to that of contemporary social conditions, it was the only painting he dated, was the first work to garner him official recognition, a second-class medal at the 1853 salon. This is one of the most well known of The Gleaners. While Millet was walking the fields around Barbizon, one theme returned to his pencil and brush for seven years—gleaning—the centuries-old right of poor women and children to remove the bits of grain left in the fields following the harvest, he found the theme an eternal one, linked to stories from the Old Testament. In 1857, he submitted the painting The Gleaners to the Salon to an unenthusiastic hostile, public. A warm golden light suggests something sacred and eternal in this daily scene where the struggle to survive takes place.
During his years of preparatory studies, Millet contemplated how best to convey the sense of repetition and fatigue in the peasants' daily lives. Lines traced over each woman's back lead to the ground and back up in a repetitive motion identical to their unending, backbreaking labor. Along the horizon, the setting sun silhouettes the farm with its abundant stacks of grain, in contrast to the large shadowy figures in the foreground; the dark homespun dresses of the gleaners cut robust forms against the golden field, giving each woman a noble, monumental strength. The painting was commissioned by Thomas Gold Appleton, an American art collector based in Boston, Massachusetts. Appleton studied with Millet's frie
Doris Ulmann was an American photographer, best known for her portraits of the people of Appalachia craftsmen and musicians, made between 1928 and 1934. Doris Ulmann was a native of the daughter of Bernhard and Gertrude Ulmann. Educated at the Ethical Culture Fieldston School, a liberal organization that championed individual worth regardless of ethnic background or economic condition and Columbia University, she intended to become a teacher of psychology, her interest in photography was at first a hobby but after 1918 she devoted herself to the art professionally. She was a member of the Pictorial Photographers of America. Ulmann documented the rural people of the South the mountain peoples of Appalachia and the Gullahs of the Sea Islands, with a profound respect for her sitters and an ethnographer's eye for culture. Ulmann was trained as a pictorialist and graduated from the Clarence H. White School of Modern Photography. Other students of the school who went on to become notable photographers include Margaret Bourke-White, Anne Brigman, Dorothea Lange, Paul Outerbridge, Karl Struss.
Her work was exhibited in various New York galleries, published in Theatre Arts Monthly, Scribner's Magazine, Survey Graphic. Ulmann was married for a time to Dr. Charles H. Jaeger, a fellow Pictorialist photographer and an orthopedic surgeon on the staff of Columbia University Medical School and a connection for her 1920 Hoeber publication, The faculty of the College of Physicians & Surgeons, Columbia University in the City of New York: twenty-four portraits This was followed in 1922 by the publication of her Book of Portraits of the Medical Faculty of the Johns Hopkins University; the fine art edition of Roll, Jordan Roll is considered to be one of the most beautiful books produced. In an interview with Dale Warren of Bookman, Doris Ulmann referred to her particular interest in portraits. "The faces of men and women in the street are as interesting as literary faces, but my particular human angle leads me to men and women who write. I am not interested in literary faces, because I have been more moved by some of my mountaineers than by any literary person.
A face that has the marks of having lived intensely, that expresses some phase of life, some dominant quality or intellectual power, constitutes for me an interesting face. For this reason the face of an older person not beautiful in the strictest sense, is more appealing than the face of a younger person who has scarcely been touched by life."Ulmann's early work includes a series of portraits of prominent intellectuals and writers: William Butler Yeats, John Dewey, Max Eastman, Sinclair Lewis, Lewis Mumford, Joseph Wood Krutch, Martha Graham, Anna Pavlova, Paul Robeson, Lillian Gish. From 1927, Ulmann was assisted on her rural travels by John Jacob Niles, a musician and folklorist who collected ballads while Ulmann photographed. In 1932 Ulmann began her most important series, assembling documentation of Appalachian folk arts and crafts for Allen Eaton's landmark 1937 book, Handicrafts of the Southern Highlands. In failing health, she collapsed in August 1934 while working near Asheville, North Carolina and returned to New York.
Ulmann died August 28, 1934. Upon Ulmann's death, a foundation she had established took custody of her images. Allen Eaton, John Jacob Niles, Olive Dame Campbell, Ulmann's brother-in-law Henry L. Necarsulmer, Berea schoolteacher Helen Dingman were named trustees. Samuel H. Lifshey, a New York commercial photographer, developed the negatives Ulmann had exposed during her final trip, made proof prints from the vast archive of more than 10,000 glass plate negatives; the proof prints were mounted into albums, which were annotated by John Jacob Niles and Allen Eaton, chair of the foundation and another noted folklorist, to indicate names of the sitters and dates of capture. The primary repository of Ulmann's work is at the University of Oregon Libraries' Special Collections; the Doris Ulmann collection, PH038, includes 2,739 silver gelatin glass plate negatives, 304 original matted prints, 79 albums assembled by the Doris Ulmann Foundation between 1934 and 1937. The silver gelatin glass plate negatives are the only known remaining Ulmann negatives.
Of the 304 matted photographs half are platinum prints that were mounted and signed by Ulmann. Berea College hosts a collection of over 3100 images of the Appalachian region and the Berea area. Additional collections can be found at The University of Kentucky, the North Carolina Collection Photographic Archives, the Center for Creative Photography at the University of Arizona, Tucson and the New York Historical Society; as art objects, her photographs are part of many museum collections including the Smithsonian and the J. Paul Getty Museum. Doris Ulmann was an private person and left no documentation other than her images. Ulmann, D.. The faculty of the College of Physicians & Surgeons, Columbia University in the City of New York. New York, Hoeber. Ulmann, D.. The faculty of the College of Physicians & Surgeons, Co